D. R. Ardila

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (150)463.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Dust in debris disks is produced by colliding or evaporating planetesimals, remnants of the planet formation process. Warm dust disks, known by their emission at < 24 micron, are rare (4% of FGK main sequence stars) and especially interesting because they trace material in the region likely to host terrestrial planets, where the dust has a very short dynamical lifetime. Statistical analyses of the source counts of excesses as found with the mid-IR Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) suggest that warm-dust candidates found for the Kepler transiting-planet host-star candidates can be explained by extragalactic or galactic background emission aligned by chance with the target stars. These statistical analyses do not exclude the possibility that a given WISE excess could be due to a transient dust population associated with the target. Here we report Herschel/PACS 100 and 160 micron follow-up observations of a sample of Kepler and non-Kepler transiting-planet candidates' host stars, with candidate WISE warm debris disks, aimed at detecting a possible cold debris disk in any of them. No clear detections were found in any one of the objects at either wavelength. Our upper limits confirm that most objects in the sample do not have a massive debris disk like that in beta Pic. We also show that the planet-hosting star WASP-33 does not have a debris disk comparable to the one around eta Crv. Although the data cannot be used to rule out rare warm disks around the Kepler planet-hosting candidates, the lack of detections and the characteristics of neighboring emission found at far-IR wavelengths support an earlier result suggesting that most of the WISE-selected IR excesses around Kepler candidate host stars are likely due to either chance alignment with background IR-bright galaxies and/or to interstellar emission.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The YSOVAR (Young Stellar Object VARiability) Spitzer Space Telescope observing program obtained the first extensive mid-infrared (3.6 & 4.5 um) time-series photometry of the Orion Nebula Cluster plus smaller footprints in eleven other star-forming cores (AFGL490, NGC1333, MonR2, GGD 12-15, NGC2264, L1688, Serpens Main, Serpens South, IRAS 20050+2720, IC1396A, and Ceph C). There are ~29,000 unique objects with light curves in either or both IRAC channels in the YSOVAR data set. We present the data collection and reduction for the Spitzer and ancillary data, and define the "standard sample" on which we calculate statistics, consisting of fast cadence data, with epochs about twice per day for ~40d. We also define a "standard sample of members", consisting of all the IR-selected members and X-ray selected members. We characterize the standard sample in terms of other properties, such as spectral energy distribution shape. We use three mechanisms to identify variables in the fast cadence data--the Stetson index, a chi^2 fit to a flat light curve, and significant periodicity. We also identified variables on the longest timescales possible of ~6 years, by comparing measurements taken early in the Spitzer mission with the mean from our YSOVAR campaign. The fraction of members in each cluster that are variable on these longest timescales is a function of the ratio of Class I/total members in each cluster, such that clusters with a higher fraction of Class I objects also have a higher fraction of long-term variables. For objects with a YSOVAR-determined period and a [3.6]-[8] color, we find that a star with a longer period is more likely than those with shorter periods to have an IR excess. We do not find any evidence for variability that causes [3.6]-[4.5] excesses to appear or vanish within our data; out of members and field objects combined, at most 0.02% may have transient IR excesses.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: [Abridged] Debris discs around main-sequence stars indicate the presence of larger rocky bodies. The components of the nearby binary aCentauri have higher than solar metallicities, which is thought to promote giant planet formation. We aim to determine the level of emission from debris in the aCen system. Having already detected the temperature minimum, Tmin, of aCenA, we here attempt to do so also for the companion aCenB. Using the aCen stars as templates, we study possible effects Tmin may have on the detectability of unresolved dust discs around other stars. We use Herschel and APEX photometry to determine the stellar spectral energy distributions. In addition, we use APEX for spectral line mapping to study the complex background around aCen seen in the photometric images. Models of stellar atmospheres and discs are used to estimate the amount of debris around these stars. For solar-type stars, a fractional dust luminosity fd 2e-7 could account for SEDs that do not exhibit the Tmin-effect. Slight excesses at the 2.5 sigma level are observed at 24 mu for both stars, which, if interpreted to be due to dust, would correspond to fd (1-3)e-5. Dynamical disc modelling leads to rough mass estimates of the putative Zodi belts around the aCen stars, viz. <~4e-6 MMoon of 4 to 1000 mu size grains, distributed according to n a^-3.5. Similarly, for filled-in Tmin emission, corresponding EKBs could account for ~1e-3 MMoon of dust. Light scattered and/or thermally emitted by exo-Zodi discs will have profound implications for future spectroscopic missions designed to search for biomarkers in the atmospheres of Earth-like planets. The F-IR SED of aCenB is marginally consistent with the presence of a minimum temperature region in the upper atmosphere. We also show that an aCenA-like temperature minimum may result in an erroneous apprehension about the presence of dust around other stars.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2014; 563(2014). · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many planets are known to reside around binaries and the study of young binary systems is crucial to understand their formation. Young ($<10$ Myrs) low-mass binaries are generally surrounded by circumbinary disk with an inner gap. Gas from the disk must cross this gap for accretion to take place and here we present observations of this process as a function of orbital phase. We have obtained time-resolved FUV and NUV spectroscopy (1350 to 3000 A) of DQ Tau and UZ Tau E, using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on-board the Hubble Space Telescope. Each target was observed 2 to 4 times per binary orbit, over three or four consecutive orbits. For DQ Tau, we find some evidence that accretion occurs equally into both binary members, while for UZ Tau E this is not the case. H2 emission for DQ Tau most likely originates within the circumbinary gap, while for UZ Tau E no 1000 K gas is detected within the gap, although magnetospheric accretion does take place.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral types A to M where the stellar inclination is known and can be compared to that of the spatially-resolved dust belts. The discs are found to be well aligned with the stellar equators, as in the case of the Sun's Kuiper belt, and unlike many close-in planets seen in transit surveys. The ensemble of stars here can be fitted with a star-disc tilt of ~<10 degrees. These results suggest that proposed mechanisms for tilting the star or disc in fact operate rarely. A few systems also host imaged planets, whose orbits at tens of AU are aligned with the debris discs, contrary to what might be expected in models where external perturbers induce tilts.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Letters 10/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: At the distance of 99-116 pc, HD141569A is one of the nearest HerbigAe stars that is surrounded by a tenuous disk, probably in transition between a massive primordial disk and a debris disk. We observed the fine-structure lines of OI at 63 and 145 micron and the CII line at 157 micron with the PACS instrument onboard the Herschel Space Telescope as part of the open-time large programme GASPS. We complemented the atomic line observations with archival Spitzer spectroscopic and photometric continuum data, a ground-based VLT-VISIR image at 8.6 micron, and 12CO fundamental ro-vibrational and pure rotational J=3-2 observations. We simultaneously modeled the continuum emission and the line fluxes with the Monte Carlo radiative transfer code MCFOST and the thermo-chemical code ProDiMo to derive the disk gas- and dust properties assuming no dust settling. The models suggest that the oxygen lines are emitted from the inner disk around HD141569A, whereas the [CII] line emission is more extended. The CO submillimeter flux is emitted mostly by the outer disk. Simultaneous modeling of the photometric and line data using a realistic disk structure suggests a dust mass derived from grains with a radius smaller than 1 mm of 2.1E-7 MSun and from grains with a radius of up to 1 cm of 4.9E-6 MSun. We constrained the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) mass to be between 2E-11 and 1..4E-10 MSun assuming circumcircumcoronene (C150H30) as the representative PAH. The associated PAH abundance relative to hydrogen is lower than those found in the interstellar medium (3E-7) by two to three orders of magnitude. The disk around HD141569A is less massive in gas (2.5 to 4.9E-4 MSun or 67 to 164 MEarth) and has a flat opening angle (<10%). [abridged]
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Article: Herschel's
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    ABSTRACT: Infrared excesses associated with debris disk host stars detected so far peak at wavelengths around ~100 μm or shorter. However, 6 out of 31 excess sources studied in the Herschel Open Time Key Programme, DUNES, have been seen to show significant—and in some cases extended—excess emission at 160 μm, which is larger than the 100 μm excess. This excess emission has been attributed to circumstellar dust and has been suggested to stem from debris disks colder than those known previously. Since the excess emission of the cold disk candidates is extremely weak, challenging even the unrivaled sensitivity of Herschel, it is prudent to carefully consider whether some or even all of them may represent unrelated galactic or extragalactic emission, or even instrumental noise. We re-address these issues using several distinct methods and conclude that it is highly unlikely that none of the candidates represents a true circumstellar disk. For true disks, both the dust temperatures inferred from the spectral energy distributions and the disk radii estimated from the images suggest that the dust is nearly as cold as a blackbody. This requires the grains to be larger than ~100 μm, even if they are rich in ices or are composed of any other material with a low absorption in the visible. The dearth of small grains is puzzling, since collisional models of debris disks predict that grains of all sizes down to several times the radiation pressure blowout limit should be present. We explore several conceivable scenarios: transport-dominated disks, disks of low dynamical excitation, and disks of unstirred primordial macroscopic grains. Our qualitative analysis and collisional simulations rule out the first two of these scenarios, but show the feasibility of the third one. We show that such disks can indeed survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. They should be composed of macroscopic solids larger than millimeters, but smaller than a few kilometers in size. If larger planetesimals were present, then they would stir the disk, triggering a collisional cascade and thus causing production of small debris, which is not seen. Thus, planetesimal formation, at least in the outer regions of the systems, has stopped before "cometary" or "asteroidal" sizes were reached.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 772(1):32-. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (abridged) Infrared excesses associated with debris disk host stars detected so far peak at wavelengths around ~100{\mu}m or shorter. However, six out of 31 excess sources in the Herschel OTKP DUNES have been seen to show significant - and in some cases extended - excess emission at 160{\mu}m, which is larger than the 100{\mu}m excess. This excess emission has been suggested to stem from debris disks colder than those known previously. Using several methods, we re-consider whether some or even all of the candidates may be associated with unrelated galactic or extragalactic emission and conclude that it is highly unlikely that none of the candidates represents a true circumstellar disk. For true disks, both the dust temperatures inferred from the SEDs and the disk radii estimated from the images suggest that the dust is nearly as cold as a blackbody. This requires the grains to be larger than ~100{\mu}m, regardless of their material composition. To explain the dearth of small grains, we explore several conceivable scenarios: transport-dominated disks, disks of low dynamical excitation, and disks of unstirred primordial macroscopic grains. Our qualitative analysis and collisional simulations rule out the first two of these scenarios, but show the feasibility of the third one. We show that such disks can survive for gigayears, largely preserving the primordial size distribution. They should be composed of macroscopic solids larger than millimeters, but smaller than kilometers in size. Thus planetesimal formation, at least in the outer regions of the systems, has stopped before "cometary" or "asteroidal" sizes were reached.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 772(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Circumstellar discs are the places where planets form, therefore knowledge of their evolution is crucial for our understanding of planet formation. The Herschel Space Observatory is providing valuable data for studying disc systems, thanks to its sensitivity and wavelength coverage. This paper is one of several devoted to analysing and modelling Herschel-PACS observations of various young stellar associations from the GASPS Open Time Key Programme. Aims. The aim of this paper is to elucidate the gas and dust properties of circumstellar discs in the 10 Myr TW Hya Association (TWA) using new far-infrared (IR) imaging and spectroscopy from Herschel-PACS. Methods. We obtained far-IR photometric data at 70, 100, and 160 microns of 14 TWA members; spectroscopic observations centred on the [OI] line at 63.18 microns were also obtained for 9 of the 14. The new photometry for each star was incorporated into its full spectral energy distribution (SED). Results. We detected excess IR emission that is characteristic of circumstellar discs from five TWA members, and computed upper limits for another nine. Two TWA members (TWA 01 and TWA 04B) also show [OI] emission at 63.18 microns. Discs in the TWA association display a variety of properties, with a wide range of dust masses and inner radii, based on modified blackbody modelling. Both transitional and debris discs are found in the sample. Models for sources with a detected IR excess give dust masses in the range from 0.15 Msun to 63 Msun.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GASPS is a far-infrared line and continuum survey of protoplanetary and young debris disks using PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory. The survey includes [OI] at 63 microns, as well as 70, 100 and 160um continuum, with the brightest objects also studied in [OI]145um, [CII]157um, H2O and CO. Targets included T Tauri stars and debris disks in 7 nearby young associations, and a sample of isolated Herbig AeBe stars. The aim was to study the global gas and dust content in a wide disk sample, systemically comparing the results with models. In this paper we review the main aims, target selection and observing strategy. We show initial results, including line identifications, sources detected, and a first statistical study. [OI]63um was the brightest line in most objects, by a factor of ~10. Detection rates were 49%, including 100% of HAeBe stars and 43% of T Tauri stars. Comparison with published dust masses show a dust threshold for [OI]63um detection of ~1e-5 M_solar. Normalising to 140pc distance, 32% with mass 1e-6 - 1e-5 M_solar, and a small number with lower mass were also detected. This is consistent with moderate UV excess and disk flaring. In most cases, continuum and line emission is spatially and spectrally unresolved, suggesting disk emission. ~10 objects were resolved, likely from outflows. Detection rates in [OI]145um, [CII]157um and CO J=18-17 were 20-40%, but [CII] was not correlated with disk mass, suggesting it arises instead from a compact envelope. [OI] detection rates in T Tauri associations of ages 0.3-4Myr were ~50%. ~2 stars were detectable in associations of 5-20Myr, with no detections in associations of age >20Myr. Comparing with the total number of young stars, and assuming a ISM-like gas/dust ratio, this indicates that ~18% of stars retain a gas-rich disk of total mass >1M_Jupiter for 1-4Myr, 1-7% keep such disks for 5-10Myr, and none remain beyond 10-20Myr.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 06/2013; 125(927). · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, largely as part of the "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems" (GASPS) Open Time Key Programme. Disk dust emission is detected in images at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 \mu m; 49 Cet is significantly extended in the 70 \mu m image, spatially resolving the outer dust disk for the first time. Spectra covering small wavelength ranges centered on eight atomic and molecular emission lines were obtained, including [OI] 63 \mu m and [CII] 158 \mu m. The CII line was detected at the 5\sigma\ level - the first detection of atomic emission from the disk. No other emission lines were seen, despite the fact that the OI line is the brightest one observed in Herschel protoplanetary disk spectra (Meeus et al. 2012; Dent et al. 2013). We present an estimate of the amount of circumstellar atomic gas implied by the CII emission. The new far-IR/sub-mm data fills in a large gap in the previous spectral energy distribution (SED) of 49 Cet. A simple model of the new SED confirms the two-component structure of the disk: warm inner dust and cold outer dust that produces most of the observed excess. Finally, we discuss preliminary thermochemical modeling of the 49 Cet gas/dust disk and our attempts to match several observational results simultaneously. Although we are not yet successful in doing so, our investigations shed light on the evolutionary status of the 49 Cet gas, which might not be primordial gas but rather secondary gas coming from comets.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 771(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • VizieR Online Data Catalog. 05/2013; 355:59011.
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    ABSTRACT: Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system's counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems. We used {\it Herschel}/PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 $\mu$m were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 $\mu$m, and at 250, 350 and 500 $\mu$m using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 $\mu$m to detect the stellar photosphere. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of $\sim$ 12.1% $\pm$ 5% before \emph{Herschel} to $\sim$ 20.2% $\pm$ 2%. A significant fraction ($\sim$ 52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70-160$\mu$m range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 05/2013; 555. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For Classical T Tauri Stars (CTTSs), the resonance lines of N V, Si IV, and C IV, as well as the He II 1640 A line, act as diagnostics of the accretion process. Here we assemble a large high-resolution dataset of these lines in CTTSs and Weak T Tauri Stars (WTTSs). We present data for 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. We decompose the C IV and He II lines into broad and narrow Gaussian components (BC & NC). The most common (50 %) C IV line morphology in CTTSs is that of a low-velocity NC together with a redshifted BC. The velocity centroids of the BCs and NCs are such that V_BC > 4 * V_NC, consistent with the predictions of the accretion shock model, in at most 12 out of 22 CTTSs. We do not find evidence of the post-shock becoming buried in the stellar photosphere due to the pressure of the accretion flow. The He II CTTSs lines are generally symmetric and narrow, less redshifted than the CTTSs C IV lines, by ~10 km/sec. The flux in the BC of the He II line is small compared to that of the C IV line, consistent with models of the pre-shock column emission. The observations are consistent with the presence of multiple accretion columns with different densities or with accretion models that predict a slow-moving, low-density region in the periphery of the accretion column. For HN Tau A and RW Aur A, most of the C IV line is blueshifted suggesting that the C IV emission is produced by shocks within outflow jets. In our sample, the Herbig Ae star DX Cha is the only object for which we find a P-Cygni profile in the C IV line, which argues for the presence of a hot (10^5 K) wind. For the overall sample, the Si IV and N V line luminosities are correlated with the C IV line luminosities, although the relationship between Si IV and C IV shows large scatter about a linear relationship and suggests that TW Hya, V4046 Sgr, AA Tau, DF Tau, GM Aur, and V1190 Sco are silicon-poor.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 04/2013; 207(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Transitional disks are circumstellar disks with inner holes that in some cases are produced by planets and/or substellar companions in these systems. For this reason, these disks are extremely important for the study of planetary system formation. Aims. The Herschel Space Observatory provides an unique opportunity for studying the outer regions of protoplanetary disks. In this work we update previous knowledge on the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon I and II regions with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods. We propose a new method for transitional disk classification based on the WISE 12 µm − PACS 70 µm color, together with inspection of the Herschel images. We applied this method to the population of Class II sources in the Chamaeleon region and studied the spectral energy distributions of the transitional disks in the sample. We also built the median spectral energy distribution of Class II objects in these regions for comparison with transitional disks. Results. The proposed method allows a clear separation of the known transitional disks from the Class II sources. We find six transitional disks, all previously known, and identify five objects previously thought to be transitional as possibly non-transitional. We find higher fluxes at the PACS wavelengths in the sample of transitional disks than those of Class II objects. Conclusions. We show the Herschel 70 µm band to be a robust and efficient tool for transitional disk identification. The sensitivity and spatial resolution of Herschel reveals a significant contamination level among the previously identified transitional disk candidates for the two regions, which calls for a revision of previous samples of transitional disks in other regions. The systematic excess found at the PACS bands could be either a result of the mechanism that produces the transitional phase, or an indication of different evolutionary paths for transitional disks and Class II sources.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze the accretion properties of 21 low mass T Tauri stars using a dataset of contemporaneous near ultraviolet (NUV) through optical observations obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the ground based Small and Medium Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS), a unique dataset because of the nearly simultaneous broad wavelength coverage. Our dataset includes accreting T Tauri stars (CTTS) in Taurus, Chamaeleon I, $\eta$ Chamaeleon and the TW Hydra Association. For each source we calculate the accretion rate by fitting the NUV and optical excesses above the photosphere, produced in the accretion shock, introducing multiple accretion components characterized by a range in energy flux (or density) for the first time. This treatment is motivated by models of the magnetospheric geometry and accretion footprints, which predict that high density, low filling factor accretion spots co-exist with low density, high filling factor spots. By fitting the UV and optical spectra with multiple accretion components, we can explain excesses which have been observed in the near infrared. Comparing our estimates of the accretion rate to previous estimates, we find some discrepancies; however, they may be accounted for when considering assumptions for the amount of extinction and variability in optical spectra. Therefore, we confirm many previous estimates of the accretion rate. Finally, we measure emission line luminosities from the same spectra used for the accretion rate estimates, to produce correlations between accretion indicators (H$\beta$, Ca II K, C II] and Mg II) and accretion properties obtained simultaneously.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 767(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the energy transfer to these heated atmospheric layers requires direct access to the relevant empirical data. Study of these structures has, by and large, been limited to the Sun thus far. Aims: The region of the temperature reversal can be directly observed only in the far infrared and submillimetre spectral regime. We aim at determining the characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of the temperature minimum of the solar sister star α Cen A. As a bonus this will also provide a detailed mapping of the spectral energy distribution, i.e. knowledge that is crucial when searching for faint, Kuiper belt-like dust emission around other stars. Methods: For the nearby binary system α Cen, stellar parameters are known with high accuracy from measurements. For the basic model parameters Teff, log g and [Fe/H], we interpolate stellar model atmospheres in the grid of Gaia/PHOENIX and compute the corresponding model for the G2 V star α Cen A. Comparison with photometric measurements shows excellent agreement between observed photospheric data in the optical and infrared. For longer wavelengths, the modelled spectral energy distribution is compared to Spitzer-MIPS, Herschel-PACS, Herschel-SPIRE, and APEX-LABOCA photometry. A specifically tailored Uppsala model based on the MARCS code and extending further in wavelength is used to gauge the emission characteristics of α Cen A in the far infared. Results: Similar to the Sun, the far infrared (FIR) emission of α Cen A originates in the minimum temperature region above the stellar photosphere in the visible. However, in comparison with the solar case, the FIR photosphere of α Cen A appears marginally cooler, Tmin ~ T160 μm = 3920 ± 375 K. Beyond the minimum near 160 μm, the brightness temperatures increase, and this radiation very likely originates in warmer regions of the chromosphere of α Cen A. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a temperature minimum has been directly measured on a main-sequence star other than the Sun. Based on observations with Herschel, which is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by the European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; 549:L7. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe observations of the hot gas 1e5 K) ultraviolet lines C IV and He II, in Classical and Weak T Tauri Stars (CTTSs, WTTSs). Our goal is to provide observational constraints for realistic models. Most of the data for this work comes from the Hubble proposal “The Disks, Accretion, and Outflows (DAO) of T Tau stars” (PI Herczeg). The DAO program is the largest and most sensitive high resolution spectroscopic survey of young stars in the UV ever undertaken and it provides a rich source of information for these objects. The sample of high resolution COS and STIS spectra presented here comprises 35 stars: one Herbig Ae star, 28 CTTSs, and 6 WTTSs. For CTTSs, the lines consist of two kinematic components. The relative strengths of the narrow and broad components (NC, BC) are similar in C IV but in He II the NC is stronger than the BC, and dominates the line profile. We do not find correlations between disk inclination and the velocity centroid, width, or shape of the CIV line profile. The NC of the C IV line in CTTSs increases in strength with accretion rate, and its contribution to the line increases from ˜20% to ˜80%, for the accretion rates considered here (1e-10 to 1e-7 Msun/yr). The CTTSs C IV lines are redshifted by ˜20 km/s while the CTTSs He II are redshifted by ˜10 km/s. Because the He II line and the C IV NC have the same width in CTTSs and in WTTSs, but are correlated with accretion, we suggest that they are produced in the stellar transition region. The accretion shock model predicts that the velocity of the post-shock emission should be 4x smaller than the velocity of the pre-shock emission. Identifying the post-shock emission with the NC and the pre-shock with the BC, we find that this is approximately the case in 11 out of 23 objects. The model cannot explain 11 systems in which the velocity of the NC is smaller than the velocity of the BC, or systems in which one of the velocities is negative (five CTTSs). The hot gas lines in some systems such as HN Tau, RW Aur A, AK Sco, DK Tau, T Tau N, and V1190 Sco require an outflow contribution, which may come from jet shocks in the observed outflows. We suggest that a hot wind is being launched by the Herbig Ae star DX Cha.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Fomalhaut, beta Pic, and HR 8799 systems each have directly imaged planets and prominent debris disks, suggesting a direct link between the two phenomena. Unbiased surveys with Spitzer, however, failed to find a statistically significant correlation. We present results from SKARPS (the Search for Kuiper belts Around Radial-velocity Planet Stars) a Herschel far-IR survey for debris disks around solar-type stars known to have orbiting planets. The identified disks are generally cold and distant 50 K/100 AU), i.e. well separated from the radial-velocity-discovered planets. Nevertheless, we find a strong correlation between the inner planets and outer disks, with disks around planet-bearing stars tending to be much brighter than those not known to have planets.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the energy transfer to these heated atmospheric layers requires direct access to the relevant empirical data. Study of these structures has, by and large, been limited to the Sun thus far. The region of the temperature reversal can be directly observed only in the far infrared and submm. We aim at the determination of the characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of the temperature minimum of the solar sister star alpha Cen A. For the nearby binary system alpha Centauri, stellar parameters are known with high accuracy from measurements. For the basic model parameters Teff, log g and [Fe/H], we interpolate in the grid of GAIA/PHOENIX stellar model atmospheres and compute the corresponding model for the G2 V star alpha Cen A. Comparison with photometric measurements shows excellent agreement between observed photospheric data in the optical and infrared. For longer wavelengths, the modelled spectral energy distribution is compared to MIPS, PACS, SPIRE and LABOCA photometry. A specifically tailored Uppsala model based on the MARCS code and extending further in wavelength is used to gauge the emission characteristics of alpha Cen A in the FIR. Similar to the Sun, the FIR emission of alpha Cen A originates in the minimum temperature region above the stellar photosphere in the visible. However, in comparison with the solar case, the FIR photosphere of alpha Cen A appears marginally cooler, Tmin=T160mu=3920+/-375 K. Beyond the minimum near 160mu, the brightness temperatures increase and this radiation likely originates in warmer regions of the chromosphere of alpha Cen A. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a temperature minimum has been directly measured on a main-sequence star other than the Sun.
    12/2012;

Publication Stats

946 Citations
463.35 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • California Institute of Technology
      • • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      • • Spitzer Science Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, CA, United States