[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The increasing frequency of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis represents a concern for the safety of the US blood supply. The agent responsible for the disease, the intraerythrocytic parasite Babesia microti, is naturally transmitted to humans by a tick bite and is endemic in areas of the Northeast and Upper Midwest United States. In this study, we explored B. microti seroprevalence in blood donors from different areas of Minnesota (MN). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested 2150 blood donors in MN for the presence of antibodies against B. microti using an immunofluorescent assay (IFA). Donors identified as positive (≥64) were also tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of parasite DNA. Seropositive donors were contacted by phone and asked questions regarding tick exposure. Donors positive by IFA were indefinitely deferred from donating blood. RESULTS: A total of 2150 donations were tested between October 2010 and November 2011. Forty-two donors (2.0%) were positive by IFA and one was also PCR positive. All positive donors reported extended outdoor activities, 12 recalled finding ticks on their body, and six had flu-like symptoms since their last blood draw. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new data about B. microti seroprevalence in MN blood donors. Possibly because the targeted collection areas were mostly expected to be endemic for the parasite, the observed seroprevalence levels were higher than expected, although the geographic distribution of positive donors did not completely overlap with the distribution of reported clinical cases in MN.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eleven perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) were analyzed in plasma from a total of 600 American Red Cross adult blood donors from six locations in 2010. The samples were extracted by protein precipitation and quantified by using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). The anions of the three perfluorosulfonic acids measured were perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). The anions of the eight perfluorocarboxylic acids were perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA). Findings were compared to results from different donor samples analyzed at the same locations collected in 2000-2001 (N = 645 serum samples) and 2006 (N = 600 plasma samples). Most measurements in 2010 were less than the lower limit of quantitation for PFBS, PFPeA, PFHxA, and PFDoA. For the remaining analytes, the geometric mean concentrations (ng/mL) in 2000-2001, 2006, and 2010 were, respectively, PFHxS: (2.25, 1.52, 1.34); PFOS (34.9, 14.5, 8.3); PFHpA (0.13, 0.09, 0.05); PFOA (4.70, 3.44, 2.44); PFNA (0.57, 0.97, 0.83); PFDA (0.16, 0.34, 0.27), and PFUnA (0.10, 0.18, 0.14). The percentage decline (parentheses) in geometric mean concentrations from 2000-2001 to 2010 were PFHxS (40%), PFOS (76%), and PFOA (48%). The decline in PFOS suggested a population halving time of 4.3 years. This estimate is comparable to the geometric mean serum elimination half-life of 4.8 years reported in individuals. This similarity supports the conclusion that the dominant PFOS-related exposures to humans in the United States were greatly mitigated during the phase-out period.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration trends of a nine-target-analyte homologous series of perfluorocarboxylates from six American Red Cross adult blood donor centers. A total of 645 serum and 600 plasma samples were obtained in 2000-2001 and 2006, respectively, with samples stratified for each 10-year (20-69) age- and sex-group per each location. Samples were extracted by protein precipitation and quantified by using tandem mass spectrometry. The nine perfluorocarboxylates were perfluorobutanoate (PFBA, C(3)F(7)CO(2)(-)), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA, C(4)F(9)CO(2)(-)), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA, C(5)F(11)CO(2)(-)), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA, C(6)F(13)CO(2)(-)), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA, C(7)F(15)CO(2)(-)), perfluorononanoate (PFNA, C(8)F(17)CO(2)(-)), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA, C(9)F(19)CO(2)(-)), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnA,C(10)F(21)CO(2)(-)), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoA, C(11)F(23)CO(2)(-)). The majority of measurements were less than the lower limit of quantitation for PFPeA, PFHxA, and PFDoA. For the remaining targeted analytes, the geometric mean serum and plasma concentrations (ng/mL) for 2000-2001 and 2006 were, respectively, as follows: PFBA 2.61 vs 0.33, PFHpA 0.13 vs 0.09, PFOA 4.70 vs 3.44, PFNA 0.57 vs 0.97, PFDA 0.16 vs 0.34, and PFUnA 0.10 vs 0.18. Estimates of the 95th percent tolerance limits (ng/mL) were as follows: PFBA 5.3 vs 1.4, PFHpA 0.4 vs 0.4, PFOA 12.3 vs 7.7, PFNA 1.4 vs 2.2, PFDA 0.4 vs 0.8, and PFUnA 0.3 vs 0.5. Important observations were the decline in PFBA and increase in PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnA concentrations between 2000-2001 and 2006. The longer chain length perfluorocarboxylates were also highly correlated with each other.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a donor survey to assess the occurrence of facial flushing and other symptoms during automated 2-U red cell collections (2RBC) and plateletpheresis (PLT) procedures and evaluated the possible association of the reactions with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or with the collection technology.
An online survey was developed using Zoomerang to capture details of the donors' experience and medication use after 2RBC or PLT donations in regional blood centers of the American Red Cross.
Between 12/16/09 and 4/19/10, 1,299 donors in five American Red Cross blood center regions completed an online survey (739 2RBC, 4.2% total registrations; 560 PLT, 2.3% total registrations). Facial flushing was reported by 29 donors, and was more likely associated with 2RBC than PLT procedures (3.0% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.03). Facial flushing with 2RBC donation was reported by eight of 72 (11%) donors on ACE inhibitors; and 14 of 667 (2%) donors who were not taking ACE inhibitors (P = 0.001). The incidence of facial flushing reactions with PLT donation was less than 2% whether donors reported ACEI inhibitor use or not. More than 95% of the donors reported their intent to donate again, regardless of symptoms.
Facial flushing was more often reported by 2RBC donors taking ACE inhibitors than other donors [11% vs. 2%; P = 0.001]; and was uncommon among PLT donors, irrespective of ACE inhibitor use (<2%). All blood donors should be informed of the potential for common, minor side effects of the collection procedure and the possible but rare occurrence of more medically serious complications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Septic transfusion reactions to apheresis platelets (PLTs) continue to occur despite preventive measures. This study evaluated the effect of two operational changes designed to reduce bacterial risk: 1) introducing inlet-line sample diversion on two-arm procedures and 2) increasing the sample volume cultured from 4 to 8 mL from all donations.
Aerobic culture results and septic transfusion reactions reported between December 1, 2006, and July 31, 2008 (Period 2), were compared to March 1, 2004, to May 31, 2006 (Period 1).
During Period 2, a total of 781,936 apheresis PLT collections were cultured, of which 130 donations (1:6015) were confirmed positive and 9 (1:86,882) had negative culture results but were associated with 11 septic reactions. Confirmed-positive cultures from two-arm procedures decreased (27.2 to 14.7 per 105 collections; odds ratio [OR], 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.70) in Period 2, owing to a lower rate of skin flora contamination. Detection of contamination of one-arm collections significantly increased by 54% in Period 2 (13.7 vs. 21.1 per 105 collections; OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.05-2.27). Fewer septic transfusion reactions occurred in Period 2, but the difference did not reach significance (1.7 vs. 1.2 per 105 donations; OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.30-1.53).
Inlet-line diversion decreased bacterial contamination during two-arm collections by more than 46%. Concurrently, doubling the sample volume was associated with a 54% relative increase in culture sensitivity. These interventions act cooperatively to decrease bacterial risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2000, 3M Company, the primary global manufacturer, announced a phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF, C8F17SO2F)-based materials after perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) was reported in human populations and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PFOS and other polyfluoroalkyl concentrations in plasma samples, collected in 2006 from six American Red Cross adult blood donor centers, have declined compared to nonpaired serum samples from the same locations in 2000-2001. For each location, 100 samples were obtained evenly distributed by age (20-69 years) and sex. Analytes measured, using tandem mass spectrometry, were PFOS, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH). The geometric mean plasma concentrations were for PFOS 14.5 ng/mL (95% CI 13.9-15.2), PFOA 3.4 ng/ mL (95% CI 3.3-3.6), and PFHxS 1.5 ng/mL (95% CI 1.4-1.6). The majority of PFBS, Me-PFOSA-AcOH, and Et-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations were less than the lower limit of quantitation. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric means were lower in 2006 (approximately 60% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, and 30% for PFHxS) than those in 2000-2001. The declines for PFOS and PFHxS are consistent with their serum elimination half-lives and the time since the phase-out of POSF-based materials. The shorter serum elimination half-life for PFOA and its smaller percentage decline than PFOS suggests PFOA concentrations measured in the general population are unlikely to be solely attributed to POSF-based materials. Direct and indirect exposure sources of PFOA could include historic and ongoing electrochemical cell fluorination (ECF) of PFOA, telomer production of PFOA, fluorotelomer-based precursors, and other fluoropoly-mer production.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS,C(8)F(17)SO(3)(-)) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA,C(7)F(15)CO(2)(-)) concentrations in American Red Cross blood donors from Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota have declined after the 2000-2002 phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl-fluoride (POSF, C(8)F(17)SO(2)F)-based materials by the primary global manufacturer, 3M Company. Forty donor plasma samples, categorized by age and sex, were collected in 2005, and PFOS and PFOA concentrations were compared to 100 (non-paired) donor serum samples collected in 2000 from the same general population that were analyzed at the time using ion-pair extraction methods with tetrahydroperfluorooctanesulfonate as an internal standard. Eleven of the 100 samples originally collected were reanalyzed with present study methods that involved (13)C- labeled PFOA spiked into the donor samples, original samples, control human plasma, and the calibration curve prior to extraction, and was used as a surrogate to monitor extraction efficiency. Quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. Among the 100 serum samples analyzed for PFOS, the geometric mean was 33.1 ng ml(-1) (95% CI 29.8-36.7) in 2000 compared to 15.1 ng ml(-1) (95% CI 13.3-17.1) in 2005 (p<0.0001) for the 40 donor plasma samples. The geometric mean concentration for PFOA was 4.5 ng ml(-1) (95% CI 4.1-5.0) in 2000 compared to 2.2 ng ml(-1) (95% CI 1.9-2.6) in 2005 (p<0.0001). The decrease was consistent across donors' age and sex. To confirm these preliminary findings, additional sub-sets of year 2000 samples will be analyzed, and a much larger biomonitoring study of other locations is planned.