Denise E Bonds

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Maryland, United States

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Publications (64)427.53 Total impact

  • Denise E Bonds
    The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology. 05/2014;
  • Michael S Lauer, Denise Bonds
    American heart journal 04/2014; 167(4):419-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Dietary supplements have been proposed as a mechanism to improve health and prevent disease. OBJECTIVE To determine if supplementing diet with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or with macular xanthophylls results in a reduced rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Cardiovascular Outcome Study (COS) was an ancillary study of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2), a factorial-designed randomized clinical trial of 4203 participants recruited from 82 US academic and community ophthalmology clinics, who were followed up for a median of 4.8 years. Individuals were eligible to participate if they were between the ages of 50 and 85 years, had intermediate or advanced age-related macular degeneration in 1 eye, and were willing to be randomized. Participants with stable, existing CVD (>12 months since initial event) were eligible to participate. Participants, staff, and outcome assessors were masked to intervention. INTERVENTIONS Daily supplementation with long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (350-mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] + 650-mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]), macular xanthophylls (10-mg lutein + 2-mg zeaxanthin), combination of the two, or matching placebos. These treatments were added to background therapy of the AREDS vitamin and mineral formulation for macular degeneration. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A composite outcome of myocardial infarction, stroke, and cardiovascular death with 4 prespecified secondary combinations of the primary outcome with hospitalized heart failure, revascularization, or unstable angina. RESULTS Study participants were primarily white, married, and highly educated, with a median age at baseline of 74 years. A total of 602 cardiovascular events were adjudicated, and 459 were found to meet 1 of the study definitions for a CVD outcome. In intention-to-treat analysis, no reduction in the risk of CVD or secondary CVD outcomes was seen for the DHA + EPA (primary outcome: hazard ratio [HR], 0.95; 95% CI, 0.78-1.17) or lutein + zeaxanthin (primary outcome: HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.77-1.15) groups. No differences in adverse events or serious adverse event were seen by treatment group. The sample size was sufficient to detect a 25% reduction in CVD events with 80% power. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Dietary supplementation of long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids or macular xanthophylls in addition to daily intake of minerals and vitamins did not reduce the risk of CVD in elderly participants with age-related macular degeneration. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00345176.
    JAMA Internal Medicine 03/2014; · 10.58 Impact Factor
  • Denise E Bonds
    The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background-Recognizing the value of outcomes research to understand and bridge translational gaps, to establish evidence in clinical practice and delivery of medicine, and to generate new hypotheses on ongoing questions of treatment and care, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health established the Centers for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research program in 2010.Methods and Results-The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute funded 3 centers and a research coordinating unit. Each center has an independent project focus, including (1) characterizing care transition and predicting clinical events and quality of life for patients discharged after an acute coronary syndrome; (2) identifying center and regional factors associated with better patient outcomes across several cardiovascular conditions and procedures; and (3) examining the impact of healthcare reform in Massachusetts on overall and disparate care and outcomes for several cardiovascular conditions and venous thromboembolism. Cross-program collaborations seek to advance the field methodologically and to develop early-stage investigators committed to careers in outcomes research.Conclusions-The Centers for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research program represents a significant investment in cardiovascular outcomes research by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The vision of this program is to leverage scientific rigor and cross-program collaboration to advance the science of healthcare delivery and outcomes beyond what any individual unit could achieve alone.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 03/2013; · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and significance of low normal and abnormal ankle brachial index (ABI) values in a community-dwelling population of sedentary, older individuals is unknown. We describe the prevalence of categories of definite peripheral artery disease (PAD), borderline ABI, low normal ABI, and no PAD and their association with lower-extremity functional performance in the LIFE Study population. Participants age 70 to 89 in the LIFE Study underwent baseline measurement of the ABI, 400-m walk, and 4-m walking velocity. Participants were classified as follows: definite PAD (ABI <0.90), borderline PAD (ABI 0.90 to 0.99), low normal ABI (ABI 1.00 to 1.09), and no PAD (ABI 1.10 to 1.40). Of 1566 participants, 220 (14%) had definite PAD, 250 (16%) had borderline PAD, 509 (33%) had low normal ABI, and 587 (37%) had no PAD. Among those with definite PAD, 65% were asymptomatic. Adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, and comorbidities, lower ABI was associated with longer mean 400-m walk time: (definite PAD=533 seconds; borderline PAD=514 seconds; low normal ABI=503 seconds; and no PAD=498 seconds [P<0.001]). Among asymptomatic participants with and without PAD, lower ABI values were also associated with longer 400-m walk time (P<0.001) and slower walking velocity (P=0.042). Among older community-dwelling men and women, 14% had PAD and 49% had borderline or low normal ABI values. Lower ABI values were associated with greater functional impairment, suggesting that lower extremity atherosclerosis may be a common preventable cause of functional limitations in older people. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier: NCT01072500.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2013; 2(6):e000257.
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    ABSTRACT: Older adults with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of fractures and falls, but the effect of glycemic control on these outcomes is unknown. To determine the effect of intensive versus standard glycemic control, we assessed fractures and falls as outcomes in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) randomized trial. ACCORD participants were randomized to intensive or standard glycemia strategies, with an achieved median A1C of 6.4 and 7.5%, respectively. In the ACCORD BONE ancillary study, fractures were assessed at 54 of the 77 ACCORD clinical sites that included 7,287 of the 10,251 ACCORD participants. At annual visits, 6,782 participants were asked about falls in the previous year. During an average follow-up of 3.8 (SD 1.3) years, 198 of 3,655 participants in the intensive glycemia and 189 of 3,632 participants in the standard glycemia group experienced at least one nonspine fracture. The average rate of first nonspine fracture was 13.9 and 13.3 per 1,000 person-years in the intensive and standard groups, respectively (hazard ratio 1.04 [95% CI 0.86-1.27]). During an average follow-up of 2.0 years, 1,122 of 3,364 intensive- and 1,133 of 3,418 standard-therapy participants reported at least one fall. The average rate of falls was 60.8 and 55.3 per 100 person-years in the intensive and standard glycemia groups, respectively (1.10 [0.84-1.43]). Compared with standard glycemia, intensive glycemia did not increase or decrease fracture or fall risk in ACCORD.
    Diabetes care 07/2012; 35(7):1525-31. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoglycemia is a common complication of diabetes treatment. This paper describes symptoms, predecessors, consequences and medications associated with the first episode of severe hypoglycemia among ACCORD participants with type 2 diabetes, and compares these between intensive (Int: goal A1C <6.0%) and standard (Std, goal A1C 7-7.9%) glycemia intervention groups. Information about symptoms, antecedents, and consequences was collected at the time participants reported an episode of severe hypoglycemia. Data on medications prescribed during the clinical trial was used to determine the association of particular diabetes drug classes and severe hypoglycemia. The most frequently reported symptoms in both glycemia group were weakness/fatigue (Int 29%; Std 30%) and sweating (Int 26%; Std 27%), followed by confusion/disorientation (Int 22%; Std 29%) and shakiness (Int 21%; Std 19%). Approximately half of all events were preceded by a variation in food intake (Int 48%; Std 58%). The most common consequences were confusion (Int 37%; Std 34%), loss of consciousness (Int 25%; Std 25%), and hospitalization (Int 18%; Std 24%). The highest rates of hypoglycemia were found among those participants treated with insulin only (Int 6.09/100 person yrs; Std 2.64/100 person yrs) while the lowest were among those prescribed oral agents only (Int 1.93/100 person yrs; Std 0.20/100 person yrs). Severe hypoglycemia episodes were frequently preceded by a change in food intake, making many episodes potentially preventable. Symptoms of confusion/disorientation and loss of consciousness were frequently seen. The highest rates of hypoglycemia were seen with prescription of insulin, either alone or in combination with other medications. Number: NCT00000620.
    BMC Endocrine Disorders 05/2012; 12:5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
  • Journal of clinical epidemiology 05/2012; · 5.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate has been noted to cause an elevation in serum creatinine in some individuals. Participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Lipid Study were studied to better characterise who is at risk of an increase in creatinine level and to determine whether those with creatinine elevation have a differential risk of adverse renal or cardiovascular outcomes. A fenofibrate-associated creatinine increase (FACI) was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of at least 20% from baseline to month 4 in participants assigned to fenofibrate. Baseline patient characteristics, and baseline and 4-month drug, clinical, laboratory characteristics and study outcomes were examined by FACI status. Of the sample, 48% of those randomised to receive fenofibrate had at least a 20% increase in serum creatinine within 4 months. In multivariable analysis, participants who were older, male, used an ACE inhibitor at baseline, used a thiazolidinedione (TZD) at 4 months post-randomisation, had baseline CVD, and had lower baseline serum creatinine and LDL-cholesterol levels were all more likely to meet the criteria for FACI. Participants in the FACI group were also more likely to have a decrease in their serum triacylglycerol level from baseline to 4 months. No differences in study outcomes were seen by FACI criteria. Several characteristics predict a rapid rise in serum creatinine upon starting fenofibrate. Participants who met the criteria for FACI also had a greater change in triacylglycerol levels. In the setting of careful renal function surveillance and reduction of fenofibrate dose as indicated, no increase in renal disease or cardiovascular outcome was seen in those individuals demonstrating FACI. Trial registration: ClincalTrials.gov: NCT00000620. Funding: The ACCORD Trial was supported by grants (N01-HC-95178, N01-HC-95179, N01-HC-95180, N01-HC-95181, N01-HC-95182, N01-HC-95183, N01-HC-95184, IAA-Y1-HC-9035 and IAA-Y1-HC-1010) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Eye Institute; by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; by General Clinical Research Centers and by the Clinical and Translational Science Awards. Abbott Laboratories, Amylin Pharmaceutical, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, Bayer HealthCare LLC, Closer Healthcare, GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, King Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk, Omron Healthcare, sanofi-aventis US and Takeda Pharmaceuticals provided study medications, equipment or supplies.
    Diabetologia 03/2012; 55(6):1641-50. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the reversibility of the elevation of serum creatinine levels in patients with diabetes after 5 years of continuous on-trial fenofibrate therapy. An on-drug/off-drug ancillary study to the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Lipid Trial to investigate posttrial changes in serum creatinine and cystatin C. Eligible participants were recruited into a prospective, nested, three-group study based on retrospective on-trial serum creatinine levels: fenofibrate case subjects (n = 321, ≥ 20% increase after 3 months of therapy); fenofibrate control subjects (n = 175, ≤ 2% increase); and placebo control subjects (n = 565). Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured at trial end and 6-8 weeks after discontinuation of trial therapy. RESULTS At trial end, case subjects had the highest adjusted serum creatinine (± SE) mg/dL (1.11 ± 0.02) and the lowest adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (± SE) mL/min/1.73 m(2) (68.4 ± 1.0) versus control subjects (1.01 ± 0.02; 74.8 ± 1.3) and placebo subjects (0.98 ± 0.01; 77.8 ± 0.7). After 51 days off-drug, serum creatinine in case subjects was still higher (0.97 ± 0.02) and eGFR still lower (77.8 ± 1.0) than control subjects (0.90 ± 0.02; 81.8 ± 1.3) but not different from placebo subjects (0.99 ± 0.01; 76.6 ± 0.7). Changes in serum cystatin C recapitulated the serum creatinine changes. Participants with significant initial on-trial increases in serum creatinine (≥ 20%) returned to the same level of renal function as participants receiving placebo while participants who had ≤ 2% increase in serum creatinine had net preservation of renal function compared with the same unselected placebo reference group. The fenofibrate-associated on-trial increases in serum creatinine were reversible, and the reversal was complete after 51 days off-drug. The similarity of the cystatin C results suggests that the mechanism of this change is not specific for serum creatinine.
    Diabetes care 03/2012; 35(5):1008-14. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between frequent and unrecognized hypoglycemia and mortality in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study cohort. A total of 10,096 ACCORD study participants with follow-up for both hypoglycemia and mortality were included. Hazard ratios (95% CIs) relating the risk of death to the updated annualized number of hypoglycemic episodes and the updated annualized number of intervals with unrecognized hypoglycemia were obtained using Cox proportional hazards regression models, allowing for these hypoglycemia variables as time-dependent covariates and controlling for the baseline covariates. Participants in the intensive group reported a mean of 1.06 hypoglycemic episodes (self-monitored blood glucose <70 mg/dL or <3.9 mmol/L) in the 7 days preceding their regular 4-month visit, whereas participants in the standard group reported an average of 0.29 episodes. Unrecognized hypoglycemia was reported, on average, at 5.8% of the intensive group 4-month visits and 2.6% of the standard group visits. Hazard ratios for mortality in models including frequency of hypoglycemic episodes were 0.93 (95% CI 0.9-0.97; P < 0.001) for participants in the intensive group and 0.98 (0.91-1.06; P = 0.615) for participants in the standard group. The hazard ratios for mortality in models, including unrecognized hypoglycemia, were not statistically significant for either group. Recognized and unrecognized hypoglycemia was more common in the intensive group than in the standard group. In the intensive group of the ACCORD study, a small but statistically significant inverse relationship of uncertain clinical importance was identified between the number of hypoglycemic episodes and the risk of death among participants.
    Diabetes care 12/2011; 35(2):409-14. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As the number of older adults in the United States rises, maintaining functional independence among older Americans has emerged as a major clinical and public health priority. Older people who lose mobility are less likely to remain in the community; demonstrate higher rates of morbidity, mortality, and hospitalizations; and experience a poorer quality of life. Several studies have shown that regular physical activity improves functional limitations and intermediate functional outcomes, but definitive evidence showing that major mobility disability can be prevented is lacking. A Phase 3 randomized controlled trial is needed to fill this evidence gap. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase 3 multicenter randomized controlled trial designed to compare a supervised moderate-intensity physical activity program with a successful aging health education program in 1,600 sedentary older persons followed for an average of 2.7 years. LIFE's primary outcome is major mobility disability, defined as the inability to walk 400 m. Secondary outcomes include cognitive function, serious fall injuries, persistent mobility disability, the combined outcome of major mobility disability or death, disability in activities of daily living, and cost-effectiveness. Results of this study are expected to have important public health implications for the large and growing population of older sedentary men and women.
    The Journals of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 08/2011; 66(11):1226-37. · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To test whether estrogen receptor polymorphisms modify the effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on biomarkers and on risk of coronary heart disease events, stroke, or venous thromboembolism. The design was a nested case-control study in the Women's Health Initiative trials of postmenopausal hormone therapy. The study included all cases in the first 4 years: 359 cases of coronary heart disease, 248 of stroke, and 217 of venous thromboembolism. Six estrogen receptor-α polymorphisms and 1 estrogen receptor-β polymorphism were genotyped; 8 biomarkers known to be affected by hormone therapy were measured at baseline and 1 year after randomization. The polymorphisms were not associated with risk of vascular events and did not modify the increased risks of coronary heart disease, stroke, or venous thromboembolism due to hormone therapy. However, a reduced response of plasmin-antiplasmin to hormone therapy was noted for estrogen receptor-1 IVS1 (intron number 1)-354 (interaction P<0.0001, corrected for multiple comparisons P=0.014) and estrogen receptor-1 IVS1-1415 (interaction P<0.0001, corrected P=0.014). Estrogen receptor polymorphisms reduce the effect of postmenopausal hormone therapy on plasmin-antiplasmin, a marker of coagulation and fibrinolysis. However, screening for estrogen receptor polymorphisms to identify women at less risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes is not likely to be useful in making decisions about hormone therapy treatment.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 02/2011; 31(2):464-9. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine if baseline subgroups in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial can be identified for whom intensive compared with standard glycemia treatment had different effects on all-cause mortality. Exploratory post hoc intention-to-treat comparisons were made between intensive and standard glycemia groups on all-cause mortality by subgroups defined by baseline characteristics. There were few significant interactions between baseline characteristics and effects of intensive versus standard glycemia treatment on mortality: self-reported history of neuropathy (hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% CI 1.41-2.69) versus no history of neuropathy (0.99, 0.79-1.26; P value for interaction 0.0008), higher A1C (A1C >8.5%: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.22-2.22; A1C 7.5-8.4%: 1.00, 0.75-1.34; A1C <7.5%: 1.00, 0.67-1.50; P value for interaction 0.04), and aspirin use (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.13-1.85, compared with 0.96, 0.72-1.27, in nonusers; P value for interaction 0.03). We found a remarkable similarity of effect from intensive compared with standard glycemia treatment on mortality across most baseline subgroups. No differential effect was found in subgroups defined by variables anticipated to have an interaction: age, duration of diabetes, and previous history of cardiovascular disease. The three baseline characteristics that defined subgroups for which there was a differential effect on mortality may help identify patients with type 2 diabetes at higher risk of mortality from intensive regimens for glycemic control. Further research is warranted.
    Diabetes care 04/2010; 33(4):721-7. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the cross-sectional association of thiazolidinediones with diabetic macular edema (DME). The cross-sectional association of DME and visual acuity with thiazolidinediones was examined by means of baseline fundus photographs and visual acuity measurements from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Visual acuity was assessed in 9690 participants in the ACCORD trial, and 3473 of these participants had fundus photographs that were centrally read in a standardized fashion by masked graders to assess DME and retinopathy from October 23, 2003, to March 10, 2006. Among the subsample, 695 (20.0%) people had used thiazolidinediones, whereas 217 (6.2%) people had DME. Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with DME in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.44; P = .95) and adjusted (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.67-1.40; P = .86) analyses. Significant associations with DME were found for retinopathy severity (P < .001) and age (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.952-0.997; P = .03) but not for hemoglobin A(1c) (P = .06), duration of diabetes (P = .65), sex (P = .72), and ethnicity (P = .20). Thiazolidinedione use was associated with slightly greater visual acuity (0.79 letter; 95% CI, 0.20-1.38; P = .009) of uncertain clinical significance. In a cross-sectional analysis of data from the largest study to date, no association was observed between thiazolidinedione exposure and DME in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, we cannot exclude a modest protective or harmful association. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00542178.
    Archives of ophthalmology 03/2010; 128(3):312-8. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials offer a wealth of data on patient outcomes including cancer, coronary heart disease, and hip fracture, which were confirmed via medical record review. Diabetes was self-reported, but was not validated by independent review. The literature shows wide variations on the validity of self-reported diabetes in diverse populations. Aims: To compare the rates of positive and negative predictive values of self-reports of incident and prevalent diabetes during the WHI trials. Methods: At four WHI field centers (Minneapolis MN, Winston- Salem NC, Birmingham AL, Portland OR), all WHI trial participants with a self-report of diabetes at baseline or follow-up were identified. A random sample of participants who did not self-report diabetes was also identified. Women were surveyed regarding details of their diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. Medical records were obtained and reviewed for consenting subjects using a standardized protocol based on documented treatment with anti-diabetic medications, or physician diagnosis of diabetes supported by laboratory measurements of glucose. Results: A total of 1280 eligible subjects were available across the four sites. To date, subject information from the Minneapolis field center has been collected and analyzed. Of the 295 eligible subjects contacted at the Minneapolis site, 227 (77%) consented to participate and provided survey data. Medical records were obtained for 224 (57 prevalent, 81 incident, and 86 no self-reported diabetes). Medical records confirmed 84% (95% CI 74%-94%) of self-reported prevalent diabetes and 85% (95% CI 74%-94%) of self-reported incident diabetes. Among those who never self-reported diabetes there was no medical record evidence for diabetes in 99% (95% CI 92% to 100%). Results from all four sites will be presented. Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest a high positive predictive value of both prevalent (84%) and incident self-report of diabetes (85%) from WHI and a low false negative rate of about 1%. These results indicate that self-reports of diabetes may be sufficiently accurate for use in epidemiologic studies.
    Clinical Medicine &amp Research 03/2010; 8(1):48.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To identify participants' characteristics that influence the anti-fracture efficacy of vitamin D or vitamin D plus calcium with respect to any fracture, hip fracture, and clinical vertebral fracture and to assess the influence of dosing regimens and co-administration of calcium. DESIGN: Individual patient data analysis using pooled data from randomised trials. DATA SOURCES: Seven major randomised trials of vitamin D with calcium or vitamin D alone, yielding a total of 68 517 participants (mean age 69.9 years, range 47-107 years, 14.7% men). STUDY SELECTION: Studies included were randomised studies with at least one intervention arm in which vitamin D was given, fracture as an outcome, and at least 1000 participants. DATA SYNTHESIS: Logistic regression analysis was used to identify significant interaction terms, followed by Cox's proportional hazards models incorporating age, sex, fracture history, and hormone therapy and bisphosphonate use. RESULTS: Trials using vitamin D with calcium showed a reduced overall risk of fracture (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.86 to 0.99, P=0.025) and hip fracture (all studies: 0.84, 0.70 to 1.01, P=0.07; studies using 10 microg of vitamin D given with calcium: 0.74, 0.60 to 0.91, P=0.005). For vitamin D alone in daily doses of 10 microg or 20 microg, no significant effects were found. No interaction was found between fracture history and treatment response, nor any interaction with age, sex, or hormone replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: This individual patient data analysis indicates that vitamin D given alone in doses of 10-20 microg is not effective in preventing fractures. By contrast, calcium and vitamin D given together reduce hip fractures and total fractures, and probably vertebral fractures, irrespective of age, sex, or previous fractures.
    BMJ British medical journal 01/2010; 340:b5463. · 13.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether there is a link between hypoglycaemia and mortality among participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from the ACCORD trial. Setting Diabetes clinics, research clinics, and primary care clinics. Patients were eligible for the ACCORD study if they had type 2 diabetes, a glycated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A(1C)) concentration of 7.5% or more during screening, and were aged 40-79 years with established cardiovascular disease or 55-79 years with evidence of subclinical disease or two additional cardiovascular risk factors. Intervention Intensive (haemoglobin A(1C) <6.0%) or standard (haemoglobin A(1C) 7.0-7.9%) glucose control. Symptomatic, severe hypoglycaemia, manifest as either blood glucose concentration of less than 2.8 mmol/l (<50 mg/dl) or symptoms that resolved with treatment and that required either the assistance of another person or medical assistance, and all cause and cause specific mortality, including a specific assessment for involvement of hypoglycaemia. 10 194 of the 10 251 participants enrolled in the ACCORD study who had at least one assessment for hypoglycaemia during regular follow-up for vital status were included in this analysis. Unadjusted annual mortality among patients in the intensive glucose control arm was 2.8% in those who had one or more episodes of hypoglycaemia requiring any assistance compared with 1.2% for those with no episodes (53 deaths per 1924 person years and 201 deaths per 16 315 person years, respectively; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.93). A similar pattern was seen among participants in the standard glucose control arm (3.7% (21 deaths per 564 person years) v 1.0% (176 deaths per 17 297 person years); adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.46 to 3.65). On the other hand, among participants with at least one hypoglycaemic episode requiring any assistance, a non-significantly lower risk of death was seen in those in the intensive arm compared with those in the standard arm (adjusted HR 0.74, 95% 0.46 to 1.23). A significantly lower risk was observed in the intensive arm compared with the standard arm in participants who had experienced at least one hypoglycaemic episode requiring medical assistance (adjusted HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.99). Of the 451 deaths that occurred in ACCORD up to the time when the intensive treatment arm was closed, one death was adjudicated as definitely related to hypoglycaemia. Symptomatic, severe hypoglycaemia was associated with an increased risk of death within each study arm. However, among participants who experienced at least one episode of hypoglycaemia, the risk of death was lower in such participants in the intensive arm than in the standard arm. Symptomatic, severe hypoglycaemia does not appear to account for the difference in mortality between the two study arms up to the time when the ACCORD intensive glycaemia arm was discontinued. NCT00000620.
    BMJ (online) 01/2010; 340:b4909. · 17.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate potential determinants of severe hypoglycaemia, including baseline characteristics, in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial and the association of severe hypoglycaemia with levels of glycated haemoglobin (haemoglobin A(1C)) achieved during therapy. Post hoc epidemiological analysis of a double 2x2 factorial, randomised, controlled trial. Diabetes clinics, research clinics, and primary care clinics. 10 209 of the 10 251 participants enrolled in the ACCORD study with type 2 diabetes, a haemoglobin A(1C) concentration of 7.5% or more during screening, and aged 40-79 years with established cardiovascular disease or 55-79 years with evidence of significant atherosclerosis, albuminuria, left ventricular hypertrophy, or two or more additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (dyslipidaemia, hypertension, current smoker, or obese). Interventions Intensive (haemoglobin A(1C) <6.0%) or standard (haemoglobin A(1C) 7.0-7.9%) glucose control. Severe hypoglycaemia was defined as episodes of "low blood glucose" requiring the assistance of another person and documentation of either a plasma glucose less than 2.8 mmol/l (<50 mg/dl) or symptoms that promptly resolved with oral carbohydrate, intravenous glucose, or glucagon. The annual incidence of hypoglycaemia was 3.14% in the intensive treatment group and 1.03% in the standard glycaemia group. We found significantly increased risks for hypoglycaemia among women (P=0.0300), African-Americans (P<0.0001 compared with non-Hispanic whites), those with less than a high school education (P<0.0500 compared with college graduates), aged participants (P<0.0001 per 1 year increase), and those who used insulin at trial entry (P<0.0001). For every 1% unit decline in the haemoglobin A(1C) concentration from baseline to 4 month visit, there was a 28% (95% CI 19% to 37%) and 14% (4% to 23%) reduced risk of hypoglycaemia requiring medical assistance in the standard and intensive groups, respectively. In both treatment groups, the risk of hypoglycaemia requiring medical assistance increased with each 1% unit increment in the average updated haemoglobin A(1C) concentration (standard arm: hazard ratio 1.76, 95% CI 1.50 to 2.06; intensive arm: hazard ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.21). A greater drop in haemoglobin A(1C) concentration from baseline to the 4 month visit was not associated with an increased risk for hypoglycaemia. Patients with poorer glycaemic control had a greater risk of hypoglycaemia, irrespective of treatment group. Identification of baseline subgroups with increased risk for severe hypoglycaemia can provide guidance to clinicians attempting to modify patient therapy on the basis of individual risk. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00000620.
    BMJ (online) 01/2010; 340:b5444. · 17.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
427.53 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
      • Division of Cardiovascular Sciences (DCVS)
      Maryland, United States
  • 2007–2009
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Public Health Sciences
      Charlottesville, VA, United States
  • 2008
    • Karl Jaspers Society of North America
      United States
    • Pennsylvania State University
      • Department of Public Health Sciences
      University Park, MD, United States
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Richmond, VA, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • Wake Forest University
      • • Department of Public Health Sciences
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States
  • 2001–2008
    • Wake Forest School of Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Division of Public Health Sciences
      Winston-Salem, North Carolina, United States