Charles Lu

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, United States

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Publications (52)297.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, patients with NSCLC have relatively poor survival rates compared with patients diagnosed with most other types of cancer. Accordingly, managing physical and mental health symptoms are important treatment goals. In the current investigation, we sought to determine whether individual socioeconomic status (SES; as indexed by level of education), racial/ethnic minority status, and hospital type (public versus tertiary care center) were associated with NSCLC cancer patients' depressive severity. Importantly, we investigated whether NSCLC patients' individual SES was more or less prognostic of their depressive severity compared with minority status and the hospital context where they received treatment.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 08/2014; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy (RT), with or without chemotherapy, can cause significant acute toxicity among patients treated for head and neck cancer (HNC), but predicting, before treatment, who will experience a particular toxicity or symptom is difficult. We created and evaluated 2 multivariate models and generated a nomogram to predict symptom severity during RT based on a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument, the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module (MDASI-HN).
    Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Definitive radiotherapy improves locoregional control and survival in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. However, radiation-induced toxicities (pneumonitis/esophagitis) are common dose-limiting inflammatory conditions. We therefore conducted a pathway-based analysis to identify inflammation-related SNPs associated with radiation-induced pneumonitis or esophagitis. 11,930 SNPs were genotyped in 201 stage I-III NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiotherapy. Validation was performed in an additional 220 NSCLC cases. After validation, 19 SNPs remained significant. A polygenic risk score (PRS) was generated to summarize the effect from validated SNPs. Significant improvements in discriminative ability were observed by adding the PRS into the clinical/epidemiological variable-based model. We then used 277 lymphoblastoid cell-lines to assess radiation sensitivity and eQTL relationships of the identified SNPs. Three genes (PRKCE,DDX58 and TNFSF7) were associated with radiation sensitivity. We concluded that inflammation-related genetic variants could contribute to the development of radiation-induced toxicities.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014); Accepted article preview online 23 July 2014. doi:10.1038/clpt.2014.154.
    Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background:accurate prognostic prediction is challenging for advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.Methods:we systematically investigated genetic variants within inflammation pathway as potential prognostic markers for advanced-stage NSCLC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. A discovery phase in 502 patients and an internal validation in 335 patients were completed at MD Anderson Cancer Center. External validation was performed in 371 patients at Harvard University.Results:a missense SNP (HLA-DOB:rs2071554) predicted to influence protein function was significantly associated with poor survival in the discovery (HR:1.46, 95% CI:1.02-2.09), internal validation (HR:1.51, 95% CI:1.02-2.25), and external validation (HR:1.52, 95% CI:1.01-2.29) populations. KLRK1:rs2900420 was associated with a reduced risk in the discovery (HR:0.76, 95% CI:0.60-0.96), internal validation (HR:0.77, 95% CI:0.61-0.99), and external validation (HR:0.80, 95% CI:0.63-1.02) populations. A strong cumulative effect was observed for these SNPs on overall survival.Conclusions:Genetic variations in inflammation-related genes could have potential to complement prediction of prognosis.Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014); Accepted article preview online 22 April 2014; doi:10.1038/clpt.2014.89.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 04/2014; · 6.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDA prospective longitudinal study to profile patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for head and neck cancer was performed. The goals were to understand the onset and trajectory of specific symptoms and their severity, identify clusters, and facilitate symptom interventions and clinical trial design.METHODS Participants in this questionnaire-based study received RT or CCRT. They completed the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module before and weekly during treatment. Symptom scores were compared between treatment groups, and hierarchical cluster analysis was used to depict clustering of symptoms at treatment end. Variables believed to predict symptom severity were assessed using a multivariate mixed model.RESULTSAmong the 149 patients studied, the majority (47%) had oropharyngeal tumors, and nearly one-half received CCRT. Overall symptom severity (P < .001) and symptom interference (P < .0001) became progressively more severe and were more severe for those receiving CCRT. On multivariate analysis, baseline Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (P < .001) and receipt of CCRT (P < .04) correlated with higher symptom severity. Fatigue, drowsiness, lack of appetite, problem with mouth/throat mucus, and problem tasting food were more severe for those receiving CCRT. Both local and systemic symptom clusters were identified.CONCLUSIONS The findings from this prospective longitudinal study identified a pattern of local and systemic symptoms, symptom clusters, and symptom interference that was temporally distinct and marked by increased magnitude and a shift in individual symptom rank order during the treatment course. These inform clinicians about symptom intervention needs, and are a benchmark for future symptom intervention clinical trials. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 04/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Telomere dysfunction is a crucial event in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with lung cancer risk, but the relationship has remained controversial. In this study, we investigated whether the association might be confounded by study of different histological subtypes of lung cancer. We measured relative telomere lengths in patients in a large case-control study of lung cancer and performed stratified analyses according to the two major histological subtypes (adenocarcinoma [AC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]). Notably, AC patients had longer telomeres than controls, whereas SCC patients had shorter telomeres compared to controls. Long telomeres were associated with increased risk of AC, with the highest risk associated with female sex, younger age (<60 years) and lighter smoking (30 pack-years). In contrast, long telomeres were protective against SCC, particularly in male patients. Our results extend the concept that telomere length affects risk of lung cancer in a manner that differs with histological subtype.
    Cancer Research 03/2014; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify the genetic factors that influence overall survival in never smokers who have non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we performed a consistency meta-analysis study utilizing genome-wide association approaches for overall survival in 327 never smoker NSCLC patients from the MD Anderson Cancer Center and 293 cases from the Mayo Clinic. We then performed a two-pronged validation of the top 25 variants that included additional validation in 1,256 NSCLC patients from Taiwan and assessment of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and differential expression of genes surrounding the top loci in 70 tumors and matched normal tissues. A total of 94 loci were significant for overall survival in both MD Anderson and Mayo studies in the consistency meta-analysis phase, with the top 25 variants reaching a p-value of 10-6. Two variants of these 25 were also significant in the Taiwanese population: rs6901416 (HR:1.44, 95%CI:1.01-2.06) and rs10766739 (HR:1.23, 95%CI:1.00-1.51). These loci resulted in a reduction in median survival time of at least 8 and 5 months in three populations, respectively. An additional six variants (rs4237904, rs7976914, rs4970833, rs954785, rs485411, and rs10906104) were validated through eQTL analysis that identified significant correlations with expression levels of six genes (LEMD3, TMBIM, ATXN7L2, SHE, ITIH2, and NUDT5, respectively) in normal lung tissue. These genes were also significantly differentially expressed between the tumor and normal lung. These findings identify several novel, candidate prognostic markers for NSCLC in never smokers, with eQTL analysis suggesting a potential biological mechanism for a subset of these observed associations.
    Cancer Research 05/2013; · 9.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have been found to be significant predictors of clinical outcomes such as overall survival (OS), but the effect of demographic and clinical factors on the prognostic ability of PROs is less understood. Several PROs derived from the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) and M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) were investigated for association with OS, with adjustments for other factors, including performance status. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on data from 90 patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer. Several baseline PROs were added to a base Cox proportional hazards model to examine the marginal significance and improvement in model fit attributable to the PRO: mean MDASI symptom interference level; mean MDASI symptom severity level for five selected symptoms; SF-12 physical and mental component summaries; and the SF-12 general health item. Bootstrap resampling was used to assess the robustness of the findings. RESULTS: The MDASI mean interference level had a significant effect on OS (p = 0.007) when the model was not adjusted for interactions with other prognostic factors. Further exploration suggested the significance was due to an interaction with performance status (p = 0.001). The MDASI mean symptom severity level and the SF-12 physical component summary, mental component summary, and general health item did not have a significant effect on OS. CONCLUSIONS: Symptom interference adds prognostic information for OS in advanced lung cancer patients with poor performance status, even when demographic and clinical prognostic factors are accounted for.
    Quality of Life Research 01/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor (TGF) -β1 signaling is involved in cancer-cell metastasis. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at TGFβ1 were associated with overall survival (OS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. We genotyped TGFβ1 SNPs at rs1800469 (C-509T), rs1800471 (G915C), and rs1982073 (T+29C) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in blood samples from 205 NSCLC patients who had had definitive radiotherapy at one institution in November 1998-January 2005. We also tested whether the TGF-β1 rs1982073 (T+29C) SNP affected the migration and invasion of A549 and PC9 lung cancer cells. Median follow-up time for all patients was 17 months (range, 1-97 months; 39 months for patients alive at the time of analysis). Multivariate analysis showed that the TGFβ1 rs1800469 CT/CC genotype was associated with poor OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.463 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.012-2.114], P = 0.043) and shorter DMFS (HR = 1.601 [95% CI = 1.042-2.459], P = 0.032) and that the TGFβ1 rs1982073 CT/CC genotype predicted poor DMFS (HR = 1.589 [95% CI = 1.009-2.502], P = 0.046) and poor brain MFS (HR = 2.567 [95% CI = 1.155-5.702], P = 0.021) after adjustment for age, sex, race, performance status, smoking status, tumor histology and volume, stage, receipt of concurrent radiochemotherapy, number of chemotherapy cycles, and radiation dose. Transfection with TGFβ1+29C (vs. +29T) stimulated the migration and invasion of A549 and PC9 cells, suggesting that TGFβ1+29C may be linked with increased metastatic potential. TGFβ1 genotypes at rs1800469 and rs1982073 could be useful for predicting DMFS among patients with NSCLC treated with definitive radiation therapy. These findings require validation in larger prospective trials and thorough mechanistic studies.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65659. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: As a first step toward developing effective strategies to control symptoms associated with head and neck cancer (head and neck cancer) and its treatment, we sought to describe the pattern of symptoms experienced before radiation therapy. METHODS: Subjects completed the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck Module before beginning radiation therapy. RESULTS: In all, 270 patients participated. Symptom severity and interference varied between treatment-naïve patients and those with prior treatment. Cluster analyses revealed that 33% of patients had high symptom burden. Symptoms most often rated moderate-to-severe were fatigue, sleep disturbance, distress, pain, and problems chewing and swallowing. Poorer performance status, higher T classification, and receipt of previous treatment correlated with higher symptom burden. CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of patients were experiencing high symptom burden. Because few interventions currently exist for several of the most problematic symptoms, research in symptom reduction that targets the pattern of symptoms described here is greatly needed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2012.
    Head & Neck 11/2012; · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • 9th International Conference of the Society for Integrative Oncology, Alburquerque, New Mexico; 10/2012
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    ABSTRACT: We adopted a two-stage study design to screen 927 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 73 apoptotic-pathway genes in a case-control study and then performed a fast-track validation of the significant SNPs in a replication population to identify sequence variations in the apoptotic pathway modulating lung cancer risk. Fifty-five SNPs showed significant associations in the discovery population comprised of 661 lung cancer cases and 959 controls. Six of these SNPs located in three genes (Bcl-2, CASP9 and ANKS1B) were validated in a replication population with 1154 cases and 1373 controls. Additive model was the best-fitting model for five SNPs (rs1462129 and rs255102 of Bcl-2, rs6685648 of CASP9 and rs1549102, rs11110099 of ANKS1B) and recessive model was the best fit for one SNP (rs10745877 of ANKS1B). In the analysis of joint effects with subjects carrying no unfavorable genotypes as the reference group, those carrying one, two, and three or more unfavorable genotypes had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.22 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08-4.57, P = 0.03], 2.70 (95% CI = 1.33-5.49; P = 0.006) and 4.13 (95% CI = 2.00-8.57; P = 0.0001), respectively (P for trend = 6.05E-06). The joint effect of unfavorable genotypes was also validated in the replication population. The SNPs identified are located in or near key genes known to play important roles in apoptosis regulation, supporting the strong biological relevance of our findings. Future studies are needed to identify the causal SNPs and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms.
    Carcinogenesis 06/2012; 33(9):1699-706. · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • 48th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Chicago, IL; 06/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor suppressor gene TUSC2/FUS1 (TUSC2) is frequently inactivated early in lung cancer development. TUSC2 mediates apoptosis in cancer cells but not normal cells by upregulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. No drug strategies currently exist targeting loss-of-function genetic abnormalities. We report the first in-human systemic gene therapy clinical trial of tumor suppressor gene TUSC2. Patients with recurrent and/or metastatic lung cancer previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy were treated with escalating doses of intravenous N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTAP):cholesterol nanoparticles encapsulating a TUSC2 expression plasmid (DOTAP:chol-TUSC2) every 3 weeks. Thirty-one patients were treated at 6 dose levels (range 0.01 to 0.09 milligrams per kilogram). The MTD was determined to be 0.06 mg/kg. Five patients achieved stable disease (2.6-10.8 months, including 2 minor responses). One patient had a metabolic response on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. RT-PCR analysis detected TUSC2 plasmid expression in 7 of 8 post-treatment tumor specimens but not in pretreatment specimens and peripheral blood lymphocyte controls. Proximity ligation assay, performed on paired biopsies from 3 patients, demonstrated low background TUSC2 protein staining in pretreatment tissues compared with intense (10-25 fold increase) TUSC2 protein staining in post-treatment tissues. RT-PCR gene expression profiling analysis of apoptotic pathway genes in two patients with high post-treatment levels of TUSC2 mRNA and protein showed significant post-treatment changes in the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Twenty-nine genes of the 82 tested in the apoptosis array were identified by Igenuity Pathway Analysis to be significantly altered post-treatment in both patients (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.519; p<0.01). DOTAP:chol-TUSC2 can be safely administered intravenously in lung cancer patients and results in uptake of the gene by human primary and metastatic tumors, transgene and gene product expression, specific alterations in TUSC2-regulated pathways, and anti-tumor effects (to our knowledge for the first time for systemic DOTAP:cholesterol nanoparticle gene therapy). ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00059605.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e34833. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is commonly believed to be incidental. Understanding the reasons that caused initial detection of these patients is important for early diagnosis. However, these reasons are not well studied. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients diagnosed with stage I or II NSCLC between 2000 and 2009 at UT MD Anderson Cancer Center. Information on suggestive LC-symptoms or other reasons that caused detection were extracted from patients' medical records. We applied univariate and multivariate analyses to evaluate the association of suggestive LC-symptoms with tumor size and patient survival. Of the 1396 early stage LC patients, 733 (52.5%) presented with suggestive LC-symptoms as chief complaint. 347 (24.9%) and 287 (20.6%) were diagnosed because of regular check-ups and evaluations for other diseases, respectively. The proportion of suggestive LC-symptom-caused detection had a linear relationship with the tumor size (correlation 0.96; with p<.0001). After age, gender, race, smoking status, therapy, and stage adjustment, the symptom-caused detection showed no significant difference in overall and LC-specific survival when compared with the other (non-symptom-caused) detection. Symptoms suggestive of LC are the number one reason that led to detection in early NSCLC. They were also associated with tumor size at diagnosis, suggesting early stage LC patients are developing symptoms. Presence of symptoms in early stages did not compromise survival. A symptom-based alerting system or guidelines may be worth of further study to benefit NSCLC high risk individuals.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32644. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2007, we published our initial experience in treating inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). The current report is an update of that experience with long-term follow-up. Patients in this retrospective review were 165 patients who began definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, for newly diagnosed, pathologically confirmed NSCLC to a dose of ≥60 Gy from 2005 to 2006. Early and late toxicities assessed included treatment-related pneumonitis (TRP), pulmonary fibrosis, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture, scored mainly according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events 3.0. Other variables monitored were radiation-associated dermatitis and changes in body weight and Karnofsky performance status. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compute survival and freedom from radiation-related acute and late toxicities as a function of time. Most patients (89%) had Stage III to IV disease. The median radiation dose was 66 Gy given in 33 fractions (range, 60-76 Gy, 1.8-2.3 Gy per fraction). Median overall survival time was 1.8 years; the 2-year and 3-year overall survival rates were 46% and 30%. Rates of Grade ≥3 maximum TRP (TRP(max)) were 11% at 6 months and 14% at 12 months. At 18 months, 86% of patients had developed Grade ≥1 maximum pulmonary fibrosis (pulmonary fibrosis(max)) and 7% Grade ≥2 pulmonary fibrosis(max). The median times to maximum esophagitis (esophagitis(max)) were 3 weeks (range, 1-13 weeks) for Grade 2 and 6 weeks (range, 3-13 weeks) for Grade 3. A higher percentage of patients who experienced Grade 3 esophagitis(max) later developed Grade 2 to 3 esophageal stricture. In our experience, using IMRT to treat NSCLC leads to low rates of pulmonary and esophageal toxicity, and favorable clinical outcomes in terms of survival.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2011; 83(1):332-9. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell cycle progression contributes to the cellular response to DNA-damaging factors, such as chemotherapy and radiation. We hypothesized that the genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may modulate treatment responses and affect survival in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We genotyped 374 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 49 cell cycle-related genes in 598 patients with stages III-IV NSCLC treated with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy with/without radiation. We analyzed the individual and combined associations of these SNPs with survival and evaluated their gene-gene interactions using survival tree analysis. In the analysis of survival in all the patients, 39 SNPs reached nominal significance (P < 0.05) and 4 SNPs were significant at P <0.01. However, none of these SNPs remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons at a false discovery rate of 10%. In stratified analysis by treatment modality, after adjusting for multiple comparisons, nine SNPs in chemotherapy alone and one SNP in chemoradiation remained significant. The most significant SNP in chemotherapy group was CCNB2:rs1486878 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.30, P = 0.001]. TP73: rs3765701 was the only significant SNP in chemoradiation group (HR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.35-2.59, P = 1.8 × 10(-4)). In cumulative analysis, we found a significant gene-dosage effect in patients receiving chemotherapy alone. Survival tree analysis demonstrated potential higher order gene-gene and gene-treatment interactions, which could be used to predict survival status based on distinct genetic signatures. These results suggest that genetic variations in cell cycle pathway genes may affect the survival of patients with stages III-IV NSCLC individually and jointly.
    Carcinogenesis 09/2011; 32(12):1867-71. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared risk factors for high disease- and treatment-related symptom burden over 15 weeks of therapy in medically underserved patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and in patients treated at a tertiary cancer center. We monitored symptom severity weekly during chemotherapy. Patients were recruited from a tertiary cancer center (n=101) and three public hospitals treating the medically underserved (n=80). We used a composite symptom-severity score and group-based trajectory analysis to form two groups: one with consistently more severe symptoms and another with less severe symptoms. We examined predictors of group membership. Seventy percent of the sample (n=126) reported low symptom-severity levels that decreased during therapy; 30% (n=55) had consistently severe symptoms throughout the study. In multivariate analysis, patients with good performance status being treated in public hospitals were significantly more likely than patients treated at the tertiary cancer center to be in the high-symptom group (odds ratio, 5.6; 95% CI, 2.1 to 14.6; P = .001) and to report significantly higher symptom interference (P = .001). Other univariate predictors of high-symptom group membership included variables associated with being medically underserved (eg, having less education, being single, and being nonwhite). No group differences by ethnicity were observed in the public hospitals. Medically underserved patients were less likely to receive adequate pain management. Patients with advanced lung cancer and good performance status treated at public hospitals were more likely than those treated at a tertiary cancer center to experience substantial symptoms during chemotherapy.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2011; 29(21):2859-65. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the pharmacokinetics and evaluate potential drug-drug interactions between erlotinib, paclitaxel and carboplatin. 1,079 previously untreated patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled and randomized in a phase III trial (TRIBUTE) to receive either erlotinib or placebo in combination with paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 IV over 3 h and carboplatin at a calculated dose to achieve an AUC 6 mg∙min/mL. To determine possible drug-drug interaction with this combination, a subset of 24 (12 erlotinib, 12 placebo) patients were enrolled onto an intensive pharmacokinetic (IPK) substudy group at a single site. All IPK patients received either erlotinib 150 mg/day or placebo-controlled tablets. Analyses were completed using validated analytical methodologies. Non-compartmental modeling was utilized to estimate PK parameters. Complete blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis was obtained in 21 of 24 patients. Mean AUC(0-τ) for erlotinib and the OSI-420 metabolite were 29,997 ng∙h/mL and 3,020 ng∙h/mL, respectively. Mean (SD) paclitaxel clearances (L/h/M(2)) were 11.7 (3.4) and 12.7 (6.7) in the placebo and erlotinib treatment groups, respectively. The resultant paclitaxel AUC(0-∞) (ng∙h/mL) was 18,400 (5,300) for the placebo group and 17,800 (5,500) for the erlotinib group. For carboplatin, the mean (SD) clearances (L/h) were 16.8 (3.9) and 16.1 (4.4) for the placebo and erlotinib groups, respectively. The resultant carboplatin AUC(0-∞) (ng/mL∙h) were 49,900 (9,700) for the placebo group and 48,400 (11,900) for the erlotinib group. No significant differences were observed in these paclitaxel or carboplatin pharmacokinetic group comparisons. The addition of erlotinib to a standard chemotherapy regimen for NSCLC did not alter the systemic exposures (AUC(0-∞)) of paclitaxel (p = 0.80) and carboplatin (p = 0.756) when erlotinib-treated patients were compared to placebo-treated patients. The pharmacokinetics of erlotinib and its metabolite OSI-420 did not appear to be altered by the concomitant administration of paclitaxel and carboplatin.
    Investigational New Drugs 06/2011; 29(3):499-505. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interindividual variation in genetic background may influence the response to chemotherapy and overall survival for patients with advanced-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To identify genetic variants associated with poor overall survival in these patients, we conducted a genome-wide scan of 307,260 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 327 advanced-stage NSCLC patients who received platinum-based chemotherapy with or without radiation at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (the discovery population). A fast-track replication was performed for 315 patients from the Mayo Clinic followed by a second validation at the University of Pittsburgh in 420 patients enrolled in the Spanish Lung Cancer Group PLATAX clinical trial. A pooled analysis combining the Mayo Clinic and PLATAX populations or all three populations was also used to validate the results. We assessed the association of each SNP with overall survival by multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. SNP rs1878022 in the chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) was statistically significantly associated with poor overall survival in the MD Anderson discovery population (hazard ratio [HR] of death = 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.32 to 1.92, P = 1.42 × 10(-6)), in the PLATAX clinical trial (HR of death = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.51, P = .05), in the pooled Mayo Clinic and PLATAX validation (HR of death = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.40, P = .005), and in pooled analysis of all three populations (HR of death = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.19 to 1.48, P = 5.13 × 10(-7)). Carrying a variant genotype of rs10937823 was associated with decreased overall survival (HR of death = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.42 to 2.33, P = 1.73 × 10(-6)) in the pooled MD Anderson and Mayo Clinic populations but not in the PLATAX trial patient population (HR of death = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.35). These results have the potential to contribute to the future development of personalized chemotherapy treatments for individual NSCLC patients.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 05/2011; 103(10):817-25. · 14.07 Impact Factor