David J Stone

Merck, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, United States

Are you David J Stone?

Claim your profile

Publications (21)123.45 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Using expression profiles from postmortem prefrontal cortex samples of 624 dementia patients and non-demented controls, we investigated global disruptions in the co-regulation of genes in two neurodegenerative diseases, late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD). We identified networks of differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs that either gained or lost correlation in disease cases relative to the control group, with the former dominant for both AD and HD and both patterns replicating in independent human cohorts of AD and aging. When aligning networks of DC patterns and physical interactions, we identified a 242-gene subnetwork enriched for independent AD/HD signatures. This subnetwork revealed a surprising dichotomy of gained/lost correlations among two inter-connected processes, chromatin organization and neural differentiation, and included DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3A, of which we predicted the former but not latter as a key regulator. To validate the inter-connection of these two processes and our key regulator prediction, we generated two brain-specific knockout (KO) mice and show that Dnmt1 KO signature significantly overlaps with the subnetwork (P = 3.1 × 10−12), while Dnmt3a KO signature does not (P = 0.017).
    Molecular Systems Biology 07/2014; 10(7). · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The genetics of complex disease produce alterations in the molecular interactions of cellular pathways whose collective effect may become clear through the organized structure of molecular networks. To characterize molecular systems associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), we constructed gene-regulatory networks in 1,647 postmortem brain tissues from LOAD patients and nondemented subjects, and we demonstrate that LOAD reconfigures specific portions of the molecular interaction structure. Through an integrative network-based approach, we rank-ordered these network structures for relevance to LOAD pathology, highlighting an immune- and microglia-specific module that is dominated by genes involved in pathogen phagocytosis, contains TYROBP as a key regulator, and is upregulated in LOAD. Mouse microglia cells overexpressing intact or truncated TYROBP revealed expression changes that significantly overlapped the human brain TYROBP network. Thus the causal network structure is a useful predictor of response to gene perturbations and presents a framework to test models of disease mechanisms underlying LOAD.
    Cell 04/2013; 153(3):707-720. · 31.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previously, we showed that transient inhibition of TGF- β1 resulted in correction of key aspects of diabetes-induced CD34(+) cell dysfunction. In this report, we examine the effect of transient inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major gene target of TGF-β1 activation. Using gene array studies, we examined CD34(+) cells isolated from a cohort of longstanding diabetic individuals, free of microvascular complications despite suboptimal glycemic control, and found that the cells exhibited reduced transcripts of both TGF-β1 and PAI-1 compared to age, sex, and degree of glycemic control-matched diabetic individuals with microvascular complications. CD34(+) cells from diabetic subjects with microvascular complications consistently exhibited higher PAI-1 mRNA than age-matched non-diabetic controls. TGF- β1 phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligo (PMO) reduced PAI-1 mRNA in diabetic (p<0.01) and non-diabetic (p=0.05) CD34(+) cells. To reduce PAI-1 in human CD34(+) cells, we utilized PAI-1 siRNA, lentivirus expressing PAI-1 shRNA or PAI-1 PMO. We found that inhibition of PAI-1 promoted CD34(+) cell proliferation and migration in vitro, likely through increased PI3(K) activity and increased cGMP production. Using a retinal ischemia reperfusion injury model in mice, we observed that recruitment of diabetic CD34(+) cells to injured acellular retinal capillaries was greater after PAI-1-PMO treatment compared with control PMO-treated cells. Targeting PAI-1 offers a promising therapeutic strategy for restoring vascular reparative function in defective diabetic progenitors.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79067. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pharmaceutical industry is spending increasingly large amounts of money on the discovery and development of novel medicines, but this investment is not adequately paying off in an increased rate of newly approved drugs by the FDA. The post-genomic era has provided a wealth of novel approaches for generating large, high-dimensional genetic and transcriptomic data sets from large cohorts of preclinical species as well as normal and diseased individuals. This systems biology approach to understanding disease-related biology is revolutionizing our understanding of the cellular pathways and gene networks underlying the onset of disease, and the mechanisms of pharmacological treatments that ameliorate disease phenotypes. In this article, we review a number of approaches being used by pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies, e.g., high-throughput DNA genotyping, sequencing, and genome-wide gene expression profiling, to enable drug discovery and development through the identification of new drug targets and biomarkers of disease progression, drug pharmacodynamics, and predictive markers for selecting the patients most likely to respond to therapy.
    Current topics in microbiology and immunology 08/2012; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide transcriptional profiling was used to characterize the molecular underpinnings of neocortical organization in rhesus macaque, including cortical areal specialization and laminar cell-type diversity. Microarray analysis of individual cortical layers across sensorimotor and association cortices identified robust and specific molecular signatures for individual cortical layers and areas, prominently involving genes associated with specialized neuronal function. Overall, transcriptome-based relationships were related to spatial proximity, being strongest between neighboring cortical areas and between proximal layers. Primary visual cortex (V1) displayed the most distinctive gene expression compared to other cortical regions in rhesus and human, both in the specialized layer 4 as well as other layers. Laminar patterns were more similar between macaque and human compared to mouse, as was the unique V1 profile that was not observed in mouse. These data provide a unique resource detailing neocortical transcription patterns in a nonhuman primate with great similarity in gene expression to human.
    Neuron 03/2012; 73(6):1083-99. · 15.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) and cause both autosomal dominant familial and sporadic PD. Currently, the physiological and pathogenic activities of LRRK2 are poorly understood. To decipher the biological functions of LRRK2, including the genes and pathways modulated by LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo, we assayed genome-wide mRNA expression in the brain and peripheral tissues from LRRK2 knockout (KO) and kinase hyperactive G2019S (G2019S) transgenic mice. Subtle but significant differences in mRNA expression were observed relative to wild-type (WT) controls in the cortex, striatum and kidney of KO animals, but only in the striatum in the G2019S model. In contrast, robust, consistent and highly significant differences were identified by the direct comparison of KO and G2019S profiles in the cortex, striatum, kidney and muscle, indicating opposite effects on mRNA expression by the two models relative to WT. Ribosomal and glycolytic biological functions were consistently and significantly up-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S compared with LRRK2 KO tissues. Genes involved in membrane-bound organelles, oxidative phosphorylation, mRNA processing and the endoplasmic reticulum were down-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S mice compared with KO. We confirmed the expression patterns of 35 LRRK2-regulated genes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These findings provide the first description of the transcriptional responses to genetically modified LRRK2 activity and provide preclinical target engagement and/or pharmacodynamic biomarker strategies for LRRK2 and may inform future therapeutic strategies for LRRK2-associated PD.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2012; 21(1):163-74. · 7.69 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder that diverges from the process of normal brain aging by unknown mechanisms. We analyzed the global structure of age- and disease-dependent gene expression patterns in three regions from more than 600 brains. Gene expression variation could be almost completely explained by four transcriptional biomarkers that we named BioAge (biological age), Alz (Alzheimer), Inflame (inflammation), and NdStress (neurodegenerative stress). BioAge captures the first principal component of variation and includes genes statistically associated with neuronal loss, glial activation, and lipid metabolism. Normally BioAge increases with chronological age, but in AD it is prematurely expressed as if some of the subjects were 140 years old. A component of BioAge, Lipa, contains the AD risk factor APOE and reflects an apparent early disturbance in lipid metabolism. The rate of biological aging in AD patients, which cannot be explained by BioAge, is associated instead with NdStress, which includes genes related to protein folding and metabolism. Inflame, comprised of inflammatory cytokines and microglial genes, is broadly activated and appears early in the disease process. In contrast, the disease-specific biomarker Alz was selectively present only in the affected areas of the AD brain, appears later in pathogenesis, and is enriched in genes associated with the signaling and cell adhesion changes during the epithelial to mesenchymal (EMT) transition. Together these biomarkers provide detailed description of the aging process and its contribution to Alzheimer's disease progression.
    PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(12):e29610. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synaptic degeneration, including impairment of synaptic plasticity and loss of synapses, is an important feature of Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that these degenerative synaptic changes are associated with an accumulation of soluble oligomeric assemblies of amyloid beta (Abeta) known as ADDLs. In primary hippocampal cultures ADDLs bind to a subpopulation of neurons. However the molecular basis of this cell type-selective interaction is not understood. Here, using siRNA screening technology, we identified alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits and calcineurin as candidate genes potentially involved in ADDL-neuron interactions. Immunocolocalization experiments confirmed that ADDL binding occurs in dendritic spines that express surface AMPA receptors, particularly the calcium-impermeable type II AMPA receptor subunit (GluR2). Pharmacological removal of the surface AMPA receptors or inhibition of AMPA receptors with antagonists reduces ADDL binding. Furthermore, using co-immunoprecipitation and photoreactive amino acid cross-linking, we found that ADDLs interact preferentially with GluR2-containing complexes. We demonstrate that calcineurin mediates an endocytotic process that is responsible for the rapid internalization of bound ADDLs along with surface AMPA receptor subunits, which then both colocalize with cpg2, a molecule localized specifically at the postsynaptic endocytic zone of excitatory synapses that plays an important role in activity-dependent glutamate receptor endocytosis. Both AMPA receptor and calcineurin inhibitors prevent oligomer-induced surface AMPAR and spine loss. These results support a model of disease pathogenesis in which Abeta oligomers interact selectively with neurotransmission pathways at excitatory synapses, resulting in synaptic loss via facilitated endocytosis. Validation of this model in human disease would identify therapeutic targets for Alzheimer disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(10):7619-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synaptic degeneration, including impairment of synaptic plasticity and loss of synapses, is an important feature of Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that these degenerative synaptic changes are associated with an accumulation of soluble oligomeric assemblies of amyloid β (Aβ) known as ADDLs. In primary hippocampal cultures ADDLs bind to a subpopulation of neurons. However the molecular basis of this cell type-selective interaction is not understood. Here, using siRNA screening technology, we identified α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunits and calcineurin as candidate genes potentially involved in ADDL-neuron interactions. Immunocolocalization experiments confirmed that ADDL binding occurs in dendritic spines that express surface AMPA receptors, particularly the calcium-impermeable type II AMPA receptor subunit (GluR2). Pharmacological removal of the surface AMPA receptors or inhibition of AMPA receptors with antagonists reduces ADDL binding. Furthermore, using co-immunoprecipitation and photoreactive amino acid cross-linking, we found that ADDLs interact preferentially with GluR2-containing complexes. We demonstrate that calcineurin mediates an endocytotic process that is responsible for the rapid internalization of bound ADDLs along with surface AMPA receptor subunits, which then both colocalize with cpg2, a molecule localized specifically at the postsynaptic endocytic zone of excitatory synapses that plays an important role in activity-dependent glutamate receptor endocytosis. Both AMPA receptor and calcineurin inhibitors prevent oligomer-induced surface AMPAR and spine loss. These results support a model of disease pathogenesis in which Aβ oligomers interact selectively with neurotransmission pathways at excitatory synapses, resulting in synaptic loss via facilitated endocytosis. Validation of this model in human disease would identify therapeutic targets for Alzheimer disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(10):7619-7632. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Convection enhanced delivery of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to the rat striatum results in a model of Parkinson's disease. An important feature of this unilateral model is the progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons over the course of several weeks. To improve the understanding of this model, gene expression changes in the substantia nigra, which contains the DA neuron cell bodies, and the striatum, which contains the DA neuron synaptic terminals, were examined using DNA microarrays. Samples were collected and behavior was analyzed from vehicle and toxin treated animals at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks and 4 weeks following 6-OHDA treatment. Tissue DA content was determined and samples from animals which exhibited a substantial depletion of striatal DA were included in the subsequent gene expression analysis. The results of the gene expression analysis indicated that 6-OHDA elicits a vigorous inflammatory response, comprised of several distinct pathways, in the striatum at the earliest time point tested. In contrast, relatively few gene expression changes were observed in the SN at the 3-day time point. In both tissues examined there was evidence for a vigorous inflammatory response at the 1- and 2-week time points, which was substantially diminished by the 4-week time point. Inflammation plays a prominent role in the 6-OHDA model of Parkinson's disease.
    Neurochemical Research 02/2010; 35(5):761-72. · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Cerebrospinal Fluid Research 01/2010; · 1.81 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2010; 6(4).
  • David J. Stone, Cliona Molony, William Z. Potter
    Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2010; 6(4).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Synaptic degeneration, including impairment of synaptic plasticity and loss of synapses, is an important feature of Alzheimer′s disease (AD) pathogenesis. Increasing evidence suggests that these degenerative synaptic changes are associated with accumulation of soluble oligomeric assemblies of Aβ (ADDLs). In primary hippocampal cultures ADDLs bind to a subpopulation of neurons. However the molecular basis of this cell-type selective interaction is not understood. Here, using siRNA screening technology, we identified AMPA receptor subunits and calcineurin as candidate genes potentially involved in ADDL-neuronal interactions. Immunocolocalization experiments confirmed that ADDL binding occurs in dendritic spines that express surface AMPA receptors, particularly the calcium impermeable type II AMPA receptor subunit (GluR2). Pharmacological removal of the surface AMPA receptors or inhibition of AMPA receptor with antagonists reduce ADDL binding. Furthermore, using coimmunoprecipitation and photoreactive amino acid crosslinking, we found that ADDLs preferentially interact with GluR2-containing complexes. We demonstrate that calcineurin mediates an endocytotic process that is responsible for rapid internalization of bound ADDLs along with surface AMPAR subunits, which then both colocalize with cpg2, a molecule localized specifically at the postsynaptic endocytic zone of excitatory synapses tha plays an important role in activity-dependent glutamate receptor endocytosis. Both AMPA receptor and calcineurin inhibitors prevent oligomer-induced surface AMPAR and spine loss. These results support a model of disease pathogenesis in which Aβ oligomers selectively interact with neurotransmission pathways at excitatory synapses resulting in synaptic loss via facilitated endocytosis. Validation of this model in human disease would identify therapeutic targets for AD.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2009; · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • The Pharmacogenomics Journal 12/2009; 10(3):161-4. · 5.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Powerful new approaches to study molecular variation in distinct neuronal populations have recently been developed enabling a more precise investigation of the control of neural circuits involved in complex behaviors such as wake and sleep. We applied laser capture microdissection (LCM) to isolate precise brain nuclei from rat CNS at opposing circadian time points associated with wake and sleep. Discrete anatomical and temporal analysis was performed to examine the extent of variation in the transcriptional control associated with both identifiable anatomical nuclei and with light/dark cycle. Precise isolation of specific brain nuclei regulating sleep and arousal, including the LC, SCN, TMN, VTA, and VLPO, demonstrated robust changes in gene expression. Many of these differences were not observed in previous studies where whole brain lysates or gross dissections were used to probe for changes in gene expression. The robust and differential profiles of genomic data obtained from the approaches used herein underscore the requirement for careful anatomical refinement in CNS gene expression studies designed to understand genomic control within behaviorally-linked, but functionally isolated brain nuclei.
    Brain research 04/2009; 1271:1-17. · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Alzheimers & Dementia - ALZHEIMERS DEMENT. 01/2008; 4(4).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The availability of genome-wide RNAi libraries has enabled researchers to rapidly assess the functions of thousands of genes; however the fact that these screens are run in living biological systems add complications above and beyond that normally seen in high-throughput screening (HTS). Specifically, error due to variance in both measurement and biology are large in such screens, leading to the conclusion that the majority of "hits" are expected to be false positives. Here, we outline basic guidelines for screen development that will help the researcher to control these forms of variance. By running a large number of positive and negative control genes, error of measurement can be accurately estimated and false negatives reduced. Likewise, by using a complex readout for the screen, which is not easily mimicked by other biological pathways and phenomena, false positives, can be minimized. By controlling variance in these ways, the researcher can maximize the utility of genome-wide RNAi screening.
    Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 05/2007; 6(8):898-901. · 5.24 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteolysis of beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) by beta- and gamma-secretases is a critical step in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but the pathways regulating secretases are not fully characterized. Ubiquitinylation, which is dysregulated in AD, may affect APP processing. Here, we describe a screen for APP processing modulators using an siRNA library targeting 532 predicted ubiquitin ligases. Seven siRNA pools diminished Abeta production. Of these, siRNAs targeting PPIL2 (hCyp-60) suppressed beta-site cleavage. Knockdown of PPIL2 mRNA decreased BACE1 mRNA, while overexpression of PPIL2 cDNA enhanced BACE1 mRNA levels. Microarray analysis of PPIL2 or BACE1 knockdown indicated that genes affected by BACE1 knockdown are a subset of those dependent upon PPIL2; suggesting that BACE1 expression is downstream of PPIL2. The association of PPIL2 with BACE expression and its requirement for Abeta production suggests new approaches to discover disease modifying agents for AD.
    Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 12/2006; 33(3):227-35. · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rare familial forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are thought to be caused by elevated proteolytic production of the Abeta42 peptide from the beta-amyloid-precursor protein (APP). Although the pathogenesis of the more common late-onset AD (LOAD) is not understood, BACE1, the protease that cleaves APP to generate the N terminus of Abeta42, is more active in patients with LOAD, suggesting that increased amyloid production processing might also contribute to the sporadic disease. Using high-throughput siRNA screening technology, we assessed 15,200 genes for their role in Abeta42 secretion and identified leucine-rich repeat transmembrane 3 (LRRTM3) as a neuronal gene that promotes APP processing by BACE1. siRNAs targeting LRRTM3 inhibit the secretion of Abeta40, Abeta42, and sAPPbeta, the N-terminal APP fragment produced by BACE1 cleavage, from cultured cells and primary neurons by up to 60%, whereas overexpression increases Abeta secretion. LRRTM3 is expressed nearly exclusively in the nervous system, including regions affected during AD, such as the dentate gyrus. Furthermore, LRRTM3 maps to a region of chromosome 10 linked to both LOAD and elevated plasma Abeta42, and is structurally similar to a family of neuronal receptors that includes the NOGO receptor, an inhibitor of neuronal regeneration and APP processing. Thus, LRRTM3 is a functional and positional candidate gene for AD, and, given its receptor-like structure and restricted expression, a potential therapeutic target.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 103(47):17967-72. · 9.81 Impact Factor