D Chesneau

French National Institute for Agricultural Research, Évry, Ile-de-France, France

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Publications (11)55.57 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: 1. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH) is the first enzyme in the melatonin synthesis pathway and the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis. We established in this study an in vitro model of ovine pinealocytes to investigate the role of TPOH in melatonin production. 2. We demonstrated that TPOH is highly expressed both in vivo and in vitro at the protein and mRNA levels. In vitro pinealocytes show ultrastructural features similar to those previously described in vivo. 3. Moreover, our in vitro model allowed us to study the regulation mechanisms for melatonin synthesis in sheep pinealocytes and to demonstrate that both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms are involved. 4. In particular, our results suggest that TPOH plays an essential role in the regulation of melatonin synthesis.
    Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 09/2002; 22(4):417-29. · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • J P Ravault, D Chesneau
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    ABSTRACT: In sheep, melatonin secretion occurs rapidly after the onset of darkness, but the interval fluctuates according to different authors. The aim of this study was to determine this interval in sheep subjected to a long or a short photoperiod. Blood samples were taken at the right jugular vein every 100 s for 1 hr after the onset of darkness. The experiment was repeated on three consecutive days either in long (LD 16:8) or in short photoperiod (LD 8:16) on the same animals. Melatonin secretion was found to begin within 11 min under long photoperiod and 20 min under short period. It can be concluded that the onset of melatonin secretion depends on the duration of the photoperiod.
    Journal of Pineal Research 09/1999; 27(1):1-8. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mammals, the photoperiodic information, received by the retina, is transmitted to the pineal gland. In both organs, melatonin is produced and functions as a neurohormone giving temporal information to the organism. A four-step enzymatic pathway, involving in particular the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPOH), the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin synthesis, and the serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) that converts serotonin to N-acetylserotonin, allows the synthesis of melatonin. Many studies on melatonin synthesis modulation have focused on the enzyme NAT, but the regulation of TPOH is less well understood. We report here a quantitative study, using a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, of the nycthemeral expression of TPOH and NAT mRNAs in the ovine retina and pineal gland. In both organs, we show a nocturnal increase in mRNA levels of the two enzymes. suggesting a role of transcriptional mechanisms in the regulation of melatonin synthesis. However, the amplitude of the observed increase in TPOH and NAT mRNAs expression can not entirely explain the 7-fold nocturnal increase in the plasma melatonin level. Our results suggest that, in the sheep, post-transcriptional mechanisms might also be involved in the day/night modulation of melatonin production.
    Journal of Pineal Research 06/1999; 26(4):193-203. · 7.30 Impact Factor
  • Advances in experimental medicine and biology 02/1999; 460:133-5. · 1.83 Impact Factor
  • J P Ravault, D Chesneau
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    ABSTRACT: Previous data have demonstrated that a single 1-hr light pulse at night affects the secretion of melatonin in the ram if it was given at the appropriate time. This paper reports the effect on melatonin secretion of a 1-hr light pulse given at two different times at night to two groups of rams kept in constant darkness the day following light application. It appears that the animals were able to remember the light pulse if it was given 12 hr but not 9 hr after the lights were turned off. This memory could possibly be stored in the suprachiasmatic nucleus as reported recently in the rat.
    Journal of Pineal Research 12/1996; 21(4):218-24. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes the development of a new technique to measure melatonin contents in the pineal gland of moving sheep: the microdialysis. A dialysis probe was used to collect extracellular fluid in the sheep pineal gland, but also to inject directly into it different drugs such as isoproterenol at a very low concentration. The probe was implanted the day before the beginning of the experiment in order to obtain low levels of melatonin. This technique makes it possible to measure melatonin in the dialysate and plasma of rams submitted to 8L:16D. No melatonin either in the dialysate or in the plasma was found during the light phase. Shortly after lighting off, the melatonin concentration increased in the dialysate and plasma and remained stable during the dark phase. Melatonin concentrations began to decrease before lighting on and no detectable levels were found during the following light phase. The secretion of melatonin is, at least, under adrenergic regulation. Local infusion of isoproterenol (90 microliters at 10(-6) M), an agonist of beta adrenergic receptor, through the probe, increased melatonin levels during 2 h, even when infusions were repeated 3 times. This demonstrates the presence of beta adrenergic receptors. The technique presented in this paper could be of considerable interest for studying sheep pineal gland and its main secretion, melatonin, for example during diurnal rhythms or for studying its regulation.
    Journal of Neuroendocrinology 06/1996; 8(5):387-94. · 3.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius, teleost), the rhythmic production of melatonin by the photoreceptor cells is governed by a population of endogenous circadian oscillators, synchronized and entrained by the light/dark (L/D) cycle. Production of melatonin is inhibited by light and highly increased in the dark. In the present study, isolated and superfused pike pineals were exposed to a 24-hour temperature cycle of high (10 degrees C) or low (4 degrees C) amplitude, either under L/D, or under constant darkness. Under L/D, photoperiod is the dominant entraining stimulus for the melatonin secretion rhythm. It was high during the dark phase and low during the light phase, either under cold light/warm dark or under warm light/cold dark conditions. Under a warm light/cold dark cycle, the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm was reduced. In pineals cultured at 10 degrees C, a 20 degrees C temperature pulse potentiated or reduced the night-induced rise in melatonin production when applied, during the dark or during the preceding light phase, respectively. Under constant darkness, high- or low-amplitude temperature cycles could synchronize the rhythmic production of melatonin, which peaked with the high temperature. However, the shape of the oscillation could appear modified under warm subjective-L/cold subjective-D, depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, the rhythmic release of melatonin synchronized by a temperature cycle under constant darkness was no longer observed after removal of the external zeitgeber. The present study provides direct evidence that the pineal acts as a photothermotransducer.
    Neuroendocrinology 12/1994; 60(5):535-43. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In the pineal organ of the pike (Esox lucius, teleost), the rhythmic production of melatonin by the photoreceptor cells is governed by a population of endogenous circadian oscillators, synchronized and entrained by the light/dark (L/D) cycle. Production of melatonin is inhibited by light and highly increased in the dark. In the present study, isolated and superfused pike pineals were exposed to a 24-hour temperature cycle of high (10°C) or low (4°C) amplitude, either under L/D, or under constant darkness. Under L/D, photoperiod is the dominant entraining stimulus for the melatonin secretion rhythm. It was high during the dark phase and low during the light phase, either under cold light/warm dark or under warm light/cold dark conditions. Under a warm light/cold dark cycle, the amplitude of the melatonin rhythm was reduced. In pineals cultured at 10°C, a 20°C temperature pulse potentiated or reduced the night-induced rise in melatonin production when applied, during the dark or during the preceding light phase, respectively. Under constant darkness, high- or low-amplitude temperature cycles could synchronize the rhythmic production of melatonin, which peaked with the high temperature. However, the shape of the oscillation could appear modified under warm subjective-L/cold subjective-D, depending on the experimental conditions. Finally, the rhythmic release of melatonin synchronized by a temperature cycle under constant darkness was no longer observed after removal of the external zeitgeber. The present study provides direct evidence that the pineal acts as a photothermotransducer. Photo- and thermoperiod interact on the pineal to determine the amplitude, phase, and duration of the melatonin oscillations. Thermoperiod is not as powerful as photoperiod in entraining the circadian clocks which drive the melatonin-producing rhythm. We provide strong support for the hypothesis that melatonin might be involved in mediating the effects of the fish pineal organ on thermodependent physiological and behavioral processes.
    Neuroendocrinology 01/1994; 60(5):535-543. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study describes the patterns of melatonin production in the mule (Equus asinus x Equus caballus). Blood was sampled hourly for 24 h from eight mule mares in spring and fall. The data obtained show the presence of a circadian rhythm of production of melatonin, with highest values during the dark phase both in spring and fall. In fall the nightly rise of melatonin production begins earlier in the dark phase and reaches higher quantitative levels than in spring. The morning decline of melatonin production is similar in the two seasons. Maximal levels of nightly melatonin production in the mule are about 10 x higher than those described in the horse. The results reported here indicate the persistence of brain structures able to receive and transduce environmental signals in the mule, a genetically sterile mammalian hybrid.
    Journal of Pineal Research 05/1991; 10(3):130-5. · 7.30 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The present study describes the patterns of melatonin production in the mule (Equus asinus × Equus caballus). Blood was sampled hourly for 24 h from eight mule mares in spring and fall. The data obtained show the presence of a circadian rhythm of production of melatonin, with highest values during the dark phase both in spring and fall. In fall the nightly rise of melatonin production begins earlier in the dark phase and reaches higher quantitative levels than in spring. The morning decline of melatonin production is similar in the two seasons. Maximal levels of nightly melatonin production in the mule are about 10× higher than those described in the horse. The results reported here indicate the persistence of brain structures able to receive and transduce environmental signals in the mule, a genetically sterile mammalian hybrid.
    Journal of Pineal Research 03/1991; 10(3):130 - 135. · 7.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the entrainment of melatonin rhythms in rams using symmetrical light-dark cycles of different period length. Five groups of six Ile de France rams were kept in 12L:12D for 7 weeks and then (i) 12L:12D, (ii) 11L:11D, (iii) 10L:10D, (iv) 13L:13D and (v) 14L:14D for a further 3 weeks. Environmental factors other than the light dark cycle were not controlled. The onset and offset of the plasma melatonin rhythm in DD after 3 weeks of the respective light treatments was assessed for 48 hr, immediately after transferring to DD. The duration of secretion in DD was positively related to the length of the previous dark phase. The phase of the melatonin rhythm with respect to the anticipated dark phase suggested entrainment with no change in phase-relationship to the zeitgeber by 12L:12D and 13L:13D. Entrainment with a phase-delay or a phase-advance was apparent after 11L:11D and 14L:14D, but the individual rhythms were not all synchronized with respect to each other after 10L:10D. Activity recordings for 2-3-week periods during 12L:12D, 10L:10D and 14L:14D all showed a major 24-hr component at all times, with activity during the light phase in 12L:12D. It appears that melatonin may be readily desynchronized from overt activity-rest cycles in sheep. The upper and lower entrainment limits are probably greater than 28 hr and close to 20 hr cycles, respectively.
    Chronobiology International 02/1989; 6(4):329-39. · 4.35 Impact Factor