ABSTRACT: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database.
To analyze the rate of complications, including neurologic deficits, associated with operative treatment of pediatric isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis.
Pediatric isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are relatively uncommon dis-orders. Several prior studies have suggested a high rate of complication associated with operative intervention. How-ever, most of these studies were performed with sufficiently small sample sizes such that the presence of one complication could significantly affect the overall rate. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) prospectively collects morbidity and mortality (M&M) data from its members. This multicentered, multisurgeon database permits analysis of the surgical treatment of this relatively rare condition on an aggregate scale and provides surgeons with useful information for preoperative counseling.
Patients who underwent surgical treatment for isthmic or dysplastic spondylolisthesis from 2004 to 2007 were identified from the SRS M&M database. Inclusion criteria for analysis included age ≤ 21 and a primary diagnosis of isthmic or dysplastic spondylolisthesis.
Of 25,432 pediatric cases reported, there were a total of 605 (2.4%) cases of pediatric dysplastic (n ∇ 62, 10%) and isthmic (n ∇ 543, 90%) spondylolisthesis, with a mean age of 15 years (range, 4-21). Approximately 50% presented with neural element compression, and less than 1% of cases were revisions. Surgical procedures included fusions in 92%, osteotomies in 39%, and reductions in 38%. The overall complication rate was 10.4%. The most common complications included postoperative neurologic deficit (n ∇ 31, 5%), dural tear (n ∇ 8, 1.3%), and wound infection (n ∇ 12, 2%). Perioperative deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolus were reported in 2 (0.3%) and 1 (0.2%) patients, respectively. There were no deaths in this series.
Pediatric isthmic and dysplastic spondylolisthesis are relatively uncommon disorders, representing only 2.4% of pediatric spine procedures in the present study. Even among experienced spine surgeons, surgical treatment of these spinal conditions is associated with a relatively high morbidity.
Spine 02/2011; 36(4):308-12. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Patients with varied medical comorbidities often present with spinal pathology for which operative intervention is potentially indicated, but few studies have examined risk stratification in determining morbidity and mortality rates associated with the operative treatment of spinal disorders. This study provides an analysis of morbidity and mortality data associated with 22,857 cases reported in the multicenter, multisurgeon Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality database stratified by American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, a commonly used system to describe preoperative physical status and to predict operative morbidity.
The Scoliosis Research Society Morbidity and Mortality database was queried for the year 2007, the year in which ASA data were collected. Inclusion criterion was a reported ASA grade. Cases were categorized by operation type and disease process. Details on the surgical approach and type of instrumentation were recorded. Major perioperative complications and deaths were evaluated. Two large subgroups--patients with adult degenerative lumbar disease and patients with major deformity--were also analyzed separately. Statistical analyses were performed with the chi-square test.
The population studied comprised 22,857 patients. Spinal disease included degenerative disease (9409 cases), scoliosis (6782 cases), spondylolisthesis (2144 cases), trauma (1314 cases), kyphosis (831 cases), and other (2377 cases). The overall complication rate was 8.4%. Complication rates for ASA Grades 1 through 5 were 5.4%, 9.0%, 14.4%, 20.3%, and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.001). In patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar diseases and major adult deformity, similarly increasing rates of morbidity were found in higher-grade patients. The mortality rate was also higher in higher-grade patients. The incidence of major complications, including wound infections, hematomas, respiratory problems, and thromboembolic events, was also greater in patients with higher ASA grades.
Patients with higher ASA grades undergoing spinal surgery had significantly higher rates of morbidity than those with lower ASA grades. Given the common application of the ASA system to surgical patients, this grade may prove helpful for surgical decision making and preoperative counseling with regard to risks of morbidity and mortality.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 02/2011; 14(4):470-4. · 1.61 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Unintended durotomy is a common complication of spinal surgery. However, the incidences reported in the literature vary widely and are based primarily on relatively small case numbers from a single surgeon or institution.
To provide spine surgeons with a reliable incidence of unintended durotomy in spinal surgery and to assess various factors that may influence the risk of durotomy.
We assessed 108,478 surgical cases prospectively submitted by members of the Scoliosis Research Society to a deidentified database from 2004 to 2007.
Unintended durotomy occurred in 1.6% (1745 of 108 478) of all cases. The incidence of unintended durotomy ranged from 1.1% to 1.9% on the basis of preoperative diagnosis, with the highest incidence among patients treated for kyphosis (1.9%) or spondylolisthesis (1.9%) and the lowest incidence among patients treated for scoliosis (1.1%). The most common indication for spine surgery was degenerative spinal disorder, and among these patients, there was a lower incidence of durotomy for cervical (1.0%) vs thoracic (2.2%; P = .01) or lumbar (2.1%, P < .001) cases. Scoliosis procedures were further characterized by etiology, with the highest incidence of durotomy in the degenerative subgroup (2.2% vs 1.1%; P < .001). Durotomy was more common in revision compared with primary surgery (2.2% vs 1.5%; P < .001) and was significantly more common among elderly (> 80 years of age) patients (2.2% vs 1.6%; P = .006). There was a significant association between unintended durotomy and development of a new neurological deficit (P < .001).
Unintended durotomy occurred in at least 1.6% of spinal surgeries, even among experienced surgeons. Our data provide general benchmarks of durotomy rates and serve as a basis for ongoing efforts to improve safety of care.
Neurosurgery 01/2011; 68(1):117-23; discussion 123-4. · 2.79 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Currently, few studies regarding morbidity and mortality associated with operative treatment of spinal disorders in children are available to guide the surgeon. This study provides more detailed morbidity and mortality data with an analysis of 23,918 pediatric cases reported in the multicenter, multisurgeon Scoliosis Research Society morbidity and mortality database.
The Scoliosis Research Society morbidity and mortality database was queried for the years from 2004 to 2007. The inclusion criterion was age 18 years or younger. Cases were categorized by operation type and diagnosis. Details on the surgical approach, use of neurophysiological monitoring, and type of instrumentation were recorded. Major perioperative complications and deaths were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square testing, with a p value < 0.05 considered significant.
A total of 23,918 patients were included. The mean age was 13 ± 3.6 years (± SD). Spinal pathology included the following: scoliosis (in 19,642 patients), kyphosis (in 1455), spondylolisthesis (in 748), trauma (in 478), and other (in 1595 patients). The overall complication rate was 8.5%. Major complications included wound infections (2.7%), new neurological deficits (1.4%), implant-related complications (1.6%), and hematomas (0.4%). The most common medical complications were respiratory related (0.9%). Morbidity rates differed based on pathology, with patients undergoing treatment for kyphosis and spondylolisthesis having higher overall rates of morbidity (14.7% and 9.6%, respectively). Patients undergoing revision procedures (2034) or corrective osteotomies (2787) were more likely to suffer a complication or new neurological deficit. The majority of these deficits improved at least partially. Thirty-one deaths were reported for an overall rate of 1.3 per 1000. Respiratory complications were the most common cause of mortality (13 cases). Twenty-six of the deaths occurred in children undergoing scoliosis correction.
Spinal surgery in children is associated with a range of complications depending on the type of operation. Mortality rates for all indications and operations were low. Patients undergoing more aggressive corrective procedures for deformity are more likely to suffer complications and new neurological deficits.
Journal of Neurosurgery Pediatrics 01/2011; 7(1):37-41. · 1.53 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Retrospective review of a prospectively collected database.
Our objective was to assess the rates of postoperative wound infection associated with spine surgery.
Although wound infection after spine surgery remains a common source of morbidity, estimates of its rates of occurrence remain relatively limited. The Scoliosis Research Society prospectively collects morbidity and mortality data from its members, including the occurrence of wound infection.
The Scoliosis Research Society morbidity and mortality database was queried for all reported spine surgery cases from 2004 to 2007. Cases were stratified based on factors including diagnosis, adult (≥ 21 years) versus pediatric (<21 years), primary versus revision, use of implants, and whether a minimally invasive approach was used. Superficial, deep, and total infection rates were calculated. RESULTS.: In total, 108,419 cases were identified, with an overall total infection rate of 2.1% (superficial = 0.8%, deep = 1.3%). Based on primary diagnosis, total postoperative wound infection rate for adults ranged from 1.4% for degenerative disease to 4.2% for kyphosis. Postoperative wound infection rates for pediatric patients ranged from 0.9% for degenerative disease to 5.4% for kyphosis. Rate of infection was further stratified based on subtype of degenerative disease, type of scoliosis, and type of kyphosis for both adult and pediatric patients. Factors associated with increased rate of infection included revision surgery (P < 0.001), performance of spinal fusion (P < 0.001), and use of implants (P < 0.001). Compared with a traditional open approach, use of a minimally invasive approach was associated with a lower rate of infection for lumbar discectomy (0.4% vs. 1.1%; P < 0.001) and for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (1.3% vs. 2.9%; P = 0.005).
Our data suggest that postsurgical infection, even among skilled spine surgeons, is an inherent potential complication. These data provide general benchmarks of infection rates as a basis for ongoing efforts to improve safety of care.
Spine 12/2010; 36(7):556-63. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Retrospective review.
Our objective was to assess the short-term complication rate in patients undergoing treatment of thoracolumbar fixed sagittal plane deformity (FSPD).
The reported morbidity and mortality for the surgical treatment of thoracolumbar FSPD is varied and based on studies with small sample sizes. Further studies are needed to better assess FSPD complication rate, and the factors that influence it.
The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) Morbidity and Mortality Database was queried to identify cases of thoracolumbar FSPD from 2004 to 2007. Complications were analyzed based on correction technique, surgical approach, surgeon experience (SRS membership status used as a surrogate), patient age, and history of prior surgery.
Five hundred and seventy-eight cases of FSPD were identified. Osteotomies were performed in 402 cases (70%), including 215 pedicle subtraction osteotomies (PSO), 135 Smith-Petersen osteotomies (SPO), 19 anterior discectomy with corpectomy procedures (ADC), 18 vertebral column resections (VCR), and 15 unspecified osteotomies. There were 170 complications (29.4%) in 132 patients. There were three deaths (0.5%). The most common complications were durotomy (5.9%), wound infection (3.8%), new neurologic deficit (3.8%), implant failure (1.7%), wound hematoma (1.6%), epidural hematoma (1.4%), and pulmonary embolism (1.0%). Procedures including an osteotomy had a higher complication rate (34.8%) than cases not including an osteotomy (17.0%, P < 0.001), and this remained significant after adjusting for the effects of patient age, surgeon experience, and history of prior surgery (P = 0.003, odds ratio = 2.070, 95% CI = 1.291-3.321). Not significantly associated with complication rate were patient age (P = 0.68), surgeon experience (P = 0.18), and history of prior surgery (P = 0.10). Complication rates were progressively higher from no osteotomy (17.0%), to SPO (28.1%), to PSO (39.1%), to VCR (61.1%).
The short-term complication rate for treatment of FSPD is 29.4%. The complication rate was significantly higher in patients undergoing osteotomies, and more aggressive osteotomies were associated with progressively higher complication rates.
Spine 12/2010; 36(12):958-64. · 2.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prospectively collected Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) database to assess the incidences of morbidity and mortality (M&M) in the operative treatment of degenerative lumbar stenosis, one of the most common procedures performed by spine surgeons.
All patients who underwent surgical treatment for degenerative lumbar stenosis between 2004 and 2007 were identified from the SRS M&M database. Inclusion criteria for analysis included an age >or= 21 years and no history of lumbar surgery. Patients were treated with either decompression alone or decompression with concomitant fusion. Statistical comparisons were performed using a 2-sided Fisher exact test.
Of the 10,329 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 6609 (64%) were treated with decompression alone, and 3720 (36%) were treated with decompression and fusion. Among those who underwent fusion, instrumentation was placed in 3377 (91%). The overall mean patient age was 63 +/- 13 years (range 21-96 years). Seven hundred nineteen complications (7.0%), including 13 deaths (0.1%), were identified. New neurological deficits were reported in 0.6% of patients. Deaths were related to cardiac (4 cases), respiratory (5 cases), pulmonary embolus (2 cases), and sepsis (1 case) etiologies, and a perforated gastric ulcer (1 case). Complication rates did not differ based on patient age or whether fusion was performed. Minimally invasive procedures were associated with fewer complications and fewer new neurological deficits (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively).
The results from this analysis of the SRS M&M database provide surgeons with useful information for preoperative counseling of patients contemplating surgical intervention for symptomatic degenerative lumbar stenosis.
Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 05/2010; 12(5):443-6. · 1.61 Impact Factor