D. J. Champion

Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy, Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany

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Publications (81)425.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are one of the most tantalizing mysteries of the radio sky; their progenitors and origins remain unknown and until now no rapid multiwavelength follow-up of an FRB has been possible. New instrumentation has decreased the time between observation and discovery from years to seconds, and enables polarimetry to be performed on FRBs for the first time. We have discovered an FRB (FRB 140514) in real-time on 14 May, 2014 at 17:14:11.06 UTC at the Parkes radio telescope and triggered follow-up at other wavelengths within hours of the event. FRB 140514 was found with a dispersion measure (DM) of 562.7(6) cm$^{-3}$ pc, giving an upper limit on source redshift of $z \lesssim 0.5$. FRB 140514 was found to be 21$\pm$7% (3-$\sigma$) circularly polarized on the leading edge with a 1-$\sigma$ upper limit on linear polarization $<10%$. We conclude that this polarization is intrinsic to the FRB. If there was any intrinsic linear polarization, as might be expected from coherent emission, then it may have been depolarized by Faraday rotation caused by passing through strong magnetic fields and/or high density environments. FRB 140514 was discovered during a campaign to re-observe known FRB fields, and lies close to a previous discovery, FRB 110220; based on the difference in DMs of these bursts and time-on-sky arguments, we attribute the proximity to sampling bias and conclude that they are distinct objects. Follow-up conducted by 12 telescopes observing from X-ray to radio wavelengths was unable to identify a variable multiwavelength counterpart, allowing us to rule out models in which FRBs originate from nearby ($z < 0.3$) supernovae and long duration gamma-ray bursts.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of a further five recycled pulsar systems in the mid-Galactic latitude portion of the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) Survey. The pulsars have rotational periods ranging from 2 ms to 66 ms, and four are in binary systems with orbital periods between 10.8 hours and 9.0 days. Three of these binary systems are particularly interesting; PSR J1227-6208 has a pulse period of 34.5 ms and the highest mass function of all pulsars with near-circular orbits. The circular orbit suggests that the companion is not another neutron star, so future timing experiments may reveal one of the heaviest white dwarfs ever found ($>$ 1.3 M$_\odot$). Timing observations of PSR J1431$-$4715 indicate that it is eclipsed by its companion which has a mass indicating it belongs to the redback class of eclipsing millisecond pulsars. PSR J1653-2054 has a companion with a minimum mass of only $0.08$ M$_\odot$, placing it among the class of pulsars with low-mass companions. Unlike the majority of such systems, however, no evidence of eclipses is seen at 1.4 GHz.
    11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The radio millisecond pulsar J1713+0747 is regarded as one of the highest-precision clocks in the sky, and is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves. The International Pulsar Timing Array collaboration undertook a 24-hour global observation of PSR J1713+0747 in an effort to better quantify sources of timing noise in this pulsar, particularly on intermediate (1 - 24 hr) timescales. We observed the pulsar continuously over 24 hr with the Arecibo, Effelsberg, GMRT, Green Bank, LOFAR, Lovell, Nancay, Parkes, and WSRT radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival presented here provide an estimate of what sources of timing noise, excluding DM variations, would be present as compared to an idealized root-N improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses analyzed. In the case of this particular pulsar, we find that intrinsic pulse phase jitter dominates arrival time precision when the S/N of single pulses exceeds unity, as measured using the eight telescopes that observed at L-band/1.4 GHz. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusually long timescale (for a single continuous observing session) of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scintillation, and discuss the degree to which scintillation and profile evolution affect precision timing. This paper presents the data set as a basis for future, deeper studies.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, instrumentation enabling pulsar observations with unprecedentedly high fractional bandwidth has been under development which can be used to substantially improve the precision of pulsar timing experiments. The traditional template-matching method used to calculate pulse times-of-arrival (ToAs), may not function effectively on these broadband data due to a variety of effects such as diffractive scintillation in the interstellar medium, profile variation as a function of frequency, dispersion measure (DM) evolution and so forth. In this paper, we describe the channelised Discrete Fourier Transform method that can greatly mitigate the influence of the aforementioned effects when measuring ToAs from broadband timing data. The method is tested on simulated data, and its potential in improving timing precision is shown. We further apply the method to PSR J1909$-$3744 data collected at the Nan\c{c}ay Radio Telescope with the Nan\c{c}ay Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument. We demonstrate a removal of systematics due to the scintillation effect as well as improvement on ToA measurement uncertainties. Our method also determines temporal variations in dispersion measure, which are consistent with multi-channel timing approaches used earlier.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2014; 443(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pulsar Arecibo L-band Feed Array (PALFA) Survey uses the ALFA 7-beam receiver to search both inner and outer Galactic sectors visible from Arecibo ($32^{\circ}\lesssim \ell \lesssim 77^{\circ}$ and $168^{\circ}\lesssim \ell \lesssim 214^{\circ}$) close to the Galactic plane ($|b|\lesssim5^{\circ}$) for pulsars. In this paper we detail a precursor survey of this region with PALFA, which observed a subset of the full region (slightly more restrictive in $\ell$ and $|b|\lesssim1^{\circ}$) and detected 45 pulsars. For both Galactic millisecond and normal pulsar populations, we compare the survey's detections with simulations to model these populations and, in particular, to estimate the number of observable pulsars in the Galaxy. We place 95\% confidence intervals of 82,000 to 143,000 on the number of detectable normal pulsars and 9,000 to 100,000 on the number of detectable millisecond pulsars in the Galactic disk. These are consistent with previous estimates. Given the most likely population size in each case (107,000 and 15,000 for normal and millisecond pulsars, respectively) we extend survey detection simulations to predict that, when complete, the full PALFA survey should have detected $1,000\substack{+330 \\ -230}$ normal pulsars and $30\substack{+200 \\ -20}$ millisecond pulsars. Identical estimation techniques predict that $490\substack{+160 \\ -115}$ normal pulsars and $12\substack{+70 \\ -5}$ millisecond pulsars would be detected by the beginning of 2014; at the time, the PALFA survey had detected 283 normal pulsars and 31 millisecond pulsars, respectively.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are an emerging class of bright, highly dispersed radio pulses. Recent work by Thornton et al. (2013) has revealed a population of FRBs in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) survey at high Galactic latitudes. A variety of progenitors have been proposed including cataclysmic events at cosmological distances, Galactic flare stars, and terrestrial radio frequency interference. Here we report on a search for FRBs at intermediate Galactic latitudes ($-15^{\circ}$ $< b <$ 15$^{\circ}$) in data taken as part of the HTRU survey. No FRBs were discovered in this region. Several effects such as dispersion, scattering, sky temperature and scintillation decrease the sensitivity by more than 3$\sigma$ in $\sim$20\% of survey pointings. Including all of these effects, we exclude the hypothesis that FRBs are uniformly distributed on the sky with 99\% confidence. This low probability implies that additional factors -- not accounted for by standard Galactic models -- must be included to ease the discrepancy between the detection rates at high and low Galactic latitudes. A revised rate estimate or another strong and heretofore unknown selection effect in Galactic latitude would provide closer agreement between the surveys' detection rates. The dearth of detections at low Galactic latitude disfavors a Galactic origin for these bursts.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2014; 789(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery of four millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) pulsar survey being conducted at the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. All four MSPs are in binary systems and are likely to have white dwarf companions. In addition, we present updated timing solutions for 12 previously published HTRU MSPs, revealing new observational parameters such as five proper motion measurements and significant temporal dispersion measure variations in PSR J1017-7156. We discuss the case of PSR J1801-3210, which shows no significant period derivative after four years of timing data. Our best-fit solution shows a period derivative of the order of $10^{-23}$, an extremely small number compared to that of a typical MSP. However, it is likely that the pulsar lies beyond the Galactic Centre, and an unremarkable intrinsic period derivative is reduced to close to zero by the Galactic potential acceleration. Furthermore, we highlight the potential to employ PSR J1801-3210 in the strong equivalence principle test due to its wide and circular orbit. In a broader comparison with the known MSP population, we suggest a correlation between higher mass functions and the presence of eclipses in `very low-mass binary pulsars', implying that eclipses are observed in systems with high orbital inclinations. We also suggest that the distribution of the total mass of binary systems is inversely-related to the Galactic height distribution. Finally, we report on the first detection of PSRs J1543-5149 and J1811-2404 as gamma-ray pulsars.
    01/2014; 439(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a deep search of the irregular blue compact dwarf galaxy IC 10 in search of potential radio pulsars. To date the only extragalactic pulsars detected have been found in the Magellanic Clouds; however as a galaxy that is in many ways similar to (and has a higher star formation rate than) the Small Magellanic Cloud, IC 10 may also be home to some detectable pulsars. Yet it is also important to take into account IC 10’s poorly known distance that may be 10 to 15 times greater than that of the SMC. We made three separate observations for a total of 16 hours (the longest of which was 6 hours) at 820 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope using the GUPPI backend that yielded a bandwidth of 200 MHz and a time resolution of 204.8 μs. The data was searched up to a DM of 2000 and an acceleration zmax of 50 using the PRESTO software package. However, we were unable to identify any continuous pulsed signals, to which we had a flux density sensitivity of 0.015 mJy, or giant single pulses, to which our sensitivity for a 10ms pulse at 5-sigma sensitivity was 20mJy. Our findings support the hypothesis that IC 10 has had a very recent burst in star formation, as is evidenced by the exceptionally high number of Wolf-Rayet stars, which have not yet resulted in a correspondingly high supernova rate, and is suggested by the lack of supernova remnant detections in the galaxy.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of four gamma-ray pulsars, detected in computing-intensive blind searches of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsars were found using a novel search approach, combining volunteer distributed computing via Einstein@Home and methods originally developed in gravitational-wave astronomy. The pulsars PSRs J0554+3107, J1422-6138, J1522-5735, and J1932+1916 are young and energetic, with characteristic ages between 35 and 56 kyr and spin-down powers in the range $6\times10^{34}$ - $10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$. They are located in the Galactic plane and have rotation rates of less than 10 Hz, among which the 2.1 Hz spin frequency of PSR J0554+3107 is the slowest of any known gamma-ray pulsar. For two of the new pulsars, we find supernova remnants coincident on the sky and discuss the plausibility of such associations. Deep radio follow-up observations found no pulsations, suggesting that all four pulsars are radio-quiet as viewed from Earth. These discoveries, the first gamma-ray pulsars found by volunteer computing, motivate continued blind pulsar searches of the many other unidentified LAT gamma-ray sources.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Michael Kramer, David J. Champion
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    ABSTRACT: The European Pulsar Timing Array (EPTA) and the Large European Array for Pulsars (LEAP) play crucial roles in the global effort to detect gravitational waves (GWs) with a Pulsar Timing Array (PTA) experiment. While the EPTA uses five of the world’s largest cm-radio telescopes, LEAP harvests their combined power to synthesize a 194 m equivalent dish to provide high-precision PTA data for most of the sky. The EPTA has already produced a large variety of results, including astrophysical studies of individual pulsars, tests of theories of gravity, stringent limits on a GW background produced by super-massive binary black holes or the vibration of cosmic strings. It has also undertaken the development of new analysis methods and techniques, and studies of the astrophysics and population of expected GW background sources. This review gives an overview of the EPTA and LEAP set-ups and corresponding activities.
    Classical and Quantum Gravity 11/2013; 30(22):4009-. · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a polarimetric analysis of 49 long-period pulsars discovered as part of the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) southern survey. The sources exhibit the typical characteristics of "old" pulsars, with low fractional linear and circular polarisation and narrow, multicomponent profiles. Although the position angle swings are generally complex, for two of the analysed pulsars (J1622-3751 and J1710-2616) we obtained an indication of the geometry via the rotating vector model. We were able to determine a value of the rotation measure (RM) for 34 of the sources which, when combined with their dispersion measures (DM), yields an integrated magnetic field strength along the line of sight. With the data presented here, the total number of values of RM associated to pulsars discovered during the HTRU southern survey sums to 51. The RMs are not consistent with the hypothesis of a counter-clockwise direction of the Galactic magnetic field within an annulus included between 4 and 6 kpc from the Galactic centre. A partial agreement with a counter-clockwise sense of the Galactic magnetic field within the spiral arms is however found in the area of the Carina-Sagittarius arm.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 10/2013; 436(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present temporal scattering measurements of single pulses and average profiles of PSR J1745--2900, a magnetar recently discovered only 3 arcsec away from Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), from 1.2 - 18.95 GHz using the Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope, the Nan\c{c}ay Decimetric Radio Telescope, and the Jodrell Bank Lovell Telescope. Single pulse analysis shows that the integrated pulse profile above 2 GHz is dominated by pulse jitter, while below 2 GHz the pulse profile shape is dominated by scattering. The high dispersion measure and rotation measure of the magnetar suggest that it is close to Sgr A* (within ~0.1 pc). This is the first object in the GC with both pulse broadening and angular broadening measurements. We measure a pulse broadening spectral index of alpha = -3.8 +/- 0.2 and a pulse broadening time scale at 1 GHz of tau_GHz = 1.3 +/- 0.2 s, which is several orders of magnitude lower than the scattering predicted by the NE2001 model (Cordes and Lazio 2002). If this scattering timescale is representative of the GC as a whole, then previous surveys should have detected many pulsars. The lack of detections implies either our understanding of scattering in the GC is incomplete or there are fewer pulsars in the GC than previously predicted. Given that magnetars are a rare class of radio pulsar, we believe that there are many canonical and millisecond pulsars in the GC, and not surprisingly, scattering regions in the GC have complex spatial structures.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 780(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earth's nearest candidate supermassive black hole lies at the centre of the Milky Way. Its electromagnetic emission is thought to be powered by radiatively inefficient accretion of gas from its environment, which is a standard mode of energy supply for most galactic nuclei. X-ray measurements have already resolved a tenuous hot gas component from which the black hole can be fed. The magnetization of the gas, however, which is a crucial parameter determining the structure of the accretion flow, remains unknown. Strong magnetic fields can influence the dynamics of accretion, remove angular momentum from the infalling gas, expel matter through relativistic jets and lead to synchrotron emission such as that previously observed. Here we report multi-frequency radio measurements of a newly discovered pulsar close to the Galactic Centre and show that the pulsar's unusually large Faraday rotation (the rotation of the plane of polarization of the emission in the presence of an external magnetic field) indicates that there is a dynamically important magnetic field near the black hole. If this field is accreted down to the event horizon it provides enough magnetic flux to explain the observed emission-from radio to X-ray wavelengths-from the black hole.
    Nature 08/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the setup and initial discoveries of the Northern High Time Resolution Universe survey for pulsars and fast transients, the first major pulsar survey conducted with the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope and the first in 20 years to observe the whole northern sky at high radio frequencies. Using a newly developed 7-beam receiver system combined with a state-of-the-art polyphase filterbank, we record an effective bandwidth of 240 MHz in 410 channels centred on 1.36 GHz with a time resolution of 54 $\mu$s. Such fine time and frequency resolution increases our sensitivity to millisecond pulsars and fast transients, especially deep inside the Galaxy, where previous surveys have been limited due to intra-channel dispersive smearing. To optimise observing time, the survey is split into three integration regimes dependent on Galactic latitude, with 1500-s, 180-s and 90-s integrations for latitude ranges $|b|<3.5^{\circ}$, $|b|<15^{\circ}$ and $|b|>15^{\circ}$, respectively. The survey has so far resulted in the discovery of 15 radio pulsars, including a pulsar with a characteristic age of $\sim18$ kyr, {PSR J2004+3429}, and a highly eccentric, binary millisecond pulsar, {PSR J1946+3417}. All newly discovered pulsars are timed using the 76-m Lovell radio telescope at the Jodrell Bank Observatory and the Effelsberg radio telescope. We present timing solutions for all newly discovered pulsars and discuss potential supernova remnant associations for {PSR J2004+3429}.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 435(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents the discovery and timing parameters for five millisecond pulsars (MSPs), four in binary systems with probable white dwarf companions and one isolated, found in ongoing processing of the High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey (HTRU). We also present high quality polarimetric data on four of them. These further discoveries confirm the high potential of our survey in finding pulsars with very short spin periods. At least two of these five MSPs are excellent candidates to be included in the Pulsar Timing Array projects. Thanks to the wealth of MSP discoveries in the HTRU survey, we revisit the question of whether the luminosity distributions of isolated and binary MSPs are different. Using the Cordes and Lazio distance model and our new and catalogue flux density measurements, we find that 41 of the 42 most luminous MSPs in the Galactic disk are in binaries and a statistical analysis suggests that the luminosity functions differ with 99.9% significance. We conclude that the formation process that leads to solitary MSPs affects their luminosities, despite their period and period derivatives being similar to those of pulsars in binary systems.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2013; 433(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gravitational preferred frame effects are generally predicted by alternative theories that exhibit an isotropic violation of local Lorentz invariance of gravity. They are described by three parameters in the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism. One of their strong-field generalizations, $\hat \alpha_2$, induces a precession of a pulsar's spin around its movement direction with respect to the preferred frame. We constrain $\hat \alpha_2$ by using the non-detection of such a precession using the characteristics of the pulse profile. In our analysis we use a large number of observations from the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope, which cover a time span of approximately 15 years. By combining data from two solitary millisecond pulsars, PSRs B1937+21 and J1744-1134, we get a limit of $|\hat \alpha_2| < 1.6 \times 10^{-9}$ at 95% confidence level, which is more than two orders of magnitude better than its best weak-field counterpart from the Solar system.
    Classical and Quantum Gravity 07/2013; 30(16). · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Searches for transient astrophysical sources often reveal unexpected classes of objects that are useful physical laboratories. In a recent survey for pulsars and fast transients, we have uncovered four millisecond-duration radio transients all more than 40° from the Galactic plane. The bursts' properties indicate that they are of celestial rather than terrestrial origin. Host galaxy and intergalactic medium models suggest that they have cosmological redshifts of 0.5 to 1 and distances of up to 3 gigaparsecs. No temporally coincident x- or gamma-ray signature was identified in association with the bursts. Characterization of the source population and identification of host galaxies offers an opportunity to determine the baryonic content of the universe.
    Science 07/2013; 341(6141):53-6. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have used millisecond pulsars (MSPs) from the southern High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) intermediate latitude survey area to simulate the distribution and total population of MSPs in the Galaxy. Our model makes use of the scale factor method, which estimates the ratio of the total number of MSPs in the Galaxy to the known sample. Using our best fit value for the z-height, z=500 pc, we find an underlying population of MSPs of 8.3(\pm 4.2)*10^4 sources down to a limiting luminosity of L_min=0.1 mJy kpc^2 and a luminosity distribution with a steep slope of d\log N/d\log L = -1.45(\pm 0.14). However, at the low end of the luminosity distribution, the uncertainties introduced by small number statistics are large. By omitting very low luminosity pulsars, we find a Galactic population above L_min=0.2 mJy kpc^2 of only 3.0(\pm 0.7)*10^4 MSPs. We have also simulated pulsars with periods shorter than any known MSP, and estimate the maximum number of sub-MSPs in the Galaxy to be 7.8(\pm 5.0)*10^4 pulsars at L=0.1 mJy kpc^2. In addition, we estimate that the high and low latitude parts of the southern HTRU survey will detect 68 and 42 MSPs respectively, including 78 new discoveries. Pulsar luminosity, and hence flux density, is an important input parameter in the model. Some of the published flux densities for the pulsars in our sample do not agree with the observed flux densities from our data set, and we have instead calculated average luminosities from archival data from the Parkes Telescope. We found many luminosities to be very different than their catalogue values, leading to very different population estimates. Large variations in flux density highlight the importance of including scintillation effects in MSP population studies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2013; 434(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Modern radio pulsar surveys produce a large volume of prospective candidates, the majority of which are polluted by human-created radio frequency interference or other forms of noise. Typically, large numbers of candidates need to be visually inspected in order to determine if they are real pulsars. This process can be labor intensive. In this paper, we introduce an algorithm called PEACE (Pulsar Evaluation Algorithm for Candidate Extraction) which improves the efficiency of identifying pulsar signals. The algorithm ranks the candidates based on a score function. Unlike popular machine-learning based algorithms, no prior training data sets are required. This algorithm has been applied to data from several large-scale radio pulsar surveys. Using the human-based ranking results generated by students in the Arecibo Remote Command enter programme, the statistical performance of PEACE was evaluated. It was found that PEACE ranked 68% of the student-identified pulsars within the top 0.17% of sorted candidates, 95% within the top 0.34%, and 100% within the top 3.7%. This clearly demonstrates that PEACE significantly increases the pulsar identification rate by a factor of about 50 to 1000. To date, PEACE has been directly responsible for the discovery of 47 new pulsars, 5 of which are millisecond pulsars that may be useful for pulsar timing based gravitational-wave detection projects.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; 433(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have made extensive observations of 35 distant slow (non-recycled) pulsars discovered in the ongoing Arecibo PALFA pulsar survey. Timing observations of these pulsars over several years at Arecibo Observatory and Jodrell Bank Observatory have yielded high-precision positions and measurements of rotation properties. Despite being a relatively distant population, these pulsars have properties that mirror those of the previously known pulsar population. Many of the sources exhibit timing noise, and one underwent a small glitch. We have used multifrequency data to measure the interstellar scattering properties of these pulsars. We find scattering to be higher than predicted along some lines of sight, particularly in the Cygnus region. Lastly, we present XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the youngest and most energetic of the pulsars, J1856+0245, which has previously been associated with the GeV-TeV pulsar wind nebula HESS J1857+026.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2013; 772(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

719 Citations
425.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert-Einstein-Institute)
      Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany
  • 2013
    • Leibniz Universität Hannover
      Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2004–2013
    • The University of Manchester
      • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2012
    • University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
      • Department of Physics
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    • Columbia University
      • Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2011
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
    • Curtin University Australia
      Bentley, Western Australia, Australia
  • 2009
    • University of Sydney
      • School of Physics
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
    • University of British Columbia - Vancouver
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
    • Swinburne University of Technology
      • Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2007–2008
    • McGill University
      • Department of Physics
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada