D J Patterson

University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States

Are you D J Patterson?

Claim your profile

Publications (72)101.32 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers and cows may be improved by delaying insemination of females that have not expressed estrus prior to FTAI. In Exp. 1, estrus was synchronized for 931 heifers across three locations using the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (CIDR insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0 with removal of CIDR on d 14; 25 mg PGF2α 16 d after CIDR removal on d 30; and 100 μg GnRH on d 33, 66 h after PGF2α). Estrous detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α on d 30, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 33. Heifers within each location were randomly assigned to one of two treatments based on weight and reproductive tract score (RTS): (1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after PGF2α) regardless of estrous expression or (2) FTAI for heifers expressing estrus, and delayed AI (20 h after GnRH) for heifers failing to express estrus. Heifers assigned to treatment 2 achieved a higher AI pregnancy rate than heifers assigned to treatment 1 (54% versus 46%, P = .01). The observed increase in AI pregnancy rate is attributed to the delayed AI of non-estrous heifers in treatment 2, as AI pregnancy rates for non-estrous heifers were significantly higher for treatment 2 (49% versus 34%, P = .02), while AI pregnancy rates of estrous heifers did not differ by treatment (P = .24). In Exp. 2, estrus was synchronized for 951 mature, suckled cows across 9 locations using the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7; and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows within each location were assigned to one of two treatments based on age, days postpartum (DPP), and body condition score (BCS): (1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after PGF2α) regardless of estrous expression or (2) FTAI for cows expressing estrus, and delayed AI (20 h after GnRH) for cows failing to express estrus. No significant effect of treatment was found on AI pregnancy rate (P = .76). In summary, FTAI pregnancy rates in heifers can be improved through a strategy of "split- time" AI. However, a statistically significant increase was not observed in the pregnancy rates of mature suckled cows when using a similar strategy.
    Journal of animal science. 07/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This experiment compared two long-term CIDR-based protocols to synchronize estrus prior to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in postpartum beef cows. Cows were assigned to treatments by age, body condition score (BCS), and days postpartum (DPP). Cows assigned to the 14-19 d CIDR-PG protocol (n = 196) received CIDR inserts (1.38 g progesterone) from d 0 to 14 and prostaglandin F2α (PG; 25 mg, i.m.) 19 d after CIDR removal on d 33. Cows assigned to the 14-16 d CIDR-PG protocol (n = 195) received CIDR inserts from d 3 to 17, and PG 16 d after CIDR removal on d 33. Cows were artificially inseminated on d 36, 72 h after PG, with GnRH (100 μg, i.m.) at FTAI. Cows were exposed for natural service 14 d after FTAI for 75 d. Blood samples for progesterone (P4) were collected at d -10 and d 0 to determine pretreatment estrous cyclicity status, and again at PG. Blood samples for estradiol (E2) were collected at PG and FTAI. HeatWatch estrus detection transmitters were utilized from CIDR removal until FTAI to determine onset of estrus after CIDR removal and PG. Dominant follicle diameter was determined at PG and FTAI. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 70 d after FTAI and confirmed at d 140 of gestation. Estrous response after CIDR removal was similar between treatments. Cows in both treatments had similar size dominant follicles on d 33 at PG, and d 36 at FTAI. Progesterone at PG was greater (P = 0.03) for 14-16 d compared to 14-19 d treated cows. Mean concentrations of E2 at PG were similar between treatments; but were greater (P = 0.01) at FTAI for 14-16 d compared to 14-19 d treated cows. Estrous response after PG was greater (P < 0.01) for 14-19 d compared to 14-16 d treated cows (47.4 vs. 29.7%, respectively). Pregnancy rate resulting from FTAI was affected by the treatment x age group interaction (P = 0.08). Pregnancy rate after FTAI among cows ≥ 4 yr tended to be greater (P = 0.06) for 14-19 d compared to the 14-16 d treated cows; suggesting that the 14-19 d schedule works better for older age cows compared with the 14-16 d schedule. Final pregnancy rates were similar between the two treatments. In summary, these data indicate that a range in intervals from CIDR removal to PG may be feasible when using long-term CIDR-based protocols in cows, and raise questions that warrant further study regarding the benefits of extending this interval based on cow age.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that delayed insemination of non-estrous cows would increase pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen in conjunction with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Estrus was synchronized for 656 suckled beef cows with the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR removal on d 7; and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows were assigned to one of three treatments: (1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after CIDR removal) with conventional semen regardless of estrous expression; (2) FTAI with sex-sorted semen regardless of estrous expression; or (3) FTAI with sex-sorted semen for cows having expressed estrus, and delayed AI 20 h after final GnRH for cows failing to express estrus. A treatment x estrous expression interaction was found (P < 0.0001). Higher pregnancy rates (P < 0.0001) were achieved with conventional semen (Treatment 1, 77%) than with sex-sorted semen (Treatments 2 and 3, 51% and 42%, respectively) among cows that expressed estrus. However, among cows that failed to express estrus, delayed insemination with sex-sorted semen yielded higher (P < 0.0001) pregnancy rates than with sex-sorted semen at the standard time (Treatments 2 and 3, 3% versus 36%, respectively). Furthermore, among cows that failed to express estrus, FTAI pregnancy rates when using sex-sorted semen at the delayed time (36%) were comparable (P = 0.9) to those achieved using conventional semen at the standard time (Treatment 1; 37%). These results indicate that delaying AI of non-estrous cows by 20 h from the standard FTAI improves pregnancy rates when sex-sorted semen is used with FTAI.
    Journal of Animal Science 02/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This article provides an overview of the Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program, and is included to provide an example of a working model for the collective considerations that relate to beef heifer development presented in this issue. This program expanded services provided by veterinarians to cow-calf producers, making veterinary practitioners a more integral part of the overall reproductive management of beef herds in their practice areas.
    Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 11/2013; 29(3):653-66. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • David J Patterson, D Scott Brown
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Use of existing and emerging management technologies enable beef producers to improve breeding performance of heifers during the first breeding season and during subsequent calving and rebreeding periods as 2 year olds. These practices ensure that heifers that enter the herd as raised or purchased replacements contribute to the general performance and productivity of an entire cowherd immediately, and cumulatively long-term. Rebuilding the US cowherd requires careful consideration and use of these newer management technologies. Veterinarians will play a crucial role in influencing the technologies used during the rebuilding process.
    Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 11/2013; 29(3):469-77. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Expanded use of artificial insemination (AI) and/or adoption of emerging reproductive technologies for beef heifers and cows require precise methods of estrous-cycle control. New protocols for inducing and synchronizing a fertile estrus in replacement beef heifers and postpartum beef cows in which progestins are used provide new opportunities for beef producers to synchronize estrus and ovulation and to facilitate fixed-time AI. This article reviews the various estrous synchronization protocols currently available for use in replacement beef heifers. New methods of inducing and synchronizing estrus now create the opportunity to significantly expand the use of AI in the United States cowherd.
    Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 11/2013; 29(3):591-617. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • David J Patterson, Michael F Smith
    Veterinary Clinics of North America Food Animal Practice 11/2013; 29(3):xiii-xiv. · 2.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to examine the necessity of adding a GnRH injection to a 14-d controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in postpartum beef cows. The experiments were designed to characterize long-term CIDR-based protocols in cyclic and noncyclic postpartum beef cows on the basis of estrous response, follicular dynamics and serum steroid hormone concentrations. In Exp. 1 and 2, cross-bred lactating beef cows (n = 40 and 38, respectively) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments by age, days postpartum (DPP), BCS, and estrous cyclicity status: 1) cows received a CIDR from d 0 to 14, followed by GnRH 9 d after CIDR removal (d 23), and PGF2α on d 30 (CIDR Select) or 2) CIDR administration from d 0 to 14, followed by PGF2α 16 d later (d 30; Show-Me-Synch). Estrus detection was performed using HeatWatch transmitters applied from CIDR removal to AI. Cows in Exp. 1 were artificially inseminated based on detected estrus, while cows in Exp. 2 were inseminated at a fixed-time. In both experiments, follicle turnover on d 25 of treatment was greater among CIDR Select-treated cows (P < 0.001) compared to Show-Me-Synch-treated cows. In Exp. 1, CIDR Select-treated cows tended to have a reduced (P = 0.06) variance for the interval to estrus after PGF2α than Show-Me-Synch-treated cows. Also, cows assigned to the CIDR Select protocol had higher concentrations of progesterone (P < 0.05) on the day prior to PGF2α administration, as well as higher concentrations of estradiol-17β (P < 0.01) 48 h after PGF2α administration. In Exp. 2, mean dominant follicle diameter on d 23 and at FTAI did not differ between treatments (P > 0.10), but Show-Me-Synch-treated cows had larger follicles at d 28 (P < 0.001) and tended to have larger follicles at PGF2α (d 30; P = 0.06) compared to cows assigned to CIDR Select. In summary, the administration of GnRH on d 23 of a long-term CIDR-based estrus synchronization protocol increased follicle turnover; however, both long-term CIDR-based protocols yielded similar physiological outcomes among estrous-cycling and anestrous postpartum beef cows.
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective was to compare pregnancy per AI (P/AI) with conventional (CON) or sex-sorted (SS) semen from a single sire within a fixed-time AI (FTAI) program designed for dairy heifers. Holstein heifers (n = 240) were assigned to treatment (CON or SS) according to body weight and reproductive tract score. All heifers underwent FTAI by using the "Show-Me-Synch" protocol [controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert from d 0 to 14 followed by PGF(2α) (25 mg i.m.) 16 d after insert removal (d 30) with GnRH (100 µg i.m.) and FTAI at 66 h after PGF(2α)]. A single professional technician performed the FTAI. Heifers were fitted with heat detection patches at PGF(2α) to characterize estrous response. Estrous response did not differ between CON (63/120; 53%) and SS (70/120; 58%) treatments. The CON heifers, however, achieved greater FTAI P/AI (82/120; 68%) compared with SS (45/120; 38%) heifers. The P/AI did not differ for CON heifers that exhibited or failed to exhibit estrus before FTAI [44/63 (70%) vs. 38/57(67%), respectively]. For SS heifers, however, those that exhibited estrus had greater P/AI compared with those that failed to exhibit estrus [32/70 (46%) vs. 13/50 (26%)]. Pregnancy per AI resulting from FTAI was greater for heifers that were inseminated with CON semen compared with those that received SS semen. The expression of estrus before FTAI did not affect P/AI when CON semen was used, whereas the P/AI with SS semen was greater for heifers detected in estrus. Further studies are required to develop strategies for using sex-sorted semen when inseminating heifers at predetermined fixed times on the basis of expression of estrus before FTAI.
    Journal of Dairy Science 12/2012; · 2.57 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This experiment was conducted to compare pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows resulting from fixed-time AI (FTAI) after treatment with controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocols to synchronize estrus. Cows assigned to the Show-Me-Synch (n=167) protocol received a CIDR from d 0 to 14, and prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) on d 30. Cows assigned to 7-d CO-Synch+CIDR (n=177) received a CIDR and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on d 23. On d 30, CIDRs were removed and PGF(2α) was administered. Blood sampling occurred on d -10 and 0 of treatment to determine estrous cyclicity status (progesterone ≥0.5 ng/mL estrous cycling). Treatments were balanced on age, DPP and BCS. Estrous detection was performed using HeatWatch from PGF(2α) to FTAI. Artificial insemination was performed at predetermined fixed times (72 h, Show-Me-Synch; 66h, 7-d CO-Synch+CIDR) and all cows were administered GnRH at FTAI. This experiment was conducted over a two year period; no differences were found between years so the data were pooled for further analysis. Pregnancy rate resulting from FTAI did not differ (P>0.10) between technicians or AI sires. Pregnancy rate resulting from FTAI was similar between treatments (P=0.20); however, cows that exhibited estrus prior to FTAI had a higher pregnancy rate (P<0.01) than for those that did not. Pregnancy rate at the end of the breeding period was similar between treatments (P=0.28). In summary, FTAI pregnancy rates were similar among postpartum beef cows following treatment with either a short- or long-term CIDR-based estrous synchronization protocol.
    Animal reproduction science 04/2012; 132(1-2):11-6. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Since its formation, the Beef Reproduction Task Force (BRTF) has worked to enhance productivity and profitability of US beef herds by integrating research and extension efforts with the intent of more effectively transferring the use of reproductive technologies to the field. A key early step was to coordinate efforts in identifying effective breeding management protocols for beef cattle and to clarify their associated acronyms. A short list of recommended protocols and their acronyms for synchronization of estrus and ovulation in beef cattle was developed based on results from peer-reviewed, published research and a comprehensive review of data collected from the field. The list of recommended protocols was developed by the BRTF in cooperation with veterinarians and cattle AI industries. These protocols and their acronyms are presented uniformly in all of the major AI sire directories and are available online at http://www.beefrepro.info. Protocol updates are made annually to incorporate the most recent research findings related to estrous cycle control in beef cattle. The Estrus Synchronization Planner, a software program developed in cooperation with the Iowa Beef Center, now reflects these same recommendations. Beginning in 2002, the BRTF hosted and presented 11 educational workshops to more than 1,900 attendees in key cow-calf states. These Applied Reproductive Strategies in Beef Cattle workshops targeted beef producers, AI industry personnel, veterinarians, allied industry representatives, and academicians. A national media sponsor provided online coverage of the last 3 workshops at http://www.appliedreprostrategies.com. A postmeeting evaluation, developed to assess application of information from 2 recent workshops, was returned by 55% of those contacted (n = 150). Attendees averaged 16 (± 13.4 SD) yr of AI experience, and 80% of respondents represented more than 100 cows. Respondents were asked to estimate the value of AI-sired calves compared with natural-service-sired calves to their operation on a per-animal-marketed basis, and 17 and 31% responded $50 to $100 per animal and more than $100 per animal, respectively. As a result of what was learned at these conferences, 78% of respondents were better able to troubleshoot management-related issues, 60% made alterations to a protocol they had been using, and 35% of the respondents indicated they changed to a different estrus synchronization protocol.
    Journal of Animal Science 05/2011; 89(9):2950-4. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conducted to compare pregnancy rates resulting from fixed-time AI (FTAI) after administration of 1 of 2 long-term controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocols. Heifers were assigned to treatment by age, BW, and pubertal status. The CIDR Select-treated heifers (Exp. 1, n = 37; Exp. 2, n = 192) received a CIDR (1.38 g of progesterone) from d 0 to 14, followed by 100 µg of GnRH, intramuscularly (i.m.) 9 d after CIDR removal (d 23) and PGF(2α) (25 mg, i.m.) 7 d after GnRH treatment (d 30). Heifers assigned to the Show-Me-Synch protocol (Exp. 1, n = 40; Exp. 2, n = 200) received a CIDR from d 0 to 14, followed by PGF(2α) 16 d later (d 30). Artificial insemination was performed at 72 or 66 h after PGF(2α) treatment for the CIDR Select- and Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers, respectively, and each heifer was given GnRH (100 µg, i.m.) at the time of AI. In Exp. 1, ovaries of each heifer were examined by transrectal ultrasonography on d 23 and 30 to characterize follicular dynamics. Follicles ≥5 mm and the presence of corpora lutea were recorded. On d 25, ovaries of each heifer were examined to characterize the status of dominant follicles recorded on d 23. Heifers were fitted with HeatWatch (DDx Inc., Denver, CO) estrus-detection transmitters at PGF(2α) to characterize estrus distribution up to FTAI. The diameter of dominant follicles on d 23 at PGF(2α) and on d 30, and the estrous response after PGF(2α) treatment up to the point of FTAI did not differ between CIDR Select- and Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers. Concentrations of progesterone in serum at PGF(2α) were greater (P = 0.07) in Show-Me-Synch- than CIDR Select-treated heifers (6.0 vs. 4.8 ng/mL, respectively). Pregnancy rates of heifers resulting from FTAI did not differ (P = 0.33) between CIDR Select- and Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers (CIDR Select, 59%; Show-Me-Synch, 70%). In Exp. 2, FTAI pregnancy rates tended (P = 0.07) to be greater in Show-Me-Synch-treated (62%) than in CIDR Select-treated (51%) heifers. Pregnancy rates at the end of the breeding season did not differ (P = 0.72; CIDR Select, 85%; Show-Me-Synch, 83%) between treatments. In summary, pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI were comparable for heifers assigned to each of the 2 long-term progestin-based protocols. The reduced treatment cost and animal handling associated with administration of the Show-Me-Synch protocol offer distinct advantages over the CIDR Select protocol despite similarities in pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI.
    Journal of Animal Science 01/2011; 89(5):1358-65. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments evaluated long-term progestin-based estrus-synchronization programs on the basis of potential for use in facilitating fixed-time AI in estrous cycling and prepubertal beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments by age, BW, and estrous cyclicity status. Heifers assigned to the melengestrol acetate-PGF(2α) protocol (MGA-PG; n = 50) received MGA (0.5 mg·animal(-1)·d(-1)) in a 1.0-kg carrier from d 0 to 13 and were administered PGF(2α) (25 mg, intramuscularly) 19 d after MGA withdrawal (d 32). Heifers assigned to the Show-Me-Synch protocol (n = 49) received a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert (1.38 g of progesterone) from d 2 to 16 followed by PGF(2α) administration 16 d after CIDR removal (d 32). All heifers were fitted with HeatWatch estrus-detection transmitters at the time of progestin removal for continuous estrus detection through the synchronized period after PGF(2α). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 396) were assigned to the same 2 treatments described in Exp. 1 by age, BW, and reproductive tract score. Heifers in Exp. 2, however, were fitted with HeatWatch estrus-detection transmitters at PGF(2α) to characterize estrus-distribution patterns during the synchronized period after PGF(2α). Heifers in both experiments were inseminated approximately 12 h after the onset of estrus. In Exp. 1, estrous response after PGF(2α) and mean interval to estrus after PGF(2α) did not differ between MGA-PG and Show-Me-Synch treatments (P = 0.97). The variance for interval to estrus after PGF(2α) tended (P = 0.06) to be reduced among MGA-PG-treated heifers compared with Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers. Conception to AI, AI pregnancy, and final pregnancy rates did not differ (P > 0.1) between treatments. In Exp. 2, estrous response after PGF(2α) was greater (P = 0.01) among Show-Me-Synch-treated heifers (92%) compared with MGA-PG-treated heifers (85%); however, mean interval to estrus after PGF(2α) did not differ (P = 0.74) between MGA-PG (57.4 ± 2.5 h) and Show-Me-Synch (56.2 ± 2.5 h) treatments. The variance for interval to estrus after PGF(2α) was reduced (P < 0.01) among Show-Me-Synch-treated vs. MGA-PG-treated heifers. Conception to AI, AI pregnancy, and final pregnancy rates did not differ (P > 0.1) between treatments. In summary, the Show-Me-Synch protocol compared favorably with the MGA-PG protocol on the basis of estrous response, synchrony of estrus, and resulting fertility after treatment administration.
    Journal of Animal Science 11/2010; 88(11):3568-78. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments evaluated short-term controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert-based protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation and compare differences in their potential to facilitate fixed-time AI (FTAI) in postpartum beef cows. Experiment 1 was designed to compare the 7- and 5-d Select Synch + CIDR protocols on the basis of timing and synchrony of estrus after treatment. Cows assigned to the 7-d protocol (n = 59) received GnRH [100 microg intramuscularly (i.m.)] and CIDR inserts (1.38 g of progesterone) on d 0 and PGF(2alpha) (25 mg i.m.) and CIDR removal on d 7. Cows assigned to the 5-d protocol (n = 58) received GnRH and CIDR inserts on d 2, PGF(2alpha) and CIDR removal on d 7, and a second injection of PGF(2alpha) 12 h after CIDR removal. Estrus detection and AI were performed for cows assigned to each protocol during the 144-h synchronized period. There was no difference in estrous response (P = 0.85), interval to estrus (P = 0.09), or variance for interval to estrus (P = 0.75) between treatments, nor were there differences in synchronized conception or pregnancy rates resulting from AI (P = 0.85, P = 0.91, respectively). Experiment 2 was designed to compare pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI after administration of the 7- and 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocols. Both treatments were administered the same as in Exp. 1; however, cows assigned to the 7-d protocol were inseminated 66 h after PGF(2alpha) and CIDR removal, and cows assigned to the 5-d protocol were inseminated 72 h after the first PGF(2alpha) injection. Cows assigned to both protocols were administered GnRH (100 microg i.m.) at AI. There was no effect of treatment (P = 0.85), technician (P = 0.20), or sire (P = 0.25) on pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI. Given these observations, the 5-d protocol provides an effective alternative to the 7-d protocol for use in facilitating FTAI; however, beef producers must carefully consider the increased labor and treatment costs associated with the 5-d protocol.
    Journal of Animal Science 06/2010; 88(6):2045-54. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This research reports buyers' perceptions of and willingness-to-pay for replacement heifers produced through a rigorous, third-party verified production protocol. Survey respondents attended and registered to purchase heifers at sanctioned Missouri Show-Me-Select Replacement Heifer Program-super-® sales between 1997 and 2002. Responses indicate that pen uniformity, artificially inseminated to calving ease bull, synchronized calving, and heifer size are perceived as important, and their willingness-to-pay for these characteristics is economically significant. Though prior research suggests willingness-to-pay estimates particularly for inexperienced consumers may be biased, we find little difference between inexperienced and experienced buyers and also little difference from hedonic estimates of heifer characteristics' value. Copyright (c) 2010 International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    Agricultural Economics 01/2010; 41(5):463-470. · 1.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The beef industry’s share of domestic meat demand continues to decline, as increasing vertical coordination in pork and poultry contribute to these industries’ ability to offer convenient, consistent, and less expensive products. For such vertical coordination to be effective, incentives must be properly aligned so that those responsible for making the most important investments for system profitability are appropriately compensated. This study demonstrates that cow-calf producers who invest in quality registered cattle and those who are interested in incorporating feedlot and carcass data into herd management decisions are also more interested in retained ownership.
    01/2010;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the experiment was to examine the necessity of adding a GnRH injection to a 14-d controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-based protocol for synchronization of estrus in beef heifers that were prepubertal or estrous-cycling at the initiation of treatment. The hypothesis tested was that the addition of GnRH in a CIDR-based estrus synchronization protocol would increase the synchrony of estrus after PGF(2alpha) (PG). Beef heifers (n = 285) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments within reproductive tract scores (2 or 3 = prepubertal; 4 or 5 = estrous-cycling) by age and BW. Heifers assigned to CIDR Select received a CIDR insert (1.38 g of progesterone) from d 0 to 14 followed by GnRH (100 microg, intramuscularly) on d 23 and PG (25 mg intramuscularly) on d 30. Heifers assigned to CIDR-PG received a CIDR insert from d 0 to 14 and PG on d 30. Heifers were fitted with a HeatWatch estrus detection system transmitter at the time of PG administration for continuous estrus detection during the synchronized period (0 to 144 h after PG); AI was performed 12 h after estrus onset. Estrous response did not differ (P = 0.43) between treatments (94% CIDR Select, 98% CIDR-PG). Mean interval to estrus after PG was 7 h shorter (P = 0.01) and variance for interval to estrus was reduced (P < 0.01) among CIDR-PG-treated compared with CIDR Select-treated heifers. Conception rate to AI tended (P = 0.09) to be greater for CIDR-PG heifers (67%) compared with CIDR Select heifers (58%), and AI pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.05) for CIDR-PG heifers (66%) compared with CIDR Select heifers (55%). Final pregnancy rate at the end of the breeding season was similar for the 2 treatments (81% for both; P = 0.94). We conclude that the administration of GnRH 9 d after CIDR removal in the CIDR Select protocol is not required to facilitate an improvement in the synchrony of estrus in beef heifers.
    Journal of Animal Science 08/2009; 87(12):3976-82. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two experiments evaluated long-term controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert-based protocols to synchronize estrus and compare differences in their potential ability to facilitate fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers. In Experiment 1 estrous cycling heifers (n=85) were assigned to one of two treatments by age and body weight (BW). Heifers with T1 received a CIDR from days 0 to 14, gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) on day 23, and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PG) on day 30. Heifers with T2 received a CIDR from days 2 to 16, GnRH on day 23, and PG on day 30. Ovaries were evaluated by ultrasonography on days 23 and 25 to determine ovulatory response to GnRH. In Experiment 2 heifers (n=353) were assigned within reproductive tract scores by age and BW to one of four treatments. Heifers in T1 and T2 received the same treatments described in Experiment 1. Heifers in T3 and T4 received the same treatments as T1 and T2, respectively, minus the addition of GnRH. In Experiments 1 and 2, heifers were fitted with HeatWatch transmitters for estrous detection and AI was performed 12h after estrus. In Experiment 1 heifers assigned to T1 had larger dominant follicles at GnRH compared to T2 (P<0.01) but response to GnRH, estrous response after PG, mean interval to estrus, and variance for interval to estrus after PG did not differ (P>0.10). AI conception and final pregnancy rate were similar (P>0.50). In Experiment 2 estrous response after PG did not differ (P>0.70). Differences in mean interval to estrus and variance for interval to estrus (P<0.05) differed based on the three-way interaction of treatment length, GnRH, and estrous cyclicity status. AI conception and final pregnancy rates were similar (P>0.10). In summary, the greater estrous response following PG and resulting AI conception and final pregnancy rates reported for heifers assigned to the two treatments in Experiment 1 and among the four treatments in Experiment 2 suggest that each of these long-term CIDR-based protocols was effective in synchronizing estrus in prepubertal and estrous cycling beef heifers. However, the three-way interaction involving treatment length, GnRH, and estrous cyclicity status in Experiment 2 clearly suggests that further evaluation of long-term CIDR-based protocols is required with and without the addition of GnRH and on the basis of estrous cyclicity status to determine the efficacy of these protocols for use in facilitating FTAI.
    Animal reproduction science 12/2008; 114(4):345-55. · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This experiment was designed to compare pregnancy rates in postpartum beef cows resulting from fixed-time AI (FTAI) at 54 or 66 h after administration of the CO-Synch + controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) protocol. Cows (n = 851) at 2 locations over 2 yr (yr 1, n = 218 and 206; and yr 2, n = 199 and 228 at the 2 locations, respectively) were stratified by age, BCS, and days postpartum to 1 of 2 FTAI intervals. Cows were administered GnRH (100 mug, i.m.) and were equipped with a CIDR insert (1.38 g of progesterone) on d 0. Controlled internal drug-release inserts were removed 7 d later at the time PGF(2alpha) (25 mg, i.m.) was administered (d 7). Continuous estrus detection was performed at location 2 by using the HeatWatch Estrus Detection System; the transmitters were fitted at the time of PGF(2alpha) and removed at the time of AI. Artificial insemination was performed at predetermined fixed times [54 h (FTAI 54; n = 424) or 66 h (FTAI 66; n = 427) after PGF(2alpha)] and all cows were administered GnRH (100 mug, i.m.) at AI. Two blood samples were collected on d -10 or -8 and immediately before treatment initiation to determine the pretreatment estrous cyclicity status of cows [progesterone >/=0.5 ng/mL (FTAI 54, 288/424 = 68%; FTAI 66, 312/427 = 73%; P = 0.07)]. Pregnancy rates were greater (P < 0.01) among cows that exhibited estrus than among those that did not (123/163 = 76% and 150/270 = 56%, respectively). There were no treatment x location interactions within year (P > 0.10) for age, days postpartum, or BCS; thus, the results were pooled for the respective treatments. Pregnancy rates were greater for FTAI 66 than FTAI 54 (P = 0.05; 286/426 = 67% vs. 257/424 = 61%, respectively). Pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI did not differ between year (P = 0.09), farm (P = 0.80), AI sire (P = 0.11), or technician (P = 0.64). There was no difference between pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI based on pretreatment cyclicity status (P = 0.30), and there was no difference between treatments in final pregnancy rates (P = 0.77). In summary, pregnancy rates resulting from FTAI following CO-Synch + CIDR at 66 h were greater than those resulting from FTAI at 54 h.
    Journal of Animal Science 07/2008; 86(7):1519-25. · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Induced ovulation of small dominant follicles (SF, < 12 mm; CO-Synch protocol) in postpartum beef cows resulted in formation of corpora lutea (CL) that exhibited a delayed rise in progesterone (P4) compared with CL from large dominant follicles (LF, > 12 mm). Experiment 1 characterized P4 concentrations from ovulation to subsequent estrus among GnRH-induced or spontaneously ovulated SF (<or= 11 mm) or LF (>or= 12 mm) to determine if P4 secretion by CL formed from GnRH-induced SF remains lower postovulation in nonlactating beef cows. Nonlactating beef cows were induced to ovulate 48 h after PGF(2alpha) (CO-Synch; GnRH on d - 9, PGF(2alpha) on d - 2, and GnRH on d 0) or exhibited estrus and spontaneously ovulated after PGF(2alpha). Follicle size was measured at the second GnRH in cows induced to ovulate or approximately 3 h after the onset of estrus for cows that ovulated spontaneously. Cows were classified into 1 of 4 groups: 1) GnRH-induced ovulation-SF (<or= 11 mm; Ind-SF; n = 9); 2) GnRH-induced ovulation-LF (>or= 12 mm; Ind-LF; n = 16); 3) spontaneous ovulation-SF (<or= 11 mm; Spon-SF; n = 8); 4) spontaneous ovulation-LF (>or= 12 mm; Spon-LF; n = 22). Serum concentrations of P4 from d 3 to 15 were reduced in the Ind-SF compared with the Ind-LF (P = 0.05), Spon-SF (P = 0.07), and Spon-LF (P = 0.03). Experiment 2 characterized P4 concentrations (0 to 60 d postAI) among GnRH-induced or spontaneously ovulated SF (<or= 12 mm) or LF (>or= 13 mm) to determine if P4 secretion by CL formed from GnRH-induced SF remained lower during early gestation. Ovulation was induced with GnRH 48 h after PGF(2) (CO-Synch) or occurred spontaneously, and ovulatory follicle size was measured at AI. Lactating cows were classified into 1 of 3 groups: 1) GnRH-induced ovulation-SF (<or= 12 mm; Ind-SF; n = 10); 2) GnRH-induced ovulation-LF (>or= 13 mm; Ind-LF; n = 43); or 3) spontaneous ovulation-LF (>or= 13 mm; Spon-LF; n = 27). The increase in P4 concentrations was greater (P = 0.06) in pregnant (d 2 to 12) compared with nonpregnant cows. Also, the increase in P4 from d 2 to 12 was greater (P = 0.01) in the Ind-LF compared with the Ind-SF groups, but there was no difference (P = 0.94) among groups in P4 from d 14 to 60 in pregnant cows. Follicle size at AI influenced the increase in P4 in cows that failed to conceive (P = 0.007), but not among cows that became pregnant (P = 0.32) to AI. In summary, P4 secretion after GnRH-induced ovulation of SF was decreased from d 2 to 12 compared with that of LF, but was similar among pregnant cows from d 14 to 60 postAI (d 0).
    Journal of Animal Science 04/2008; 86(3):553-63. · 2.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

444 Citations
101.32 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2013
    • University of Missouri
      • Division of Animal Sciences
      Columbia, Missouri, United States
  • 1990–1993
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Animal & Food Sciences
      Lexington, KY, United States
  • 1989–1992
    • Kansas State University
      • Department of Animal Sciences and Industry
      Manhattan, KS, United States