David J. Driscoll

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (177)1188.87 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a mixed mesenchymal malformation characterised by varicose veins, venous and capillary malformations, and hypertrophy of soft tissue and bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes in KTS patients to provide standards for comparison with endovenous therapy. The clinical data of consecutive patient with KTS who underwent open venous surgical treatment between January 1987 and December 2008 were reviewed. Demographics, clinical presentation, operative data, and clinical outcomes were recorded. Follow-up information was obtained from the medical records, mailed questionnaires and phone calls. Descriptive statistics, the Kaplan-Meier method and Log-rank statistics were used where appropriate. Twenty-seven females and 22 males, (mean age 26.5 years, range 7.7-55.8) were included in this study. All had varicose veins, 36 (73%) had limb hypertrophy, and 33 (67%) had capillary malformations, with two of three clinical features present in all. The most frequent symptom was pain (N = 43, 88%). Forty-nine patients underwent operations on 53 limbs. Stripping of the GSV, small and accessory saphenous and lateral embryonic veins was performed in 17 (32%), 10 (19%), 9 (17%), and 15 (28%) limbs, respectively. Two patients developed deep vein thrombosis, one had pulmonary embolism (PE), and one patient had peroneal nerve palsy. Freedom from disabling pain at 1, 3 and 5 years was 95%, 77% and 59%, respectively, and freedom from secondary procedures was 78% at 3 years, and 74% at 5 years. At the last follow-up visit, the venous clinical severity score had decreased from 9.48 ± 3.27 to 6.07 ± 3.20 (P < 0.001). In selected symptomatic patients with KT syndrome, open surgical treatment is safe and durable. Three-fourths of the patients remain free of disabling pain at five years, but secondary procedures are required in one-fourth of the patients. These data can serve as standards for comparison of endovenous therapy for KT syndrome. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
    Phlebology 03/2015; DOI:10.1177/0268355515577322 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    Sameh M. Said, David J. Driscoll, Joseph A. Dearani
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    ABSTRACT: Improvement in surgical techniques, anesthesia, and perioperative care has resulted in the majority of children born with congenital heart defects surviving into adulthood with a normal or near-normal quality of life. A careful transition from pediatric to adult care providers is important to avoid issues related to loss of continuity of care and any undue financial or psychological burdens to the patients and their families. The patients, their families, and the health care providers are faced with many challenges during this transition process that can be optimized and overcome by education about the heart defects and a team approach with clear lines of communication. This review addresses the challenges related to the transition of care from pediatrics to adults and provides the necessary recommendations to ensure a smooth transition process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Seminars in Pediatric Surgery 01/2015; 24(2). DOI:10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2015.01.003 · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics National Conference and Exhibition; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: To describe and analyze the cardiopulmonary responses to exercise for patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) before and after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) and compare our results with those in the literature.
    Congenital Heart Disease 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/chd.12207 · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) following the Fontan operation have a reported 50% mortality at 5 years after diagnosis. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to review outcomes in patients with PLE following the Fontan operation. METHODS From 1992 to 2010, 42 patients (55% male) with PLE following the Fontan operation were identified from clinical databases at the Mayo Clinic. Data were collected retrospectively. RESULTS Mean age at PLE diagnosis was 18.9 +/- 11.0 years. Initial Fontan operation was performed at 10.1 +/- 10.8 years of age. Mean time from Fontan operation to PLE diagnosis was 8.4 +/- 14.2 years. Survival was 88% at 5 years. Decreased survival was seen in patients with high Fontan pressure (mean > 15 mm Hg; p 0.04), decreased ventricular function (ejection fraction < 55%; p 0.03), and New York Heart Association functional class > 2 at diagnosis (p 0.04). Patients who died had higher pulmonary vascular resistance (3.8 +/- 1.6 Wood units [WU] vs. 2.1 +/- 1.1 WU; p 0.017), lower cardiac index (1.6 +/- 0.4 l/ min/ m2 vs. 2.7 +/- 0.7 l/ min/ m2; p < 0.0001), and lower mixed venous saturation (53% vs. 66%; p 0.01), compared with survivors. Factors were assessed at the time of PLE diagnosis. Treatments used more frequently in survivors with PLE included spironolactone (21 [68%]), octreotide (7 [21%]), sildenafil (6 [19%]), fenestration creation (15 [48%]), and relief of Fontan obstruction (7 [23%]). CONCLUSIONS PLE remains difficult to treat; however, in the current era, survival has improved with advances in treatment. Further study is needed to better understand the mechanism of disease and ideal treatment strategy. (C) 2014 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2014; 64(1):54-62. DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2014.04.025 · 15.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Patients with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) following the Fontan operation have a reported 50% mortality at 5 years after diagnosis. Objectives The aim of this study was to review outcomes in patients with PLE following the Fontan operation. Methods From 1992 to 2010, 42 patients (55% male) with PLE following the Fontan operation were identified from clinical databases at the Mayo Clinic. Data were collected retrospectively. Results Mean age at PLE diagnosis was 18.9 ± 11.0 years. Initial Fontan operation was performed at 10.1 ± 10.8 years of age. Mean time from Fontan operation to PLE diagnosis was 8.4 ± 14.2 years. Survival was 88% at 5 years. Decreased survival was seen in patients with high Fontan pressure (mean >15 mm Hg; p = 0.04), decreased ventricular function (ejection fraction <55%; p = 0.03), and New York Heart Association functional class >2 at diagnosis (p = 0.04). Patients who died had higher pulmonary vascular resistance (3.8 ± 1.6 Wood units [WU] vs. 2.1 ± 1.1 WU; p = 0.017), lower cardiac index (1.6 ± 0.4 l/min/m2 vs. 2.7 ± 0.7 l/min/m2; p < 0.0001), and lower mixed venous saturation (53% vs. 66%; p = 0.01), compared with survivors. Factors were assessed at the time of PLE diagnosis. Treatments used more frequently in survivors with PLE included spironolactone (21 [68%]), octreotide (7 [21%]), sildenafil (6 [19%]), fenestration creation (15 [48%]), and relief of Fontan obstruction (7 [23%]). Conclusions PLE remains difficult to treat; however, in the current era, survival has improved with advances in treatment. Further study is needed to better understand the mechanism of disease and ideal treatment strategy.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2014; 64(1):54–62. · 15.34 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Vascular Surgery 06/2014; 59(6):78S-79S. DOI:10.1016/j.jvs.2014.03.176 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with atriopulmonary Fontan tend to undergo conversion to total cavopulmonary connections secondary to arrhythmias or poor flow dynamics. However, the ideal candidate is unknown. Between December 1994 and May 2011, 70 patients (40 males [57%]) underwent Fontan conversion. Median age was 23 years (range, 4 to 46 years). Excluded were 1.5 ventricle conversions. The most common diagnoses included tricuspid atresia in 34patients (49%) and double-inlet left ventricle in 16 (23%). Atrial tachyarrhythmia was present in 62 patients (89%), 41 (59%) had atrioventricular valve (AVV) regurgitation, and 32 (46%) were in New York Heart Association class III or IV. Atriopulmonary Fontan was the original connection in 58 patients (83%), whereas the Björk modification was performed in 8 (11%). Fontan was performed with an intraatrial conduit in 41 patients, an extracardiac conduit in 18, and a lateral tunnel in 11. Forty-nine patients (70%) underwent concomitant arrhythmia operations. Early death occurred in 10 patients (14%). Multivariate analysis revealed age older than 27 years (p = 0.009), AVV regurgitation (p = 0.016), lack of arrhythmia operation (p = 0.04), and male sex (p = 0.02) were predictors of perioperative death. Mean follow-up was 5 years (maximum, 17 years). Overall survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 81%, 70%, and 67%, respectively, and 84% of patients were in New York Heart Association class I or II. Proper selection of Fontan conversion candidates is critical. Concomitant arrhythmia operations may be associated with improved survival. Older age and AVV regurgitation increase the risk of poor outcome, and cardiac transplantation may be a better option.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.01.083 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To report our single-center experience with patients who had cardiac and multiorgan transplantation for end-stage congenital heart disease (CHD). Patients and Methods We reviewed records for all patients with CHD who had undergone heart transplantation at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, from November 1, 1990, through June 30, 2012. Patients with cardiomyopathy were excluded, unless CHD was present. Results Overall, 45 patients had cardiac transplantation for end-stage CHD (mean age, 26.1±18.4 years; range, 1 month to 65 years). Two patients (4%) had combined heart/liver transplantation; 1 (2%) had heart/kidney transplantation. Six patients (13%) had no previous cardiac operation; the remaining 39 patients had a mean of 3 (range, 1-8) previous cardiac operations. Patient survival (95% CI) at 1, 5, and 10 years was 89% (80%-98%), 89% (80%-98%), and 72% (56%-87%), respectively, while graft survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 89% (80%-98%), 89% (80%-98%), and 61% (44%-78%), respectively. During the same era, the International Society for Heart & Lung Transplantation reported that survival in patients undergoing transplant for non-congenital diagnoses was 85%, 72%, and 56%, respectively. Over a mean follow-up of 8.7±6.2 years, rejection requiring treatment was documented in 35 patients (78%). Eleven patients (24%) have been diagnosed with neoplasia (8 skin, 1 blood, 1 lymph, and 1 other), and 3 patients (7%) have required retransplantation. Four patients (9%) have developed significant coronary vasculopathy; 1 successfully underwent retransplantation, and 3 died 6, 8, and 14 years after transplantation. Conclusion With appropriate patient selection and posttransplant monitoring, survival has improved for patients with complex end-stage CHD. Multiorgan transplantation is an option for selected patients with CHD.
    Mayo Clinic Proceedings 04/2014; 89(4):478–483. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.11.019 · 5.81 Impact Factor
  • Mayo Clinic Proceedings 03/2014; 89(3):e23-5. DOI:10.1016/j.mayocp.2014.01.016 · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sirolimus is used in heart transplant patients with CAV and CNI-induced nephropathy. However, little is known regarding the tolerability, rejection rate, and effect on renal function when used empirically in children. We describe our experience with the empiric use of a sirolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen in pediatric heart transplantation recipients. We reviewed records of patients in whom conversion was attempted to a CNI-free sirolimus-based regimen. Rejection episodes and measures of renal function were recorded. We attempted to convert 20 patients, of which 16 were successful. In total, six of 20 patients (30%) experienced adverse effects. Of the 16 converted, four patients converted to sirolimus due to CNI-induced disease (three nephropathy, one CAV), while 12 patients (mean age 5.5 yr, range 0.1-21 yr; 33% female; 33% with a history of congenital heart disease) were empirically switched to sirolimus at a mean of 2.3 yr after transplant. Follow-up was available for a mean of 2.5 yr after conversion (range 0.5-8.3 yr). The rate of rejection while taking CNIs was 0.18 rejection episodes per patient-year (total of five episodes), compared with 0.03 rejection episodes per patient-year (total of one episode) while on sirolimus. Renal function, in terms of GFR, significantly improved after sirolimus conversion at latest follow-up (from 86 ± 37 mL/min to 130 ± 49 mL/min, p = 0.02). Here, we demonstrate the potential benefit of empiric use of sirolimus in pediatric heart transplant patients in a CNI-free regimen. Larger and longer studies are needed to further clarify risks of rejection and adverse effect profiles.
    Pediatric Transplantation 12/2013; 17(8):794-9. DOI:10.1111/petr.12163 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular malformations result from an arrest of development of a normal vascular structure or from abnormal growth of a vascular structure. Treatment continues to be a challenge. We sought to study the outcomes of sclerotherapy and embolization for vascular malformations. We reviewed clinical data of all patients treated with sclerotherapy or embolization for arteriovenous or venous malformations between 2006 and 2010 at Mayo Clinic. Follow-up information was obtained from clinical charts and a questionnaire sent to all patients. Overall, 60 patients (24 male and 36 female; mean age 31.7 years; range, 5.6 to 72.4 years) had 163 unique sclerotherapy or embolization procedures for lesions involving the lower extremity (55%), upper extremity (18.3%), pelvis (11.7%), abdomen (5%), chest (5%), back (3.3%), and multiple locations (1.7%). Thirty-one patients had low-flow venous malformations and 29 patients had high-flow arteriovenous malformations. Twenty-four patients required more than three sessions. The most common indication for intervention was pain (57 of 60 [95%]). Sixteen patients (27%) had documented or patient-reported complications. There was no significant difference in complication rates or lesion size between patients with low-flow or high-flow lesions. There were no procedural deaths. Mean available follow-up was 2.0 ± 1.3 years (range, 0.5 to 5.0 years). Median pain scores at most recent follow-up decreased significantly (P<.001). Eighty-three percent of the responders (24 of 29) would recommend treatment to others. With appropriate patient selection, sclerotherapy and embolization can decrease the pain of patients with arteriovenous and venous malformations. Multiple interventions might be necessary. Practitioners should be aware of the potential complications and counsel their patients about these risks.
    Seminars in Vascular Surgery 03/2013; 26(1):48-54. DOI:10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2013.04.001 · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a disorder characterized by gray and white matter abnormalities in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes of the brain. Its etiology has been attributed to renal failure, immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus, and other potential entities leading to acute hypertension. Clinical findings include headaches, altered mental status, seizures, visual changes, and focal neurologic deficits. We report the case of a child who developed PRES with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages associated with tacrolimus exposure 10 days after heart transplantation for restrictive cardiomyopathy. The patient initially presented with complex partial seizures, headache, agitation, and hypertension. Head MRI was suggestive of PRES along with intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhages. Tacrolimus was discontinued and blood pressure was controlled. The patient's encephalopathy resolved, but he has had ongoing neurologic symptoms secondary to hemorrhage. Generally, PRES is less common in children than in the adult population and is a rare complication of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI). Presentation with secondary hemorrhage also can occur. In children receiving CNIs presenting with new neurologic symptoms, PRES should be considered as prompt discontinuation of the offending agent can induce resolution of symptoms. Children can develop hemorrhage in the context of PRES, leading to increased morbidity.
    Pediatric Transplantation 01/2013; DOI:10.1111/petr.12039 · 1.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We characterized the histologic liver changes that occur after the Fontan operation and identified the factors associated with worsening hepatic disease. METHODS: From 1979 to 2009, 33 patients who died after the Fontan operation had a postmortem analysis at our institution. The liver histologic findings were graded for sinusoidal and portal fibrosis. RESULTS: The median interval from the Fontan operation to death was 14 days (range, 0 days to 25.6 years). The median age at death was 7.7 years (range, 1.9-52.9 years). Hepatic sinusoidal fibrosis occurred in 25 of 33 patients (76%), with significant fibrosis (grade 2 or greater) in 15 of 25 patients (60%). Portal fibrosis occurred in 17 of 33 patients (52%). The degree of sinusoidal (P < .003) and portal fibrosis (P < .002) correlated with an increased period from the Fontan operation to death. Sinusoidal fibrosis was also associated with increased age at the initial Fontan operation (P < .03). Of the patients who died early (< 35 days postoperatively) after the Fontan operation, sinusoidal fibrosis was present in 15 of the 23 patients (65%) and portal fibrosis in 7 of 23 patients (30%). Significant (grade 2 or greater) sinusoidal fibrosis was seen in 7 patients, and 4 of the 7 had heterotaxy syndrome. Significant portal fibrosis was observed in only 2 patients; both had heterotaxy syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: The interval from the initial Fontan operation to death is associated with increased sinusoidal and portal fibrosis. In this small cohort, older age at Fontan operation was associated with sinusoidal fibrosis. Significant sinusoidal fibrosis was observed in patients who died early after the Fontan operation, with more severe disease present in patients with heterotaxy syndrome.
    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 10/2012; 146(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.09.005 · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a complex disorder characterized by enteric protein loss and often is associated with cardiovascular abnormalities, particularly those with elevated central venous pressure. The Fontan operation is a surgical procedure used to palliate patients with a functional single ventricle. Although the Fontan operation eliminates cyanosis and decreases the workload of the functionally single ventricle, it also elevates central venous pressure. This can result in hepatic and enteric congestion as well as PLE. Despite the universal elevation in central venous pressure, only a fraction of patients who have had a Fontan operation develop PLE. However, PLE is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Presenting signs and symptoms of PLE include abdominal bloating, diarrhea, edema, pleural effusions, ascites, and failure to thrive. In this review, the authors discuss the diagnosis and prevalence of PLE after the Fontan operation and review currently available therapeutic strategies.
    Nutrition in Clinical Practice 04/2012; 27(3):375-84. DOI:10.1177/0884533612444532 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction.  Diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis (SSc) is rare in children, but has a poor prognosis when cardiomyopathy is present. Methods.  We reviewed the case of a 14-year-old female with progressive skin thickening/tightness and dyspnea on exertion who was diagnosed with SSc. Results.  Our patient was found to have severe restrictive cardiomyopathy with poor left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction = 20%), unresponsive to the immunosuppression used to treat her SSc. There was no evidence of pulmonary fibrosis. The patient underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation, with improvement in systemic symptoms. Two years after transplantation, she had elevated filling pressures during a surveillance catheterization, with no evidence of cellular rejection or coronary artery vasculopathy. Four months later, she developed severe ventricular dysfunction and dyspnea, despite a negative biopsy and negative C4d immunofluorescence staining. Her immunosuppression was intensified with improvement of cardiac function. Despite this, 1 month later she had sudden pulseless cardiac arrest from which she could not be revived. The family declined an autopsy. Discussion.  We report a 14-year-old female with SSc who had cardiac transplantation. The etiology behind her recurrent restrictive physiology, cardiac dysfunction, and subsequent cardiac arrest remains unclear.
    Congenital Heart Disease 07/2011; 8(1). DOI:10.1111/j.1747-0803.2011.00554.x · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Approximately 5% to 15% of patients develop protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) after the Fontan operation. Oral controlled release (CR) budesonide has been used as a treatment strategy, but its use in the older Fontan population has not been described. Seven patients with refractory PLE after the Fontan operation were started on oral CR-budesonide at 9 mg. After 3 to 9 months, the dose was weaned to 3 mg. Response to treatment was assessed by clinical evaluation, serum albumin levels, and fecal α-1 antitrypsin clearance when available. Median age at last evaluation was 20 years (range, 16 to 32 years). Six patients had increases in serum albumin levels but only 4 patients had symptomatic improvement. Systemic side effects included: cushingoid features (5), adrenal insufficiency (4), and new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (2). One patient had improvement in cushingoid features after weaning CR-budesonide to 3 mg. Older patients (ages 27 to 32 years) had the worst side effect profiles and were the most refractory to treatment. These patients had sonographic evidence of hepatic cirrhosis but normal serum liver function tests. Two deaths occurred: 1 from sepsis 1 month after CR-budesonide initiation and 1 from respiratory arrest 5 months after CR-budesonide discontinuation. CR-budesonide can be used to treat PLE in certain patients, but careful assessment of hepatic function should be performed before initiation of therapy as systemic side effects can limit treatment. Normal serum liver function tests do not preclude hepatic dysfunction in the Fontan patient, and it is important to perform radiographic assessments as well.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 07/2011; 92(4):1451-6. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.03.103 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Octreotide has had limited use for the treatment of protein-losing enteropathy following the Fontan operation. We describe three cases where subcutaneous octreotide was successfully used to treat refractory protein-losing enteropathy following the Fontan operation. Patients received octreotide therapy for a period of 14-28 months. Octreotide was discontinued in one patient due to symptomatic cholelithiasis; this patient died 7 months after treatment was discontinued. Octreotide may be a useful treatment in these patients, but further study on its efficacy and mechanism of action is needed.
    Congenital Heart Disease 05/2011; 6(6):653-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1747-0803.2011.00518.x · 1.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The children with congenital heart disease (CHD) have an increased risk of developing scoliosis. Many children with CHD may benefit from surgical intervention for scoliosis. However, there is uncertainty about the safety of spinal fusion in children with heart disease. The purpose of this study is to assess whether spinal fusion is safe and effective for children who have CHD. We reviewed all the cases of children with CHD undergoing first-time spinal fusion for spinal deformity at Mayo Clinic between August 1976 and June 2008. Data were abstracted regarding cardiac history, major Cobb angle, type of spinal fusion (anterior, posterior, or both), intraoperative and postoperative complications, mortality, and follow-up. Sixty-four children under the age of 18 (64% female patients; mean age=11.5 y) were included in the study. The most common types of CHD were pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and tetralogy of Fallot. Sixty-three percent of all patients had had prior cardiac surgery; 22% were cyanotic at the time of spinal fusion. Nine patients had single-ventricle physiology; 5 of whom had had Fontan palliation. Nine patients had pulmonary hypertension. Posterior fusion alone was carried out for 69% of the patients. Spinal instrumentation was used in 70% of cases. Average anesthesia time was 7.3 hours. Mean hospital stay was 9 days. Eighteen children (30%) required prolonged intubation of 1 day or longer. Prolonged intubation was more common in patients with a larger Cobb angle and in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Postoperative complications occurred in 27% of all patients and were more common in the patients with pulmonary hypertension. One child died postoperatively from a hemorrhage because of an arterial-esophageal fistula unrelated to her spinal fusion. Spinal fusion in children with CHD is generally safe and effective. Children with pulmonary hypertension are at higher risk for complications from spinal fusion. Level IV--Case Series.
    Journal of pediatric orthopedics 10/2010; 30(7):670-5. DOI:10.1097/BPO.0b013e3181efb8fb · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 04/2010; 140(3):e41-3. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.03.030 · 3.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,188.87 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1984–2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Cardiovascular Diseases
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2011
    • George Washington University
      • Division of Cardiology
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2000–2009
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Division of Vascular Surgery
      • • Division of Cardiovascular Diseases
      • • Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
  • 1984–2005
    • University of Minnesota Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1993
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1986
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Division of Pediatric Cardiology
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States