D Kahn

University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, United States

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Publications (18)77.74 Total impact

  • D Bushnell · M Madsen · D Kahn ·

    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 03/2003; 30(2):331. DOI:10.1007/s00259-002-1086-9 · 5.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Standard uptake values (SUVs) are widely used for quantifying the uptake of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in tumours. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of SUVs for malignancy in lung nodules/masses and to analyse the effects of tumour size, blood glucose levels and different body weight corrections on SUV. One hundred and twenty-seven patients with suspicious lung lesions imaged with 18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) were studied retrospectively. Pathology results were used to establish lesion diagnosis in all cases. SUVs based on maximum pixel values were obtained by placing regions of interest around the focus of abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the lungs. The SUVs were calculated using the following normalizations: body weight (BW), lean body weight (LBW), scaled body surface area (BSA), blood glucose level (Glu) and tumour size (Tsize). Receivers operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to compare the accuracy of different methods of SUV calculation. The areas under the ROC curves for SUV(BW), SUV(BW+Glu), SUV(LBW), SUV(LBW+Glu), SUV(BSA), SUV(BSA+Glu) and SUV(BW+Tsize) were 0.915, 0.912, 0.911, 0.912, 0.916, 0.909 and 0.864, respectively. The accuracy of SUV analysis for malignancy in lung nodules/masses is not improved by correction for blood glucose or tumour size or by normalizing for body surface area or lean body weight instead of body weight.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 11/2001; 22(10):1077-81. DOI:10.1097/00006231-200110000-00004 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • D L Bushnell · M Madsen · D Kahn · M Nathan · R D Williams ·
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    ABSTRACT: Following androgen ablation therapy, skeletal metastases from prostate cancer appear in some instances to show an increase in 99Tcm-methylene diphosphonate (99Tcm-MDP) uptake. Such a phenomenon could represent a mechanism to increase delivery of bone-seeking therapeutic agents to skeletal metastatic sites. The aim of this study was to characterize more precisely the potential increase in 99Tcm-MDP in skeletal metastases from prostate cancer following initiation of hormone therapy. Baseline bone scans were performed within 1 week of onset of hormone therapy in patients with stage D2 prostate cancer followed by multiple repeat bone scans for up to 4-6 weeks. The count density within metastatic lesions was divided by the average count density from several areas of normal bone to obtain a lesion to normal bone uptake ratio (L/N) for each lesion in each scan. Altogether, 61 skeletal metastases were identified on bone scans from five subjects. Eighty-four percent (51/61) of these lesions showed an increase in 99Tcm-MDP activity relative to normal bone following initiation of hormone therapy with a mean peak increase of 39%. Thirty-nine of these 51 metastatic lesions showed maximum uptake at 3 weeks post-onset of hormone treatment. From our findings, it appears that approximately 3 weeks following initiation of hormone blockade, most skeletal metastases from prostate cancer will demonstrate significantly enhanced 99Tcm uptake relative to normal bone. Consequently, it may be possible to improve the uptake and effectiveness of therapeutic bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals by administering these agents following hormone therapy in patients with prostate cancer metastases.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 11/1999; 20(10):875-81. DOI:10.1097/00006231-199910000-00002 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently no curative therapy for men who have disseminated prostate cancer following failed radical prostatectomy. The purpose of this trial was to investigate systemic radioimmunotherapy in these men. Eight patients with occult metastatic prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy as evidenced solely by a rising serum PSA and evidence of soft tissue lesions outside the prostatic fossa detected by an [111I]indiumcapromab pendetide scan received an infusion of 10 mg of capromab pendetide labeled with 9 mCi/m2 of [90Y]yttrium. Serum PSA was used to measure response rate. There were no complete or partial responses by PSA criteria. Significant unexpected bone marrow toxicity developed in the first 6 of 8 patients treated. The last two patients received co-infusion of edetate calcium disodium in an effort to decrease marrow suppression. In these two patients less marrow toxicity was seen. Repeat 111In-capromab pendetide scans were uninterpretable due to grossly altered whole-body biodistribution of the radioimmunoconjugate. Retrospective analysis of serial PSA values after closure of the study showed a decrease in the log slope PSA for seven of eight patients following radioimmunotherapy, with a statistically significant change in the mean log slope (p = 0.01). The clinical significance of this small but measurable change is uncertain. We conclude that radioimmunotherapy for occult metastatic prostate cancer using 90Y-capromab-pendetide at the dose described does not lower serum PSA, is associated with significant hematologic toxicity, and leads to complexation of the immunoconjugate following subsequent capromab pendetide infusion.
    Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals 05/1999; 14(2):99-111. DOI:10.1089/cbr.1999.14.99 · 1.78 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Urology 04/1999; 162(5). DOI:10.1097/00005392-199904010-00957 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optimum therapy for prostate carcinoma patients requires accurate staging, but computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have limitations as methods for detecting soft tissue metastases. In this study, radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) was evaluated for its ability to identify sites of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. RIS was evaluated in 51 prostate carcinoma patients at high risk for metastatic disease. An intravenous infusion of indium-111 capromab pendetide was given, followed by nuclear medicine imaging on two separate dates. Bilateral, open pelvic lymph node dissection was performed with additional exploration and biopsy of scan positive extraprostatic regions. Histologic evaluation of removed tissue confirmed the accuracy of RIS. In addition, results were compared with other standard methods for diagnosing patients prior to surgery. Nineteen patients (37%) had evidence of lymph node involvement with RIS. Fifteen of the 19 positive patients had pathologic evidence of cancer in the biopsied lymph nodes. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and the positive predictive value for detection of extraprostatic disease were 75%, 86%, 81%, and 79%, respectively. CT, MRI, and ultrasound of the pelvis demonstrated a combined accuracy of only 48% in detecting lymph node disease. Twenty-five previously undetected sites were deemed positive with RIS. Fourteen of these were biopsy-proven tumor sites, seven were probable tumor sites, and four were assumed to be false-positive. RIS had an impact on patient management through its detection of occult disease in more than 50% of prostate carcinoma patients studied, and it provided information concerning the likelihood that lymph node metastases would be found during surgery.
    Cancer 09/1998; 83(4):739-47. · 4.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Standard diagnostic methods are limited for detecting distant metastases in patients with prostate cancer in whom the only evidence of disease after radical prostatectomy is a detectable prostate specific antigen (PSA) level. We evaluated the role of immunoscintigraphy with the radiolabeled monoclonal antibody, 111indium ((111)In)-capromab pendetide, to differentiate between local and distant recurrence in this patient population. We enrolled 183 men who had undergone radical prostatectomy in whom PSA later increased. Gamma camera images were acquired twice after infusion of a single dose of (111)In-capromab pendetide. Immunoscintigraphy revealed disease in 108 of 181 patients (60%) with interpretable scans. The antibody was localized most frequently to the prostatic fossa (34% of the cases), abdominal lymph nodes (23%) and pelvic lymph nodes (22%). Of the 181 men the scan localized the antibody outside the prostatic fossa in 42%. Half of the positive localizations in the fossa were confirmed by biopsy. These findings suggest that immunoscintigraphy with (111)In-capromab pendetide can assist in determining the extent of disease in patients who have increasing PSA after prostatectomy.
    The Journal of Urology 07/1998; 159(6):2041-6; discussion 2046-7. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(01)63239-7 · 4.47 Impact Factor

  • The Journal of Urology 06/1998; 160(6). DOI:10.1097/00005392-199806000-00085 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the ability of In-111-capromab pendetide to separate patients who have failed radical prostatectomy into categories of those who would versus those who would not respond to salvage radiotherapy. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in 32 men with prostate cancer who had failed radical prostatectomy and had undergone a whole-body In-111-capromab pendetide scan were followed-up for 13 months (median) after salvage radiotherapy to the pelvis. A logistic regression model was used to determine whether the scan findings, as well as other clinical variables, were associated with a durable complete response (DCR), a nondurable response (NDR), or no response (NR). Sixteen of 23 (70%) men with a normal scan outside the prostatic fossa achieved a DCR after salvage radiotherapy versus two of nine (22%) who had a positive scan outside the prostate fossa and pelvis (P = .0225, Fisher's exact test). Predicted probability (95% confidence interval [CI]) that a DCR would be obtained with a normal scan was 0.88 (0.55 to 0.98); for men with a positive scan limited to the prostatic fossa it was 0.62 (0.42 to 0.79); and for men with a positive scan outside the pelvis it was 0.27 (0.09 to 0.58). No other variables before radiotherapy showed a significant association with the DCR rate. Salvage radiotherapy is statistically more likely to lead to a durable complete PSA response in men with prostate cancer who have failed radical prostatectomy and have a negative In-111-capromab pendetide scan outside the pelvis as compared with those who have a positive scan.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/1998; 16(1):284-9. · 18.43 Impact Factor
  • D L Bushnell · D Kahn · B Huston · C G Bevering ·
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the etiology of a focal lesion seen on bone scan in patients with primary tumors usually requires the use of other imaging procedures or biopsy. Single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) with high resolution multidetector systems can localize the specific site of a vertebral lesion and in this way potentially differentiate between benign and metastatic disease. SPECT images of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine were reviewed for lesion location and intensity by two experienced interpreters. Follow-up data were adequate to ascertain the cause of 71 lesions seen on SPECT in 29 patients. Twenty-six of these lesions were not seen on planar images. Of the 71 lesions, 44 were benign and 27 metastatic. Of the 15 lesions where the pedicle was involved, 11 were found to metastatic. There were a total of 14 facet lesions, 9 of which were present in vertebra with no lesions at sites other than the facets. All 9 of these isolated facet lesions turned out to be benign. Lesion intensity did not distinguish benign from malignant disease. We conclude that SPECT imaging is useful in determining the etiology of focal lesions seen on bone scan in patients with a known primary tumor referred for evaluation of metastatic disease.
    Skeletal Radiology 02/1995; 24(1):13-6. DOI:10.1007/BF02425938 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This prospective study was designed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of a relatively simple examination, 201Tl chloride single-photon emission CT (SPECT), with a more complex examination, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), in patients thought to have recurrent brain tumor. Because both agents have been shown to be markers of viable tumor, we hypothesized that their sensitivity and specificity should be the same. Nineteen patients with evidence of recurrent tumor on CT or MR images were studied with both 201Tl SPECT and FDG PET imaging. Two patients were examined twice, so a total of 21 studies were evaluated. The 201Tl SPECT and FDG PET examinations were performed on the same day in 17 patients, and the remaining four examinations were done within 1 week of one another. Three reviewers independently interpreted each Tl SPECT and PET scan. Inappropriate regional increases in 201Tl or FDG activity were considered indicative of tumor recurrence. Sensitivity and specificity values were based on biopsy results and clinical follow-up. The final diagnosis was tumor recurrence in 16 cases and radiation necrosis in 5 cases. The relationship of scan results to survival was analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the 201Tl examination for detecting tumor recurrence were 11 (69%) of 16 and two (40%) of five, respectively; values for the FDG PET examination were 13 (81%) of 16 and 2 (40%) of 5, respectively. In patients with recurrent tumors less than 1.6 cm in size, results were false-negative in four 201Tl SPECT examinations and three FDG PET studies. All tumor lesions 1.6 cm or larger (n = 8) were detected. Agreement among the three nuclear medicine specialists was complete for each of the 201Tl SPECT scans. There was disagreement on the interpretation of five (24%) of the 21 FDG PET scans, which was resolved by consensus. Scintigraphic findings did not correlate with patients' survival times. We were unable to detect a statistically significant difference in sensitivity or specificity between the 201Tl SPECT and FDG PET scans. Both techniques were sensitive for tumor recurrence with lesions less than 1.6 cm or larger. However, given the greater availability, simplicity, and ease of interpretation and the lower cost of the 201Tl SPECT studies, this technique should be considered for detection of tumor recurrence with lesions that are demonstrated to be 1.6 cm or larger on CT or MR examinations.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 01/1995; 163(6):1459-65. DOI:10.2214/ajr.163.6.7992747 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the safety and ability of the 111indium labeled immunoconjugate 7E11-C5.3-glycyl-tyrosyl-(N,e-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)-lysine (CYT-356) to detect sites of occult prostate cancer in 27 subjects who had undergone radical prostatectomy and whose only evidence of recurrent disease was an increasing (0.8 ng./ml. or greater) serum prostate specific antigen (PSA). All subjects underwent whole body scintigraphy between 2 and 4 days following the radiopharmaceutical injection. Routine blood work and human anti-mouse antibody titers were monitored. Scintigraphic findings were compared with clinical parameters, prostatic fossa biopsy results and conventional imaging techniques. Except for transient hypotension in 1 subject following the second infusion, no side effects or human anti-mouse antibody titers were detected. In 22 subjects 1 or more lesions were detected, of which 11 (50%) were confirmed by biopsy, computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of 14 subjects with lesions in the prostatic fossa 13 had biopsies performed, 8 (62%) of which were positive. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed tumor in the spine and chest computerized tomography findings were compatible with lesions seen in the mediastinum in 1 subject each. There was a statistically significant relationship between detecting a scan abnormality and the initial pathological stage of disease but not with the serum PSA. These data provide preliminary evidence that 111indium labeled CYT-356 can be safely administered and readministered, and it detects sites of occult prostate cancer recurrence in subjects whose PSA is increasing following radical prostatectomy.
    The Journal of Urology 12/1994; 152(5 Pt 1):1490-5. · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • J P Edlin · D Kahn ·
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of recurrent colorectal carcinoma can be a diagnostic challenge. The authors report a case of a patient who, after resection of his primary colorectal carcinoma, had a recurrence that was not detected by MRI or serial CT examination, but was clearly demonstrated by In-111 labeled CYT-103 scintigraphy. This case demonstrates the use of CYT-103 scintigraphy in detecting recurrent colorectal cancer in a patient, despite results of nondiagnostic MRI or serial CT examinations.
    Clinical Nuclear Medicine 12/1994; 19(11):1004-7. DOI:10.1097/00003072-199411000-00016 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 99Tcm-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99Tcm-HMPAO) single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) brain imaging performed in conjunction with balloon test occlusion of the carotid artery has been used to assess risk of neurologic sequelae that might follow permanent surgical ligation of the artery. The predictive value of cortical hypoperfusion during temporary carotid occlusion for adverse neurologic events has been debated in previous publications. We believe that the risk of an adverse event is greater when a reduction in cortical perfusion during balloon test occlusion is associated with crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). To test our hypothesis we evaluated the results of 27 99Tcm-HMPAO SPECT brain studies obtained in association with balloon test occlusions of the carotid artery. In each case we correlated clinical outcome with the presence or absence of regional decreases in cerebral perfusion and CCD. All of the 27 patients were free of neurologic symptoms during the balloon test occlusion. Seventeen of the 27 scintigraphic studies were felt to be abnormal, showing cortical perfusion defects all on the side of the occlusion. Among these 17 patients, five demonstrated CCD. Four of these five CCD patients showed evidence for cerebral cortical ischaemia on the side of the temporary carotid occlusion either shortly after the procedure or following carotid artery sacrifice. Of the remaining 12 patients with regionally reduced cerebral perfusion and no CCD, none showed evidence for cortical ischaemia in association with balloon test occlusion, and five of these 12 patients had carotid ligation without subsequent neurologic sequelae.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 07/1994; 15(6):448-54. DOI:10.1097/00006231-199406000-00009 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This pilot study was undertaken to generate preliminary data on the accuracy of captopril-enhanced renal scintigraphy with a relatively new radiopharmaceutical, 99Tcm-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99Tcm-MAG3) for detecting significant renal artery stenosis. Truth data was based either on arteriographic or outcome criteria (blood pressure response to therapy). Twenty-seven subjects with suspected renovascular hypertension were studied with baseline and captopril-enhanced 99Tcm-MAG3 renal scintigraphy and renal arteriography. Scan interpretations were expressed as a probability of a significant renal artery stenosis. Scan interpretations were compared with renal arteriographic results, renal vein renin levels, blood pressure values after renal artery repair, and blood pressure control after 4-26 months of clinical follow-up. Using > or = 50% luminal obstruction on arteriography as the reference standard for renal artery stenosis and a high probability scan representing a positive test, the test sensitivity and specificity were 33 and 97%, respectively (using high or indeterminate probability to represent a positive scan, the test sensitivity and specificity were 67 and 83%, respectively). The negative predictive value of a low probability scan for renal artery stenosis was 80%. However, including a measure of renovascular hypertension (blood pressure response to renal artery repair) as the reference standard, the accuracy of the scan improves, with the negative predictive value of a low probability scan for renovascular hypertension increasing to 97%. Scintigraphic results were also positively correlated with renal vein renin values in a statistically significant fashion (two-tailed Fisher exact test statistic = 6.43, P = 0.0219). Captopril-enhanced 99Tcm-MAG3 renal scintigraphy is a moderately accurate technique for detecting renal artery stenosis. More importantly, our preliminary findings suggest that the scintigraphic technique using 99Tcm-MAG3 appears to predict the blood pressure response to renal artery repair in subjects with suspected renovascular hypertension, thereby separating subjects with haemodynamically insignificant renal artery stenosis from those with renovascular hypertension.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 07/1994; 15(7):515-28. DOI:10.1097/00006231-199407000-00005 · 1.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A phase I study was designed to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of a novel platelet reactive peptide, peptide acetyl-SYGRGDVRGDFKCTCCA-amide (CYT-379), which binds to the fibrinogen receptor of activated platelets and also binds to 99mTc. Eleven subjects with suspected deep venous thrombosis had 0.1, 0.5 or 1.0 mg of the peptide infused intravenously. Pharmacokinetics were determined by assaying blood samples in 6 of the 11 subjects and by urine sampling in 5 of these 6 subjects. Plasma and whole blood time-activity curves demonstrated an initial fast component with half-time clearance of 0.2 +/- 0.01 and 0.2 +/- 0.02 h and a slow component with half-time clearance of 2.8 +/- 0.3 and 2.7 +/- 0.2 h (mean +/- SEM for plasma and whole blood, respectively). Urine clearance was 22.6 +/- 3.3 and 10.8 +/- 1.6 mL/min when normalized to body surface area. The cumulative excretion of 99mTc-CYT-379 in the urine was 16.6 +/- 3.6, 45.6 +/- 16.9 and 45.6 +/- 1.8% of the administered dose over 0-2, 0-12 and 0-24 h after radiopharmaceutical injection, respectively. Images obtained in 11 subjects immediately, at 1-2, and 4-6 h after injection were evaluated for abnormalities and were compared with duplex Doppler ultrasonography. 99mTc-CYT-379 images were positive in only 3 of 7 subjects who had a positive duplex Doppler examination in at least one lower extremity. One subject with negative duplex Doppler had also negative 99mTc-CYT-379 scintigraphy. One subject with negative scintigraphy and two other subjects with positive scintigraphy had no other imaging studies of the deep venous system performed. No adverse reactions were observed during or after the infusion of 99mTc-CYT-379. 99mTc-CYT-379 appears to be a safe radiopharmaceutical and demonstrates rapid clearance from plasma in human subjects.
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology 03/1994; 21(2):131-42. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ten young normal adults had pelvic and lumbar vertebral body bone marrow blood flow examined using [15O]water and positron emission tomography (PET) in a study designed to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of the PET technique for measuring marrow blood flow to various marrow regions. The procedure was well tolerated. Repeated blood flow measurements obtained from two consecutive [15O]water exams on each individual subject were highly reproducible. In addition, there was minimal variation in marrow blood flow from individual to individual and no gender differences were noted. In contrast, mean +/- SD bone marrow blood flows (expressed as milliliters per minute per 100 g) at selected anatomical sites were significantly different and were as follows: lower lumbar vertebral bodies, 17.6 +/- 3.1; most posterior and superior pelvis (conventional site of percutaneous bone marrow biopsy), 14.3 +/- 3.1; and total superior pelvis, 11.1 +/- 2.0. We conclude that PET is a relatively noninvasive, simple, and reproducible technique for measuring bone marrow blood flow. Marrow blood flow is consistent between normal young subjects, but varies significantly between different anatomic regions of the marrow.
    Blood 03/1994; 83(4):958-63. · 10.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper, a technique is described for obtaining the information needed to perform attenuation correction in the thorax entirely from an emission study. This technique is based on the observation that the variation in soft tissue and lung attenuation coefficients is small among individuals. Thus only the outer contours of the body and lungs need be determined for obtaining the attenuation map. The contours are determined by using 99Tcm-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) to locate the lungs and an external source wrapped about the chest to locate the body boundary. Simulation studies were performed to investigate how errors in the presumed tissue attenuation coefficients affect the accuracy of the correction. Body and lung attenuation coefficients were varied from 20% less to 20% more than the coefficients used in the corrections. Over this range, there was less than a 15% alteration in the relative distribution of counts in the left ventricle. To test clinical feasibility, seven patients referred for clinical myocardial perfusion studies were scanned before and after the placement of the body source and the administration of 99Tcm-MAA. Reconstructed images from these studies showed clear demarcation of all body and lung boundaries. The presence of 99Tcm-MAA in the lungs had no significant effect on the clinical interpretation of the single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) studies. It is concluded that this technique is feasible for clinical application and that it offers important advantages over other current methods.
    Nuclear Medicine Communications 09/1993; 14(8):689-95. DOI:10.1097/00006231-199308000-00009 · 1.67 Impact Factor