D A Vuitton

University of Franche-Comté, Becoinson, Franche-Comté, France

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Publications (341)921.43 Total impact

  • X Feng · X Qi · L Yang · X Duan · B Fang · Q Gongsang · B Bartholomot · D A Vuitton · H Wen · P S Craig
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    ABSTRACT: Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is known to be endemic in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), China; however, there is relatively little data from hospital records or community prevalence studies, and the situation regarding occurrence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is unclear. Here we review the available reports about human echinococcosis in the seven prefectures of TAR. In addition, two pilot studies by mass screening using ultrasound (with serology) were undertaken (2006/7) in Dangxiong County of Lhasa Prefecture (north central TAR) and Dingqing County of Changdu Prefecture (eastern TAR). In Dangxiong County a prevalence of 9.9% (55/557) for human CE was obtained but no human AE cases were detected. By contrast, in Dingqing County (N= 232 persons screened), 11 CE cases (4.7%) and 12 AE cases (5.2%) (including one mixed CE and AE case) were diagnosed by ultrasound. Hospital records and published reports indicated that CE cases were recorded in all of seven prefectures in Tibet Autonomous Region, and AE cases in four prefectures. Incidence rates of human CE were estimated to range from 1.9 to 155 per 100,000 across the seven prefectures of TAR, with a regional incidence of 45.1 per 100,000. Incidence of AE was estimated to be between 0.6 and 2.8 cases per 100,000. Overall for TAR, human AE prevalence appeared relatively low; however, the pilot mass screening in Dingqing in eastern TAR indicated that human AE disease is a potential public health problem, possibly similar to that already well described in Tibetan communities bordering TAR in north-west Sichuan and south-west Qinghai provinces.
    Journal of Helminthology 08/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0022149X15000656 · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a neglected 'malignant' parasitic disease. The European endemic area of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes is larger than previously anticipated, and there is new evidence that both fox populations and the prevalence of E. multilocularis have increased in many areas, indicating increased pressure for infection with E. multilocularis eggs in intermediate and accidental hosts, including humans. This may result in more human AE cases within the next decades. Current numbers of both immunocompetent and immunocompromised AE patients, and the anticipated future increase, call for scaling-up research to rapidly improve the development and implementation of prevention measures, early diagnosis, and curative treatment of human AE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Trends in Parasitology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pt.2015.06.001 · 6.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The growth potential of the tumor-like Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode (causing alveolar echinococcosis, AE) is directly linked to the nature/function of the periparasitic host immune-mediated processes. We previously showed that Fibrinogen-like-protein 2 (FGL2), a novel CD4+CD25+ Treg effector molecule, was over-expressed in the liver of mice experimentally infected with E. multilocularis. However, little is known about its contribution to the control of this chronic helminth infection. Key parameters for infection outcome in E. multilocularis-infected fgl2-/- (AE-fgl2-/-) and wild type (AE-WT) mice at 1 and 4 month(s) post-infection were (i) parasite load (i. e. wet weight of parasitic metacestode tissue), and (ii) parasite cell proliferation as assessed by determining E. multilocularis 14-3-3 gene expression levels. Serum FGL2 levels were measured by ELISA. Spleen cells cultured with ConA for 48h or with E. multilocularis Vesicle Fluid (VF) for 96h were analyzed ex-vivo and in-vitro. In addition, spleen cells from non-infected WT mice were cultured with rFGL2/anti-FGL2 or rIL-17A/anti-IL-17A for further functional studies. For Treg-immune-suppression-assays, purified CD4+CD25+ Treg suspensions were incubated with CD4+ effector T cells in the presence of ConA and irradiated spleen cells as APCs. Flow cytometry and qRT-PCR were used to assess Treg, Th17-, Th1-, Th2-type immune responses and maturation of dendritic cells. We showed that AE-fgl2-/- mice exhibited (as compared to AE-WT-animals) (a) a significantly lower parasite load with reduced proliferation activity, (b) an increased T cell proliferative response to ConA, (c) reduced Treg numbers and function, and (d) a persistent capacity of Th1 polarization and DC maturation. FGL2 appears as one of the key players in immune regulatory processes favoring metacestode survival by promoting Treg cell activity and IL-17A production that contributes to FGL2-regulation. Prospectively, targeting FGL2 could be an option to develop an immunotherapy against AE and other chronic parasitic diseases.
    PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 05/2015; 9(5):e0003755. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003755 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Any ambiguity in texts used in the communication about vaccines can not only interfere with comprehension, but also generate safety and liability issues. Within a survey on the quality of written protocols for at-risk interventional procedures and sanitary crises, we analyzed documents relating to vaccination, and among them, the "package-leaflet" of an anti-H1N1 influenza vaccine, widely disseminated to the public in 2009-2010. Among the most common mistakes, we observed that 1) language was not always adjusted to the non-specialist's level of knowledge; 2) chronology, logic, consistency, and homogeneity were often missing; 3) crucial pieces of information were disseminated all over the text, 4) use of the passive voice did not distinguish between instructions and information; 5) use of synonyms could be misleading and impair translation. We propose the use of "Controlled language" (CL) to improve the situation. By constraining lexicon, grammar and syntax, CL is a way to write documents that are clear, accurate and devoid of ambiguity. However, the set of rules necessary to write in CL is difficult to memorize. We thus developed authoring software (Redacticiel Prolipsia) to make the creation of a CL by linguists and its use by health professionals easy and adapted to any domain. It may considerably improve the writing of vaccine package inserts/leaflets. It could be used to write information documents about vaccines and their safety, and operating procedures for professionals to prepare, store, and administer vaccines, decide upon proper indication of vaccines, and follow patients after vaccine injection.
    Current Drug Safety 04/2015; 10(1-1):41-8. DOI:10.2174/157488631001150407110052
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    ABSTRACT: The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the world's most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Acta Tropica 02/2015; 69. DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.01.009 · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • Dominique A. Vuitton · Enrico Brunetti
    Zoonoses - Infections Affecting Humans and Animals, 01/2015: pages 715-747; , ISBN: 978-94-017-9456-5
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    Francesca Tamarozzi · Lucine Vuitton · Enrico Brunetti · Dominique Angèle Vuitton · Stéphane Koch
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are chronic, complex and neglected diseases. Their treatment depends on a number of factors related to the lesion, setting and patient. We performed a literature review of curative or palliative non-surgical, non-chemical interventions in CE and AE. In CE, some of these techniques, like radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA), were shelved after initial attempts, while others, such as High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound, appear promising but are still in a pre-clinical phase. In AE, RFA has never been tested, however, radiotherapy or heavy-ion therapies have been attempted in experimental models. Still, application to humans is questionable. In CE, although prospective clinical studies are still lacking, therapeutic, non-surgical drainage techniques, such as PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, re-aspiration) and its derivatives, are now considered a useful option in selected cases. Finally, palliative, non-surgical drainage techniques such as US- or CT-guided percutaneous biliary drainage, centro-parasitic abscesses drainage, or vascular stenting were performed successfully. Recently, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-associated techniques have become increasingly used to manage biliary fistulas in CE and biliary obstructions in AE. Development of pre-clinical animal models would allow testing for AE techniques developed for other indications, e.g. cancer. Prospective trials are required to determine the best use of PAIR, and associated procedures, and the indications and techniques of palliative drainage. © F. Tamarozzi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
    Parasite 12/2014; 21:75. DOI:10.1051/parasite/2014071 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis (HAE), caused by larvae of Echinococcus multilocularis, is a rare but potentially lethal parasitic disease. The first diagnostic suspicion is usually based on hepatic ultrasound exam performed because of abdominal symptoms or in the context of a general checkup; HAE diagnosis may thus also be an incidental finding on imaging. The next step should be Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). They play an important role in the initial assessment of the disease; with chest and brain imaging, they are necessary to assess the PNM stage (parasite lesion, neighboring organ invasion, metastases) of a patient with AE. Performed at least yearly, they also represent key exams for long-term follow-up after therapeutic interventions. Familiarity of radiologists with HAE imaging findings, especially in the endemic regions, will enable earlier diagnosis and more effective treatment. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) is currently considered to be the only noninvasive, albeit indirect, tool for the detection of metabolic activity in AE. Delayed acquisition of images (3 hrs after FDG injection) enhances its sensitivity for the assessment of lesion metabolism and its reliability for the continuation/withdrawal of anti-parasite treatment. However, sophisticated equipment and high cost widely limit PET/CT use for routine evaluation. Preliminary studies show that new techniques, such as contrast-enhanced ultrasound (US), Dual Energy CT or Spectral CT, and Diffusion-Weighted MRI, might also be useful in detecting the blood supply and metabolism of lesions. However, they cannot be recommended before further evaluation of their reliability in a larger number of patients with a variety of locations and stages of AE lesions. © W. Liu et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
    Parasite 12/2014; 21:74. DOI:10.1051/parasite/2014072 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. © A. Charbonnier et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
    Parasite 12/2014; 21:69. DOI:10.1051/parasite/2014075 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    Jun Li · Chuanchuan Wu · Hui Wang · Huanyuan Liu · Dominique A Vuitton · Hao Wen · Wenbao Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis. © J. Li et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
    Parasite 12/2014; 21:64. DOI:10.1051/parasite/2014064 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that most humans infected with Echinococcus spp. exhibit resistance to disease. When infection leads to disease, the parasite is partially controlled by host immunity: in case of immunocompetence, the normal alveolar echinococcosis (AE) or cystic echinococcosis (CE) situation, the metacestode grows slowly, and first clinical signs appear years after infection; in case of impaired immunity (AIDS; other immunodeficiencies), uncontrolled proliferation of the metacestode leads to rapidly progressing disease. Assessing Echinococcus multilocularis viability in vivo following therapeutic interventions in AE patients may be of tremendous benefit when compared with the invasive procedures used to perform biopsies. Current options are F18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), which visualizes periparasitic inflammation due to the metabolic activity of the metacestode, and measurement of antibodies against recEm18, a viability-associated protein, that rapidly regresses upon metacestode inactivation. For Echinococcus granulosus, similar prognosis-associated follow-up parameters are still lacking but a few candidates may be listed. Other possible markers include functional and diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and measurement of products from the parasite (circulating antigens or DNA), and from the host (inflammation markers, cytokines, or chemokines). Even though some of them have been promising in pilot studies, none has been properly validated in an appropriate number of patients until now to be recommended for further use in clinical settings. There is therefore still a need to develop reliable tools for improved viability assessment to provide the sufficient information needed to reliably withdraw anti-parasite benzimidazole chemotherapy, and a basis for the development of new alternative therapeutic tools. © B. Gottstein et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014.
    Parasite 11/2014; 21:63. DOI:10.1051/parasite/2014063 · 0.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) (FDG-PET/CT) is a valuable method for initial staging and follow up of patients with alveolar echinococcosis (AE). However, the cells responsible for FDG uptake have not been clearly identified. The main goal of our study was to evaluate the uptake of PET tracers by the cells involved in the host-parasite reaction around AE lesions as the first step to develop a specific PET tracer that would allow direct assessment of parasite viability in AE. Candidate molecules ([18F]-fluorotyrosine (FET), [18F]-fluorothymidine (FLT), and [18F]-fluorometylcholine (FMC), were compared to FDG by in vitro studies on human leukocytes and parasite vesicles. Our results confirmed that FDG was mainly consumed by immune cells and showed that FLT was the best candidate tracer for parasite metabolism. Indeed, parasite cells exhibited high uptake of FLT. We also performed PET/CT scans in mice infected intraperitoneally with E. multilocularis metacestodes. PET images showed no FDG or FLT uptake in parasitic lesions. This preliminary study assessed the metabolic activity of human leukocytes and AE cells using radiolabeling. Future studies could develop a specific PET tracer for AE lesions to improve lesion detection and echinococcosis treatment in patients. Our results demonstrated that a new animal model is needed for preclinical PET imaging to better mimic human hepatic and/or periparasitic metabolism.
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    ABSTRACT: Smad family proteins are essential cellular mediators of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. In the present study, we identified two members of the Smad proteins, Smad8 and Smad4 homologues (termed as EgSmadE and EgSmadD, respectively), from Echinococcus granulosus, the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis (CE). Phylogenetic analysis placed EgSmadE in the Smad1, 5, and 8 subgroup of the R-Smad sub-family and EgSmadD in the Co-Smad family. Furthermore, EgSmadE and EgSmadD attained a high homology to EmSmadE and EmSmadD of E. multilocularis, respectively. Both EgSmadE and EgSmadD were co-expressed in the larval stages and exhibited the highest transcript levels in activated protoscoleces, and their encoded proteins were co-localized in the sub-tegumental and tegumental layer of the parasite. As shown by yeast two-hybrid and pull-down analysis, EgSmadE displayed a positive binding interaction with EgSmadD. In addition, EgSmadE localized in the nuclei of Mv1Lu cells (mink lung epithelial cells) upon treatment with human TGF-β1 or human BMP2, indicating that EgSmadE is capable of being translocated into nucleus, in vitro. Our study suggests that EgSmadE and EgSmadD may take part in critical biological processes, including echinococcal growth, development, and parasite-host interaction.
    Parasitology Research 07/2014; 113(10). DOI:10.1007/s00436-014-4040-4 · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. An increased incidence of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in patients with immunosuppression (IS) has been observed; our aim was to study this association and its characteristics. Methods. Fifty AE cases with IS-associated conditions (ISCs) before or at AE diagnosis were collected from the French AE registry (1982-2012, 509 cases). There were 30 cancers, 9 malignant hematological disorders, 14 chronic inflammatory diseases, 5 transplants, and 1 case of AIDS; 9 patients had >= 2 ISCs. Characteristics of the 42 IS/AE cases and the 187 non-IS/AE cases diagnosed during the period 2002-2012 were statistically compared. Results. There was a significant increase in IS/AE cases over time. Risk factors did not differ between IS/AE and non-IS/AE patients. However, AE was more frequently an incidental finding (78% vs 42%) and was diagnosed at earlier stages (41% vs 23%) in IS/AE than in non-IS/AE patients. Serology was more often negative (14% vs 1%) and treatment efficacy was better (51% regression after 1-year treatment vs 27%) in IS/AE patients. All IS/AE patients but 7 took IS drugs; 7 received biotherapeutic agents. When not concomitant, AE occurred in IS patients within a 48-month median time period. Atypical presentation and abscess-, hemangioma-, and metastasis-like images delayed AE diagnosis in 50% of IS/AE patients, resulting in inappropriate treatment. Liver images obtained for 15 patients 1-5 years before diagnosis showed no AE lesions. Albendazole efficacy was good, but 19 of 48 treated patients experienced side effects. Conclusions. Patients with immunosuppression are at increased risk for occurrence, delayed diagnosis, and progression of AE.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 59(8). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu520 · 9.42 Impact Factor
  • Medecine Nucleaire 05/2014; 38(3):143. DOI:10.1016/j.mednuc.2014.03.054 · 0.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in cheeses (in both core and surface) and on the wooden surfaces of traditional equipment. The inhibition seems to be associated with their qualitative and quantitative composition rather than with their degree of diversity. The inhibitory mechanisms are not well elucidated. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies have evidenced a strong association of raw-milk consumption with protection against allergic/atopic diseases; further studies are needed to determine whether such association extends to traditional raw-milk cheese consumption. In the future, the use of meta-omics methods should help to decipher how traditional cheese ecosystems form and function, opening the way to new methods of risk–benefit management from farm to ripened cheese.
    International journal of food microbiology 05/2014; 177:136–154. DOI:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2014.02.019 · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Une diversité alimentaire importante et précoce a été montrée protectrice vis à vis des maladies allergiques (Roduit C. et al, JACI 2012 Jul;130(1):130-6). L'effet de la diversité de consommation de fromages, riches en microorganismes, n'a pas été étudié. Or l'exposition aux microorganismes est suspectée pour son rôle protecteur sur la survenue de maladies allergiques. Le but de notre étude était d'évaluer l'effet protecteur de la diversité de consommation de fromages vis-à-vis de maladies allergiques (MA) : allergie alimentaire (AA), dermatite atopique (DA), asthme (AS), rhinite allergique (RA) et bronchite (BR). Méthodes L'étude a porté sur 941 enfants de la cohorte PATURE (Protection contre l'Allergie : éTUde du milieu Rural et de son Environnement) qui étudie l'influence de l'exposition à l'environnement fermier sur le développement des maladies allergiques dans 5 pays européens (France, Allemagne, Autriche, Suisse et Finlande). Les données concernant les habitudes alimentaires, l'atopie parentale et les facteurs environnementaux ont été colligées par questionnaire de la naissance à 6 ans. Les MA ont été définies par un diagnostic médical rapporté par les parents. Les fromages ont été classés en 6 catégories (à pâte dure pressée, semi-pressée, molle, bleu, frais, de la ferme). La diversité de consommation de fromages à 18 mois (DC18) a été définie par le nombre de différentes catégories de fromages consommées. L'effet de la dive rsité de consommation de fromages sur chaque MA à l'âge de 6 ans a été analysé par régressions logistiques linéaires multiples ajustées pour la diversité alimentaire à 6 mois, le pays, l'environnement fermier et les facteurs confondants d'atopie, tels que l'atopie parentale. Résultats DC18 n'était pas corrélée à la diversité alimentaire à 6 ou 12 mois (p<0,001). Une diversité élevée de fromages consommés avait un effet significativement protecteur vis à vis de la DA à 6 ans (p<0,0007 ; OR=0,60; IC[0,44;0,81]) et les AA à 6 ans (p<0,041 ; OR=0,57; IC[0,33;0,98]), mais pas des autres MA à 6 ans (AS, RA, BR). Conclusion La consommation d'une diversité de fromages à 18 mois semble avoir un effet protecteur vis à vis de la DA et des AA à 6 ans, indépendamment de la diversité de consommation des autres groupes d'aliments.
    Revue Française d'Allergologie 04/2014; 54(3):227. DOI:10.1016/j.reval.2014.02.007 · 0.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogenesis of chronically developing alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is characterized by a continuous, granulomatous, periparasitic infiltration of immune cells surrounding the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis (E.multilocularis) in the affected liver. A detailed cytokine and chemokine profile analysis of the periparasitic infiltrate in the liver has, however, not yet been carried out in a comprehensive way all along the whole course of infection in E. multilocularis intermediate hosts. We thus assessed the hepatic gene expression profiles of 18 selected cytokine and chemokine genes using qRT-PCR in the periparasitic immune reaction and the subsequent adjacent, not directly affected, liver tissue of mice from day 2 to day 360 post intra-hepatic injection of metacestode. DNA microarray analysis was also used to get a more complete picture of the transcriptional changes occurring in the liver surrounding the parasitic lesions. Profiles of mRNA expression levels in the hepatic parasitic lesions showed that a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response, characterized by the concomitant presence of IL-12α, IFN-γ and IL-4, was established very early in the development of E. multilocularis. Subsequently, the profile extended to a combined tolerogenic profile associating IL-5, IL-10 and TGF-β. IL-17 was permanently expressed in the liver, mostly in the periparasitic infiltrate; this was confirmed by the increased mRNA expression of both IL-17A and IL-17F from a very early stage, with a subsequent decrease of IL-17A after this first initial rise. All measured chemokines were significantly expressed at a given stage of infection; their expression paralleled that of the corresponding Th1, Th2 or Th17 cytokines. In addition to giving a comprehensive insight in the time course of cytokines and chemokines in E. multilocularis lesion, this study contributes to identify new targets for possible immune therapy to minimize E. multilocularis-related pathology and to complement the only parasitostatic effect of benzimidazoles in AE.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91638. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091638 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Echinococcosis is a major parasitic zoonosis of public health importance in western China. In 2004, the Chinese Ministry of Health estimated that 380,000 people had the disease in the region. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is highly co-endemic with both alveolar echinococcosis (AE) and cystic echinococcosis (CE). In the past years, the Chinese government has been increasing the financial support to control the diseases in this region. Therefore, it is very important to identify the significant risk factors of the diseases by reviewing studies done in the region in the past decade to help policymakers design appropriate control strategies.Review: Selection criteria for which literature to review were firstly defined. Medline, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), and Google Scholar were systematically searched for literature published between January 2000 and July 2011. Significant risk factors found by single factor and/or multiple factors analysis were listed, counted, and summarized. Literature was examined to check the comparability of the data; age and sex specific prevalence with same data structures were merged and used for further analysis.A variety of assumed social, economical, behavioral, and ecological risk factors were studied on the Plateau. Those most at risk were Tibetan herdsmen, the old and female in particular. By analyzing merged comparable data, it was found that females had a significant higher prevalence, and a positive linearity relationship existed between echinococcosis prevalence and increasing age. In terms of behavioral risk factors, playing with dogs was mostly correlated with CE and/or AE prevalence. In terms of hygiene, employing ground water as the drinking water source was significantly correlated with CE and AE prevalence. For definitive hosts, dog related factors were most frequently identified with prevalence of CE or/and AE; fox was a potential risk factor for AE prevalence only. Overgrazing and deforestation were significant for AE prevalence only. Tibetan herdsmen communities were at the highest risk of echinococcosis prevalence and should be the focus of echinococcosis control. Deworming both owned and stray dogs should be a major measure for controlling echinococcosis; treatment of wild definitive hosts should also be considered for AE endemic areas. Health education activities should be in concert with the local people's education backgrounds and languages in order to be able to improve behaviors. Further researches are needed to clarify the importance of wild hosts for AE/CE prevalence, the extent and range of the impacts of ecologic changes (overgrazing and deforestation) on the AE prevalence, and risk factors in Tibet.
    Infectious Diseases of Poverty 01/2014; 3(1):3. DOI:10.1186/2049-9957-3-3 · 4.11 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
921.43 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2015
    • University of Franche-Comté
      Becoinson, Franche-Comté, France
  • 2014
    • Université de Caen Basse-Normandie
      Caen, Lower Normandy, France
  • 2007–2010
    • Sichuan Center For Disease Control And Prevention
      Hua-yang, Sichuan, China
  • 1981–2008
    • Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Besançon
      Becoinson, Franche-Comté, France
  • 2006
    • Ningxia Medical University
      Ning-hsia, Ningxia Huizu Zizhiqu, China
  • 2003
    • Shenzhen Second People's Hospital
      Shen-ch’üan-shih, Zhejiang Sheng, China
    • University of Constantine 1
      Cirta, Constantine, Algeria
  • 1995–2003
    • University of Salford
      • School of Environment and Life Sciences
      Salford, England, United Kingdom
    • CHRU de Strasbourg
      Strasburg, Alsace, France
    • Institut Pasteur
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 1998
    • Xinjiang Medical University
      Ouroumtchi, Xinjiang Uygur Zizhiqu, China
  • 1985
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France