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ABSTRACT: Previous study had shown that nicotine acts on blood glucose through release of adrenaline. While there are reports on the hyperglyceic effect of adrenaline in rabbits, there is no information on the effect of adrenaline on intestinal glucose uptake of rabbits. The present study was carried out to find out if adrenaline has any effect on glucose uptake in the rabbit small intestine. Experiments were carried out on fasted anaesthetized male rabbits. Five groups of rabbits (6 rabbits per group) were studied. A vein draining a segment of the upper jejunum was cannulated for blood flow and venous glucose measurements. The left femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial blood sampling and drug infusion respectively. Glucose uptake was calculated as a product of jejunal blood flow and the glucose difference between arterial (A) and venous (V) blood. The fasting venous blood glucose levels were 151.8 +/- 4.4mg/dl and 164.0 + 2.3mg/dl in Groups I and V that were not given adrenoceptor blockers. The upper jejunum had a resting (or basal) glucose uptake of 38.3 +/- 1.6mg/min in the control group. When adrenaline (2ug/kg) was injected intravenously, arterial blood glucose rose from a basal value of 245.5 +/- 4.6mg/dl to 307.5+4.7mg/dl at the peak of response while venous glucose rose from 151.8+4.4mg/dl to 275.8 +/- 4.2mg/dl at the peak of response. Glucose uptake increased to 107.4 +/- 2.5mg/ min at the peak of response. The hyperglycaemic response to adrenaline injection was abolished by propranolol but not by prazosin indicating that this effect of adrenaline is mediated through beta adrenoceptor. Both prazosin and propranolol reduced considerably adrenaline-induced increase in blood flow and glucose uptake, prazosin being more potent in flow reduction. This study showed that the resting small intestine of rabbits took up large amounts of glucose. The intestinal glucose uptake was markedly increased by adrenaline injection. The response to adrenaline was mediated through alpha and beta adrenoceptors. The responses to adrenaline are different in many respects from those induced by nicotine in rabbits in our earlier study. The reason for the differences is obscure.African journal of medicine and medical sciences 09/2011; 40(3):225-33.
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ABSTRACT: A technique for measuring glucose uptake in the small intestine of rabbits was developed. Using this technique, the glucose uptake in the resting jejunum of rabbits and the effect of nicotine infusion on glucose uptake were studied. Experiments were carried out on fasted anaesthetized male rabbits. Four groups of rabbits (6 per group) were studied. A vein draining segment of the upper jejunum was cannulated for blood flow and venous glucose measurements. The left femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial blood sampling and drug infusion respectively. Glucose uptake was calculated as a product of jejunal blood flow and the (A-V) glucose difference. The fasting blood glucose levels were 101.0 +/- 8.4 mg/dl and 127.0 +/- 11.3 mg/dl before and after anaesthesia respectively. Basal blood glucose was much higher than this following surgery. The upper jejunum had a resting glucose uptake of 24.1 +/- 7.0 mg/min. When nicotine (50 ug/kg) was infused intravenously, blood glucose rose from a basal value of 253.8 +/- 9.5 mg/dl to 379.8 +/- 20.3 mg/dl at the peak of response. Glucose uptake increased to 73.1 +/- 11.3 mg/min at the peak of response. These effects of nicotine are mediated through both beta and alpha adrenoceptors. Comparison with previous studies in dogs and rats showed that different adrenoceptors are involved in nicotine hyperglycaemia in fasted dogs, rats and rabbits.African journal of medicine and medical sciences 06/2009; 38(2):119-30.