Diane E Spicer

Florida Heart Research Institute, Miami, Florida, United States

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Publications (27)38.5 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background Ventricular septal defects are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations. They can exist in isolation, but are also found as integral components of other cardiac anomalies, such as tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, or common arterial trunk. As yet, there is no agreement on how best to classify such defects, nor even on the curved surface that is taken to represent the defect.Methods Based on our previous pathological and clinical experiences, we have reviewed the history of classification of holes between the ventricles. We proposed that the defects are best defined as representing the area of deficient ventricular septation. This then permits the recognition of clinically significant variants according to the anatomic borders, and the way the curved surface representing the area of deficient septation opens into the morphologically right ventricle.ResultsClinical manifestation depends on the size of the defect, and on the relationship between systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances. Symptoms include failure to thrive, along with the manifestations of the increase in flow of blood to the lungs. Diagnosis can be made by physical examination, but is confirmed by echocardiographic interrogation, which delineates the precise anatomy, and also provides the physiologic information required for optimal clinical decision-making. Cardiac catheterization offers additional information regarding hemodynamics, particularly if there is a concern regarding an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Hemodynamic assessment is rarely necessary to make decisions regarding management, although it can be helpful if assessing symptomatic adults with hemodynamically restrictive defects. In infants with defects producing large shunts, surgical closure is now recommended in most instances as soon as symptoms manifest. Only in rare cases is palliative banding of the pulmonary trunk now recommended. Closure with devices inserted on catheters is now the preferred approach for many patients with muscular defects, often using a hybrid procedure. Therapeutic closure should now be anticipated with virtually zero mortality, and with excellent anticipated long-term survival.Conclusion Ventricular septal defects are best defined as representing the borders of the area of deficient ventricular septation. An approach on this basis permits recognition of the clinically significant phenotypic variants.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 12/2014; 9(1):144. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although holes, or channels, between the ventricles are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations, there is still no consensus as to how they can best be described and categorised. So as to assess whether it is possible to produce a potentially universally acceptable system, we have analysed the hearts categorised as having ventricular septal defects in a large archive held at Birmingham Children's Hospital. Materials and methods We analysed all the hearts categorised as having isolated ventricular septal defects, or those associated with aortic coarctation or interruption in the setting of concordant ventriculo-arterial connections, in the archive of autopsied hearts held at Birmingham Children's Hospital, United Kingdom.
    Cardiology in the Young 09/2014; · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary arteries have been extensively described and recognized by gross anatomic studies. However, in the clinical setting, the recognition of the conal artery is essential during coronary angiography, as well as certain congenital heart conditions such as tetralogy of Fallot. In order to provide a complete anatomic and physiologic correlation of the actual incidence and distribution of the conal artery we examined 300 formalin fixed hearts with gross dissections and 300 coronary angiograms. The conal artery was identified in all hearts examined and five main patterns were recognized. In Type A (193, 32.1%), the conal artery arose as a branch of the right coronary artery (RCA); in Type B (96, 16%), the conal artery arose from the common coronary ostium with the RCA; in Type C (242, 40.3%), the conal artery took origin from the right aortic sinus as an independent artery; in Type D (48, 8%), multiple conal arteries were present and arose from the RCA as separate branches (32, 66.6%), from a common ostium with the RCA (8, 16.6%) or from the aortic sinus (8, 16.6%); in Type E (22, 3.6%), the conal artery arose as a branch of the right ventricular branch (17, 2.8%) or acute marginal artery (5, 0.8%). The relative prevalence of the five patterns as well as the morphology and the topography of the conal artery varied significantly with the degree of coronary luminal stenosis (as observed during angiography) and also with the degree of hypertrophied ventricular wall (as observed during gross dissections). Clin. Anat., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Clinical Anatomy 09/2014; · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Disagreement currently exists regarding the definition of aortic dextroposition. It is suggested that the term be used interchangeably with aortic overriding, along with suggestions that the aortic valve overrides in the normal heart. The dextroposed aorta, however, does not always override the crest of the muscular ventricular septum. It is incorrect to argue that the normal aortic valve overrides. It is the cavity of the right aortic valvar sinus, rather than the valvar orifice, that sits above the muscular septum when the septum itself is intact. Therefore, to circumvent these difficulties, those using the term "dextroposition" find it necessary to distinguish "true" as opposed to "false" categories. The problems arise because "dextroposition" is remarkably ill-suited as an alternative term for aortic valvar overriding. Methods and Results: In this review, combining developmental, morphologic, and clinical data, we show how aortic overriding is best considered on the basis of biventricular connection of the aortic root in the setting of deficient ventricular septation. When analysed in this manner, it becomes an easy matter to distinguish between one-to-one and double outlet ventriculo-arterial connections. Appreciation of these features emphasises the different spatial alignments of interventricular communications as opposed to the plane of deficient ventricular septation. The concept of overriding is applicable not only to biventricular connection of the aortic root, but also the pulmonary and common arterial roots. Conclusions: The diagnostic techniques now available to the paediatric cardiologist illustrate the features of arterial valvar overriding with exquisite accuracy, informing the discussions now required for optimal decision making.
    Cardiology in the Young 07/2014; · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although steps are being taken to produce a universally acceptable coding system for categorisation of the congenitally malformed hearts, obstacles remain in the search for consensus. One of the groups of lesions continuing to produce the greatest problems is those that permit interventricular shunting. The difficulties relate partly to the words used to describe the group itself, as those using Germanic languages describe the holes as ventricular septal defects, whereas those using Romance languages consider them to represent interventricular communications. The two terms, however, are not necessarily synonymous. Further disagreements relate to whether the lesions placed within the group should be sub-categorised on the basis of their geographical location within the ventricular mass, as opposed to the anatomic nature of their borders. In reality, attention to both the features is necessary if we are to recognise the full extent of phenotypic variability. In this review, we first review the evolution and theories of analysis naming the channels that permit interventricular shunting. We then demonstrate that embryologic techniques provide evidence that the changing morphology of the developing murine heart parallels the anatomy of the different lesions encountered in the congenitally malformed human heart. We suggest that, with attention paid to the temporal development of the normal murine heart, combined with a strict definition of the plane of separation between the right and left ventricular cavities, it will be feasible to produce a categorisation that is acceptable to all.
    Cardiology in the Young 05/2014; · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is frequent, in the current era, to encounter congenital cardiac malformations described in terms of "cor triatriatum". But can hearts be truly found with three atrial chambers? The morphological method, emphasised by Van Praagh et al, states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their most constant components. In the atrial chambers, it is the appendages that are the most constant components, and to the best of our knowledge, hearts can only possess two appendages, which can be of either right or left morphology. The hearts described on the basis of "cor triatriatum", nonetheless, can also be analysed on the basis of division of either the morphologically right or the morphologically left atriums. In this review, we provide a description of cardiac embryology, showing how each of the atrial chambers possesses part of the embryological body, along with an appendage, a vestibule, a venous component, and a septum that separates them. We then show how it is, indeed, the case that the hearts described in terms of "cor triatriatum" can be readily understood on the basis of division of these atrial components. In the right atrium, it is the venous valves that divide the chamber. In the left atrium, it is harder to provide an explanation for the shelf that produces atrial division. We also contrast the classic examples of the divided atrial chambers with the vestibular shelf that produces supravalvar stenosis in the morphologically left atrium, showing that this form of obstruction needs to be distinguished from the fibrous shelves producing intravalvar obstruction.
    Cardiology in the Young 05/2014; · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The past decades have seen immense progress in the understanding of cardiac development. Appreciation of precise details of cardiac anatomy, however, has yet to be fully translated into the more general understanding of the changing structure of the developing heart, particularly with regard to formation of the septal structures. In this review, using images obtained with episcopic microscopy together with scanning electron microscopy, we show that the newly acquired information concerning the anatomic changes occurring during separation of the cardiac chambers in the mouse is able to provide a basis for understanding the morphogenesis of septal defects in the human heart. It is now established that as part of the changes seen when the heart tube changes from a short linear structure to the looped arrangement presaging formation of the ventricles, new material is added at both its venous and arterial poles. The details of these early changes, however, are beyond the scope of our current review. It is during E10.5 in the mouse that the first anatomic features of septation are seen, with formation of the primary atrial septum. This muscular structure grows toward the cushions formed within the atrioventricular canal, carrying on its leading edge a mesenchymal cap. Its cranial attachment breaks down to form the secondary foramen by the time the mesenchymal cap has used with the atrioventricular endocardial cushions, the latter fusion obliterating the primary foramen. Then the cap, along with a mesenchymal protrusion that grows from the mediastinal mesenchyme, muscularizes to form the base of the definitive atrial septum, the primary septum itself forming the floor of the oval foramen. The cranial margin of the foramen is a fold between the attachments of the pulmonary veins to the left atrium and the roof of the right atrium. The apical muscular ventricular septum develops concomitant with the ballooning of the apical components from the inlet and outlet of the ventricular loop. Its apical part is initially trabeculated. The membranous part of the septum is derived from the rightward margins of the atrioventricular cushions, with the muscularizing proximal outflow cushions fusing with the muscular septum and becoming the subpulmonary infundibulum as the aorta is committed to the left ventricle. Perturbations of these processes explain well the phenotypic variants of deficient atrial and ventricular septation. Anat Rec, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 05/2014; · 1.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The morphology of ventricular septal defects (VSDs) that are doubly committed and juxtaarterial places the patient at risk for aortic valvar prolapse and aortic valvar insufficiency (AI). Surgical repair of this type of defect often involves placing sutures through the base of one or more of the leaflets of the pulmonary valve, raising concern for late pulmonary valvar insufficiency (PI). The purpose of this review was to analyze the postoperative follow-up relating to potential late complications with the aortic and pulmonary valves. Between 1980 and 2012, 106 patients with doubly committed juxtaarterial VSD underwent intracardiac repair. Median age at repair was 1.1 years. Preoperative evaluation showed 69 patients (65%) had aortic valvar prolapse and 51 (48%) had AI. Operative approach was through the pulmonary trunk in 88 (83%) of the patients. In 81 patients (76%), sutures securing the VSD patch had been placed through the base of the pulmonary valvar leaflets. Operative survival was 100%. Follow-up ranges from 6 months to 17 years, with a mean of 4.9 years. No patient had heart block or residual shunting. Of the 70 patients with long-term contemporary echocardiographic follow-up, 66 (94%) had trivial or no AI and 4 (6%) had mild AI. Of these patients, 49 (70%) had trivial or no PI, and 21 (30%) had mild PI. In 1 patient having aortic valvoplasty at the time of VSD closure, the aortic valve was replaced 7 months later. No other patient had worrisome progression of their AI or PI. The incidence of aortic valvar prolapse and AI in the setting of doubly committed juxtaarterial VSD is quite high. The optimal surgical approach is through the pulmonary trunk. Sutures placed through the base of the pulmonary valvar leaflets do not predispose to clinically significant late pulmonary valvar insufficiency. Timely surgical closure of this type of defect prevents progression of AI.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 03/2014; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coronary arterial fistulas are abnormal connections between the coronary arteries and the chambers of the heart or major thoracic vessels. Although first described in 1841, the true incidence is difficult to evaluate because approximately half of the cases may be asymptomatic and clinically undetectable. This review will discuss the history and prevalence of coronary artery fistulas, their morphology, histology, presentation, diagnosis, treatment options, and complications.
    Cardiovascular Pathology 02/2014; · 2.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is axiomatic that those performing surgery on the congenitally malformed heart require a thorough knowledge of the lesions they will be called upon to correct. The necessary anatomical knowledge is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain at first hand, since relatively few centres now hold archives of specimens obtained in an appropriately legal fashion from the patients unfortunately dying in previous years. One centre with such an archive is Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago, known previously as Chicago Memorial Children's Hospital. The archive was established by Farouk S. Idriss, and was subsequently enhanced and consolidated by his son, Rachid. It is now under the care of Carl L. Backer, the current chief of paediatric cardiothoracic surgery at Lurie Children's. With the support of Carl, the archive has been triaged and catalogued by Diane E. Spicer and Robert H. Anderson. It has now been used to create a series of video presentations, illustrating the salient features of surgical anatomy of selected entities, with the videoclips being edited and prepared for publication by Anne Sarwark. This video contains the fruits of the first of these exercises in anatomy, and is devoted to tetralogy of Fallot.We begin the exercise by making comparisons between the normal heart and the arrangement seen in typical tetralogy. We emphasize the need to recognize the 'building blocks' of the normal outflow tracts, and show how they come apart in tetralogy. We then show the variations to be found in the specific morphology of the borders of the hole between the ventricles, with the crest of the apical ventricular septum being overridden by the orifice of the aortic valve such that the latter structure has a biventricular connection. We emphasize that it is the squeeze between the deviated muscular outlet septum and septoparietal trabeculations that is the essential phenotypic feature of the lesion. We then proceed to demonstrate the further variation to be found in the length of the outlet septum, which in extreme cases can be fibrous and hypoplastic rather than muscular. We also show how the ventriculo-arterial connection can vary from being concordant to becoming double outlet from the right ventricle. We conclude by emphasizing that the anatomy of tetralogy can also be recognized when the subpulmonary outflow tract is atretic rather than stenotic. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    Multimedia manual of cardiothoracic surgery : MMCTS / European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 01/2014; 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
    Multimedia manual of cardiothoracic surgery : MMCTS / European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 01/2014; 2014.
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    ABSTRACT: It is timely, in the 125th anniversary of the initial description by Fallot of the hearts most frequently seen in patients presenting with "la maladie bleu", that we revisit his descriptions, and discuss his findings in the light of ongoing controversies. Fallot described three hearts in his initial publication, and pointed to the same tetralogy of morphological features that we recognise today, namely, an interventricular communication, biventricular connection of the aorta, subpulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy. In one of the hearts, he noted that the aorta arose exclusively from the right ventricle. In other words, one of his initial cases exhibited double-outlet right ventricle. When we now compare findings in hearts with the features of the tetralogy, we can observe significant variations in the nature of the borders of the plane of deficient ventricular septation when viewed from the aspect of the right ventricle. We also find that this plane, usually described as the ventricular septal defect, is not the same as the geometric plane separating the cavities of the right and left ventricles. This means that the latter plane, the interventricular communication, is not necessarily the same as the ventricular septal defect. We are now able to provide further insights into these features by examining hearts prepared from developing mice. Additional molecular investigations will be required, however, to uncover the mechanisms responsible for producing the morphological changes underscoring tetralogy of Fallot.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2013; 23(6):857-865. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This article combines material from three complementary overviews presented in the Symposium on Pulmonary Venous Anomalies during the Joint Meeting of the World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery and Sociedad Latina de Cardiologia y Cirugia Cardiovascular Pediátrica in Lima, Peru. We discuss the embryologic basis for nomenclature, the hierarchical diagnostic categories, and the important anatomic and morphologic characteristics of anomalous pulmonary venous connections. The anatomic descriptions help to guide an understandable and sensible approach to the diagnosis and surgical management of these various disorders.
    World journal for pediatric & congenital heart surgery. 01/2013; 4(1):30-43.
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    ABSTRACT: One of the first principles taught to medical students when they begin their study of human anatomy is that all structures within the body should be described as seen in the anatomical position. In this position, the subject is standing upright and facing the observer. The observer then views left-sided structures to the right hand and right-sided structures to the left hand. Those entities closest to the head are said to be superior, while those closest to the feet are considered to be inferior. And structures within the chest adjacent to the sternum are appropriately described as being anterior, with those adjacent to the spine properly being considered to be posterior. These conventions have been obeyed over the centuries for all organs except the heart. For reasons that are not clear, cardiac structures are described as though the heart has been removed from the thorax and positioned on its apex. This leads to unfortunate descriptions, such as the artery coursing through the middle of the diaphragmatic surface of the heart, blockage of which produces inferior infarction, being said to be posterior and descending. In reality, it is inferior and interventricular. The advent of three-dimensional techniques for imaging, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, now demonstrates in unequivocal fashion the spurious natures of such descriptions, which extend also to the leaflets and papillary muscles of the atrioventricular valves. It is surely now incumbent on human anatomists and cardiologists to describe structures within the heart as they are seen relative to the thorax, in other words to do no more than follow a basic rule of human anatomy and use attitudinally appropriate terms. Whether clinical cardiologists will adopt such a logical approach is moot, but adoption will surely facilitate understanding for the future generations? This article is part of a JCTR special issue on Cardiac Anatomy.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 12/2012; · 3.06 Impact Factor
  • Diane E Spicer, Robert H Anderson
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    ABSTRACT: The ventricular mass extends from the atrioventricular to the ventriculo-arterial junctions. The junctions are obvious anatomic entities and provide discrete boundaries for the ventricles, which can then be subdivided into inlet, apical, and outlet components. The apical trabecular components are most constantly present when hearts are congenitally malformed. Abnormal ventricles, such as found in such congenitally malformed hearts, can be analysed according to the way in which the inlet and outlet components are shared between these apical components. The interrelationships of the right and left ventricles permit distinction of two specific patterns, which are mirror images of one another and which can be described in terms of right-handed and left-handed ventricular topology. It is exceedingly rare to find truly solitary ventricles. The conduction tissues are the only parts of the ventricular walls that are insulated within the working myocardial mass. Anomalous accessory muscular connections are the substrate for the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. This article is part of a JCTR special issue on Cardiac Anatomy.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 12/2012; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the development of three-dimensional techniques for imaging, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, it is now possible to demonstrate the precise sinusal origin and epicardial course of the coronary arteries with just as much accuracy as can be achieved by the morphologist holding the heart in his or her hands. At present, however, there is no universally accepted convention for categorising the various patterns found when the heart is congenitally malformed. In this review, we show how, to provide such a convention, it is necessary to take note not only of the sinusal origin of the three major coronary arteries, but also the relationship of the aortic root relative to the cardiac base. We summarise the evidence showing how the proximal portions of the developing coronary arteries grow into the aortic valvar sinuses subsequent to the separation of the aortic root from the subpulmonary infundibulum. We also discuss the evidence showing that the subpulmonary myocardium is impervious to the passage of epicardial coronary arteries, and suggest that the process of septation itself plays an integral role in guiding the arteries into the two aortic sinuses that are adjacent to the pulmonary root. We then show how marriage of convenience between the epicardial coronary arteries and the aortic valvar sinuses provides a good explanation for the known variations found in the setting of transposition. We point out that it is the absence of septation that likely governs the patterns seen in the setting of a common arterial trunk.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2012; 22(6):647-654. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Diane E Spicer, Robert H Anderson, Carl L Backer
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Different types of ventricular septal defects (VSD) open to the inlet of the right ventricle. The atrioventricular conduction axis is markedly different within these subtypes, a feature of great surgical importance. To clarify these relationships, we have studied hearts with such VSDs from the Idriss archive at Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago. METHODS: We selected hearts from the archive showing the different variants of inlet VSD, photographing them to show the presumed disposition of the atrioventricular conduction axis as based on previous histology studies. We differentiated between perimembranous defects, muscular defects, perimembranous defects with straddling of the tricuspid valve, and atrioventricular septal defects with shunting confined at the ventricular level. RESULTS: The atrioventricular conduction axis is different in the four types of inlet VSDs. In perimembranous defects opening to the inlet of the right ventricle, the axis is positioned to the right hand of the surgeon operating through the tricuspid valve, whereas it is to the left hand with the muscular inlet defect. In patients with straddling tricuspid valve, the axis arises from an anomalous posteroinferior atrioventricular node, whereas in patients with atrioventricular septal defect with exclusive ventricular shunting, the axis arises at the crux of the heart from a node located in an inferiorly displaced nodal triangle. CONCLUSIONS: An appreciation of these relationships should help surgeons avoid the conduction system when closing inlet VSDs.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 10/2012; · 3.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Significant advances have been made in the care of children with cardiac disease. Most advances have been guided by anatomical and functional understanding of the changes from normal imposed by the cardiac malformations. As survival has increased, it has become rare to obtain untreated and unaltered hearts for morphologic examination. This limited availability of new specimens, coupled with the inevitable deterioration of currently available specimens, means that alternative methods of “preservation” become increasingly important. In this review, we propose and outline a format for the development of a Global Virtual Museum of Congenital Cardiac Pathology, based on established principles of anatomical analysis, classification based on an internationally accepted nomenclature (The International Pediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code or IPCCC), and the use of digital methods of storage of images and videos. In this fashion, we hope to preserve, in a virtual sense, the currently available anatomical specimens.
    Progress in Pediatric Cardiology 01/2012; 33(1):91–97.
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    ABSTRACT: Differentiation of the so-called sinus venosus defect from other defects permitting shunting between the atrial chambers remains problematic. The lesion is not a true septal defect, and current theories to explain the existence of the sinus venosus defect fall short. The presence of persistent systemic to pulmonary venous connections has been proposed to explain the existence of the sinus venosus defect. Clinical histories and radiological findings of six patients are reviewed. Three patients have veno-venous bridges, two have partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections, and one patient has a sinus venosus defect. The clinical information is reviewed, along with current developmental and morphological considerations. We provide radiographic, developmental, and morphological evidence to support the theory that a so-called sinus venosus defect is the consequence of persistence of foetal systemic to pulmonary veno-venous bridges, rather than of deficiencies in atrial septation.
    Cardiology in the Young 05/2011; 21(6):623-30. · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the normal heart, the right and left coronary arteries arise from the aortic valvar sinuses adjacent to the pulmonary trunk. The right coronary artery then directly enters the right atrioventricular groove, whereas the main stem of the left coronary artery runs a short course before dividing to become the anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries. These arteries can have an anomalous origin from either the aorta or pulmonary trunk; their branches can have various anomalous origins relative to arterial pedicles. Other abnormal situations include myocardial bridging, abnormal communications, solitary coronary arteries, and duplicated arteries. Understanding of these variations is key to determining those anomalous patterns associated with sudden cardiac death. In the most common variant of an anomalous origin from the pulmonary trunk, the main stem of the left coronary artery arises from the sinus of the pulmonary trunk adjacent to the anticipated left coronary arterial aortic sinus. The artery can, however, arise from a pulmonary artery, or the right coronary artery can have an anomalous pulmonary origin. The key feature in the anomalous aortic origin is the potential for squeezing of the artery, produced by either the so-called intramural origin from the aorta, or the passage of the abnormal artery between the aortic root and the subpulmonary infundibulum.
    Cardiology in the Young 12/2010; 20 Suppl 3:20-5. · 0.95 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

27 Citations
38.50 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Florida Heart Research Institute
      Miami, Florida, United States
  • 2009–2014
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2011
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Division of Pediatric Cardiology
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 2010
    • Children's Memorial Hospital
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • University College London
      • Institute of Child Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • All Children's Hospital
      Florida City, Florida, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Medicine
      Philadelphia, PA, United States