[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are important for the prevention of serious illness and death among infants. Factors associated with pneumococcal conjugate vaccine immunogenicity have not been explored.
Children <24 months of age received 2, 3, or 4 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PnCRM7) or control vaccine depending on age at enrollment. Serum samples were tested for serotype-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Multiple linear regression was used to determine predictors of immunogenicity.
Among 315 PnCRM7-vaccinated subjects and 295 control subjects enrolled at <7 months of age, geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) of antibodies were significantly higher after dose 3 than after dose 2 for all serotypes except type 4. The proportion of subjects with antibody concentrations > or =5.0 micro g/mL was higher for all serotypes, but the proportion with concentrations > or =0.35 micro g/mL was higher only for types 6B and 23F. Three-dose and 2-dose regimens for those 7-11 and 12-23 months of age, respectively, were highly immunogenic. Increased maternal antibody concentrations were associated with reduced responses to dose 1 and 3 but not to dose 4 of PnCRM7.
Maternal antibody is associated with a reduced infant response to PnCRM7 but does not interfere with immune memory. In infants, a third priming dose increases the antibody GMC and the proportion achieving an antibody concentration > or =5.0 micro g/mL but has little impact on the proportion achieving a concentration > or =0.35 micro g/mL.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2007; 196(1):104-14. DOI:10.1086/518438 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Before the introduction of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines, rates of H. influenzae disease among Navajo and White Mountain Apache (WMA) children were among the highest reported worldwide. Routine Hib vaccination has significantly reduced rates of Hib disease in these populations. As Hib disease rates decrease to very low levels, there are concerns that non-type b strains of H. influenzae may emerge as more prevalent causes of invasive disease in children.
We reviewed population-based, active laboratory surveillance data from the period of 1988-2003 for invasive H. influenzae type a (Hia) disease among Navajo and WMA children aged <5 years. Clinical information on cases was collected by chart review. A sample of Hia isolates from Navajo children was typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
During 1988-2003, a total of 76 reported cases of invasive Hia disease occurred among Navajo and WMA children. The overall annual incidence was 20.2 cases per 100,000 population aged <5 years. There was no increase in Hia disease rates after Hib vaccination was introduced. The median age of patients was 12 months. Meningitis (50% of cases) was the most common presentation, followed by pneumonia (27.6%). Two children with Hia disease died. PFGE analysis revealed a limited genetic diversity of Hia strains in this population.
Active surveillance data showed high rates of invasive Hia disease among Navajo and WMA children but no increase in the incidence after Hib vaccination was introduced. The presentation of Hia disease is similar to that of Hib disease in the prevaccine era.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of invasive bacterial disease in children aged younger than 2 years. Navajo and White Mountain Apache children have some of the highest rates of invasive pneumococcal disease documented in the world. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of a seven-valent polysaccharide protein conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PnCRM7) against such disease.
In a group-randomised study, we gave this vaccine to children younger than 2 years from the Navajo and White Mountain Apache Indian reservations; meningococcal type C conjugate vaccine (MnCC) served as the control vaccine. Vaccine schedules were determined by age at enrollment. We recorded episodes of invasive pneumococcal disease and serotyped isolates. Analyses were by intention to treat and per protocol.
8292 children enrolled in the trial. In the per protocol analysis of the primary efficacy group (children enrolled by 7 months of age) there were eight cases of vaccine serotype disease in the controls and two in the PnCRM7 group; in the intention-to-treat analysis we noted 11 cases of vaccine serotype disease in the MnCC control group and two in the PnCRM7 group. After group randomisation had been controlled for, the per protocol primary efficacy of PnCRM7 was 76.8% (95% CI -9.4% to 95.1%) and the intention-to-treat total primary efficacy was 82.6% (21.4% to 96.1%).
PnCRM7 vaccine prevents vaccine serotype invasive pneumococcal disease even in a high risk population. Other regions with similar disease burden should consider including this vaccine in the routine childhood vaccine schedule.
The Lancet 09/2003; 362(9381):355-61. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14022-6 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection was decreased significantly among Navajo children since the licensure of Hib conjugate vaccines, even though two lots of Hib (polyribosylribitol phosphate)-meningococcal B outer-membrane protein conjugate vaccine (PRP-OMP) widely used among the Navajo were later found to be of low immunogenicity. We measured the effectiveness of all Hib conjugate vaccines combined, PRP-OMP alone, and the PRP-OMP lots with lower-than-expected immunogenicity among Navajo infants and children. This was a matched case-control study using active, laboratory-based surveillance for the ascertainment of Navajo children 2 1/2 to 59 months of age with invasive Hib infection; 45 patients with infection and 180 control subjects were enrolled. The effectiveness of one, two, and three doses, respectively, of all Hib conjugate vaccines combined was 96% (95% confidence interval (CI) 65%, 99%), 99% (95% CI, 69%, 100%), and 99% (95% CI - 57%, 100%). The effectiveness of one or more doses of PRP-OMP was 95% (95% CI, 66%, 99%). The effectiveness of a single dose of the lots of lower-than-expected immunogenicity was 89% (95% CI, -8%, 99%). The Hib conjugate vaccine coverage increased from 49% during 1991 to 94% during 1992; no control subjects younger than 18 months of age were enrolled during 1993. The occurrence of invasive Hib infections in this population after licensure of Hib conjugate vaccines was the result of gradual vaccine uptake, not poor vaccine effectiveness. The use of PRP-OMP has been highly effective despite concerns about the immunogenicity of several lots.
Journal of Pediatrics 11/1994; 125(4):571-6. DOI:10.1016/S0022-3476(94)70009-5 · 3.79 Impact Factor