Dag Aarsland

Stavanger University Hospital, Stavenger, Rogaland, Norway

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Publications (369)2187.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Cerebral amyloid-β aggregation is an early pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD), starting decades before dementia onset. Estimates of the prevalence of amyloid pathology in persons without dementia are needed to understand the development of AD and to design prevention studies. OBJECTIVE To use individual participant data meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of amyloid pathology as measured with biomarkers in participants with normal cognition, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DATA SOURCES Relevant biomarker studies identified by searching studies published before April 2015 using the MEDLINE andWeb of Science databases and through personal communication with investigators. STUDY SELECTION Studies were included if they provided individual participant data for participants without dementia and used an a priori defined cutoff for amyloid positivity. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Individual recordswere provided for 2914 participants with normal cognition, 697 with SCI, and 3972 with MCI aged 18 to 100 years from 55 studies. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Prevalence of amyloid pathology on positron emission tomography or in cerebrospinal fluid according to AD risk factors (age, apolipoprotein E [APOE] genotype, sex, and education) estimated by generalized estimating equations. RESULTS The prevalence of amyloid pathology increased from age 50 to 90 years from 10% (95%CI, 8%-13%) to 44%(95%CI, 37%-51%) among participants with normal cognition; from 12%(95%CI, 8%-18%) to 43%(95%CI, 32%-55%) among patients with SCI; and from 27%(95%CI, 23%-32%) to 71%(95%CI, 66%-76%) among patients with MCI. APOE-ε4 carriers had 2 to 3 times higher prevalence estimates than noncarriers. The age at which 15% of the participants with normal cognition were amyloid positive was approximately 40 years for APOE ε4ε4 carriers, 50 years for ε2ε4 carriers, 55 years for ε3ε4 carriers, 65 years for ε3ε3 carriers, and 95 years for ε2ε3 carriers. Amyloid positivity was more common in highly educated participants but not associated with sex or biomarker modality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among persons without dementia, the prevalence of cerebral amyloid pathology as determined by positron emission tomography or cerebrospinal fluid findings was associated with age, APOE genotype, and presence of cognitive impairment. These findings suggest a 20- to 30-year interval between first development of amyloid positivity and onset of dementia.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 05/2015; 313(9):1924-1938. DOI:10.1001/jama.2015.4668 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with disruption in large-scale structural networks in newly diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Graph theoretical analyses were applied to 3T MRI data from 123 PD patients and 56 controls from the Parkinson's progression markers initiative (PPMI). Thirty-three patients were classified as having Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) using the Movement Disorders Society Task Force criteria, while the remaining 90 PD patients were classified as cognitively normal (PD-CN). Global measures (clustering coefficient, characteristic path length, global efficiency, small-worldness) and regional measures (regional clustering coefficient, regional efficiency, hubs) were assessed in the structural networks that were constructed based on cortical thickness and subcortical volume data. PD-MCI patients showed a marked reduction in the average correlation strength between cortical and subcortical regions compared with controls. These patients had a larger characteristic path length and reduced global efficiency in addition to a lower regional efficiency in frontal and parietal regions compared with PD-CN patients and controls. A reorganization of the highly connected regions in the network was observed in both groups of patients. This study shows that the earliest stages of cognitive decline in PD are associated with a disruption in the large-scale coordination of the brain network and with a decrease of the efficiency of parallel information processing. These changes are likely to signal further cognitive decline and provide support to the role of aberrant network topology in cognitive impairment in patients with early PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/hbm.22822 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment in early Parkinson's disease (PD) is common and distinct from early Alzheimer's disease. Predictors and mechanisms are only partially known, but α-synuclein, amyloid-β and tau dysmetabolism may be involved. Our aim was to study associations between cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers (CSF) and cognition in non-dementia PD compared to normal controls (NC) and non-PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI non-PD). Patients were classified as having normal, subjective or mild cognitive impairment after cognitive screening. CSF levels of total α-synuclein (t-α-syn), amyloid-β (Aβ) 38, 40 and 42, total tau (T-tau) and phosphorylated tau (P-tau) were measured in 34 NC, 31 early, non-dementia PD and 28 MCI non-PD patients. A well validated neuropsychological test battery was administered. In the PD group, 13 had normal cognition, 4 had subjective and 14 mild cognitive impairment. PD patients had significantly lower CSF biomarker levels of t-α-syn, Aβ38, 40 and 42, T-tau and P-tau compared to NC. Compared to MCI non-PD, t-α-syn, Aβ38 and 40, T-tau and P-tau were also lower, while Aβ42 was significantly higher in the PD group. Aβ38 and 40 correlated strongly with t-α-syn levels in PD. Lower Aβ42 was associated with decreased verbal learning, delayed verbal recall and response inhibition in PD. While Aβ38, 40 and t-α-syn levels are strongly correlated, only lower Aβ42 was associated with reduced cognitive functions in early PD, mainly connected to medial temporal lobe-based cognitive functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Parkinsonism & Related Disorders 05/2015; 21(7). DOI:10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.04.027 · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Epidemiological findings suggest a relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD), inflammation and dyslipidemia, although the nature of this relationship is not well understood. We investigated whether this phenotypic association arises from a shared genetic basis. -Using summary statistics (p-values and odds ratios) from genome-wide association studies of over 200,000 individuals, we investigated overlap in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with clinically diagnosed AD and C-reactive protein (CRP), triglycerides (TG), high- (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. We found up to 50-fold enrichment of AD SNPs for different levels of association with CRP, LDL, HDL and TG SNPs using an FDR threshold < 0.05. By conditioning on polymorphisms associated with the four phenotypes, we identified 55 loci associated with increased AD risk. We then conducted a meta-analysis of these 55 variants across four independent AD cohorts (total n = 29,054 AD cases and 114,824 healthy controls) and discovered two genome-wide significant variants on chromosome 4 (rs13113697, closest gene HS3ST1, odds ratio (OR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.11, p = 2.86 x 10(-8)) and chromosome 10 (rs7920721, closest gene ECHDC3, OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.04-1.11, p = 3.38 x 10(-8)). We also found that gene expression of HS3ST1 and ECHDC3 was altered in AD brains compared with control brains. -We demonstrate genetic overlap between AD, CRP, and plasma lipids. By conditioning on the genetic association with the cardiovascular phenotypes, we identify novel AD susceptibility loci including two genome-wide significant variants conferring increased risk for Alzheimer's disease.
    Circulation 04/2015; DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.015489 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Serotonergic dysfunction is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, reductions in brain of both monoamine synthesis and release have been reported. Serotonin 1B receptors (5-HT1B), along with serotonin transporter (SERT) are among the regulators of extracellular 5-HT levels. We investigated the effect of the familial AD APP (Amyloid precursor protein) K670N/M671L double mutation, APP Swedish mutation (APPswe), on the expression of 5-HT1B, SERT, MAOA, p11 and 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line stably transfected with APPswe mutation. In addition, hippocampal expressions of 5-HT1B and SERT were assessed in wild type and transgenic mice expressing APPswe mutation (Tg2576) at different age groups. We found a reduction of 5-HT1B as well as SERT in both APPswe in vitro and ex vivo. P11 and 5HT were also reduced, whereas 5HT turnover and MAOA were increased. Our results indicate that APPswe induced decreased 5-HT1B expression and 5-HT release, as well as increased MAOA activity and 5-HT breakdown. Further studies to explore the detailed mechanism behind reduced 5-HT1B and SERT in AD and their clinical implications are needed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Neuroscience Letters 04/2015; 594. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.03.064 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a search for rare, functional variants altering susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease that exploited knowledge of common variants associated with the same disease. We found that loss-of-function variants in ABCA7 confer risk of Alzheimer's disease in Icelanders (odds ratio (OR) = 2.12, P = 2.2 × 10(-13)) and discovered that the association replicated in study groups from Europe and the United States (combined OR = 2.03, P = 6.8 × 10(-15)).
    Nature Genetics 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/ng.3246 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dementia is an evolving challenge in society, and no disease-modifying treatment exists. Diagnosis can be demanding and MR imaging may aid as a noninvasive method to increase prediction accuracy. We explored the use of 2D local binary pattern (LBP) extracted from FLAIR and T1 MR images of the brain combined with a Random Forest classifier in an attempt to discern patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Lewy body dementia (LBD), and normal controls (NC). Analysis was conducted in areas with white matter lesions (WML) and all of white matter (WM). Results from 10-fold nested cross validation are reported as mean accuracy, precision, and recall with standard deviation in brackets. The best result we achieved was in the two-class problem NC versus AD + LBD with total accuracy of 0.98 (0.04). In the three-class problem AD versus LBD versus NC and the two-class problem AD versus LBD, we achieved 0.87 (0.08) and 0.74 (0.16), respectively. The performance using 3DT1 images was notably better than when using FLAIR images. The results from the WM region gave similar results as in the WML region. Our study demonstrates that LBP texture analysis in brain MR images can be successfully used for computer based dementia diagnosis.
    International Journal of Biomedical Imaging 03/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/572567
  • Journal of public mental health 03/2015; 14(1):8-17. DOI:10.1108/JPMH-05-2014-0019
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    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment (CI) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in early, untreated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Both CI and NPS are common in PD and impact disease course and quality of life. However, limited knowledge is available about cognitive abilities and NPS. Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) is a multi-site study of early, untreated PD patients and healthy controls (HCs), the latter with normal cognition. At baseline, participants were assessed with a neuropsychological battery and for symptoms of depression, anxiety, impulse control disorders (ICDs), psychosis, and apathy. Baseline data of 423 PD patients and 196 HCs yielded no between-group differences in demographic characteristics. Twenty-two percent of PD patients met the PD-recommended screening cutoff for CI on the Montral Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), but only 9% met detailed neuropsychological testing criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI)-level impairment. The PD patients were more depressed than HCs (P < 0.001), with twice as many (14% vs. 7%) meeting criteria for clinically significant depressive symptoms. The PD patients also experienced more anxiety (P < 0.001) and apathy (P < 0.001) than HCs. Psychosis was uncommon in PD (3%), and no between-group difference was seen in ICD symptoms (P = 0.51). Approximately 10% of PD patients in the early, untreated disease state met traditional criteria of CI, which is a lower frequency compared with previous studies. Multiple dopaminergic-dependent NPS are also more common in these patients compared with the general population, but others associated with dopamine replacement therapy are not or are rare. Future analyses of this cohort will examine biological predictors and the course of CI and NPS. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2015 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
    Movement Disorders 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/mds.26170 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the genetic overlap between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Using summary statistics (P-values) from large recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) (total n=89 904 individuals), we sought to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with both AD and PD. We found and replicated association of both AD and PD with the A allele of rs393152 within the extended MAPT region on chromosome 17 (meta analysis P-value across five independent AD cohorts=1.65 × 10(-7)). In independent datasets, we found a dose-dependent effect of the A allele of rs393152 on intra-cerebral MAPT transcript levels and volume loss within the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus. Our findings identify the tau-associated MAPT locus as a site of genetic overlap between AD and PD, and extending prior work, we show that the MAPT region increases risk of Alzheimer's neurodegeneration.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 17 February 2015; doi:10.1038/mp.2015.6.
    Molecular Psychiatry 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/mp.2015.6 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a recognized therapy that improves motor symptoms in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, little is known about its impact on personality. To address this topic, we have assessed personality traits before and after STN-DBS in PD patients. Methods. Forty patients with advanced PD were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): the Urgency, Premeditation, Perseverance, Sensation Seeking impulsive behaviour scale (UPPS), and the Neuroticism and Lie subscales of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-N, EPQ-L) before surgery and after three months of STN-DBS. Collateral information obtained from the UPPS was also reported. Results. Despite improvement in motor function and reduction in dopaminergic dosage patients reported lower score on the TCI Persistence and Self-Transcendence scales, after three months of STN-DBS, compared to baseline (P = 0.006; P = 0.024). Relatives reported significantly increased scores on the UPPS Lack of Premeditation scale at follow-up (P = 0.027). Conclusion. STN-DBS in PD patients is associated with personality changes in the direction of increased impulsivity.
    Parkinson's Disease 01/2015; 2015:490507. DOI:10.1155/2015/490507 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Computer-aided diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a rapidly developing field of neuroimaging with strong potential to be used in practice. In this context, assessment of models' robustness to noise and imaging protocol differences together with post-processing and tuning strategies are key tasks to be addressed in order to move towards successful clinical applications. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of Random Forest classifiers trained using different structural MRI measures, with and without neuroanatomical constraints in the detection and prediction of AD in terms of accuracy and between-cohort robustness.
    12/2014; 6. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2014.08.023
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Knowledge of the cognitive performance associated with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in newly diagnosed Parkinson disease (PD) patients is limited. We thus wanted to explore 1) the frequency of RBD in patients with PD at a relatively early stage and 2) cognitive performance associated with RBD in PD. We hypothesized that RBD would be associated with cognitive impairment in PD. Methods: 29 non-demented patients recently diagnosed with PD (disease duration<5 years, Hoehn and Yahr stage <2.5 and no dementia) were recruited. The diagnosis of PD was supported by dopamine transporter SPECT. RBD was diagnosed based on standardized clinical interview and confirmed by polysomnography. Overall cognition was assessed by screening tests including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and neuropsychological tests of memory, language, executive, attentional and visuospatial functions tests were performed. Results: 13 patients (45%) had probable RBD. There were no significant differences between PD with and without RBD in any of the neuropsychological tests, but a numerically lower performance was observed in the PD RBD group on memory tests Conclusions: RBD is common even in early PD without dementia, but was not found to be associated significantly with cognition.
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) are the most common neurodegenerative disorders. For both diseases, early intervention is thought to be essential to the success of disease-modifying treatments. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) can reflect some of the pathophysiological changes that occur in the brain, and the number of CSF biomarkers under investigation in neurodegenerative conditions has grown rapidly in the past 20 years. In AD, CSF biomarkers are increasingly being used in clinical practice, and have been incorporated into the majority of clinical trials to demonstrate target engagement, to enrich or stratify patient groups, and to find evidence of disease modification. In PD, CSF biomarkers have not yet reached the clinic, but are being studied in patients with parkinsonism, and are being used in clinical trials either to monitor progression or to demonstrate target engagement and downstream effects of drugs. CSF biomarkers might also serve as surrogate markers of clinical benefit after a specific therapeutic intervention, although additional data are required. It is anticipated that CSF biomarkers will have an important role in trials aimed at disease modification in the near future. In this Review, we provide an overview of CSF biomarkers in AD and PD, and discuss their role in clinical trials.
    Nature Reviews Neurology 12/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1038/nrneurol.2014.232 · 14.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease (AD) cause significant distress and present a complex clinical challenge for treatment. Pharmacological treatment options are limited to antipsychotics, which carry extensive safety issues. There is emerging evidence to support the potential benefits of memantine, currently licensed for moderate to severe AD, in the prophylaxis of neuropsychiatric symptoms. The MAIN-AD study is a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled withdrawal trial comparing memantine with antipsychotics for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms over 24 weeks. A total of 199 people with probable AD living in care homes already receiving an antipsychotic were randomized to receive either memantine or to continue an antipsychotic. The primary outcomes were function (Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale [BADLS]) and agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory [CMAI]). Secondary outcomes were Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and mortality. There was no significant difference between groups on the BADLS or CMAI. At 24 weeks, there was a nonsignificant adjusted difference in favor of memantine on the BADLS of 0.23 (95% CI -1.80-2.27; P = .82) and in favor of antipsychotic on the CMAI of 0.09 (95% CI -0.35-8.53; P = .07). Although there were no significant differences in total NPI, there were 5.01 (95% CI -1.68-11.70; P = .05) and 3.63 (95% CI -1.40-8.67; P = .16) point advantages favoring antipsychotics at weeks 12 and 24, respectively. In addition, in an exploratory analysis, individuals allocated to antipsychotics were significantly less likely to experience relapse of neuropsychiatric symptoms at all time points. The group receiving memantine had a nonsignificant 1.3-point advantage on the MMSE at 24 weeks. This study indicates no benefits for memantine in the long-term treatment and prophylaxis of clinically significant neuropsychiatric symptoms. The results did indicate some benefits for antipsychotic medications in reducing the relapse of neuropsychiatric symptoms, but this must be balanced against increased mortality risk. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 12/2014; 16(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jamda.2014.11.002 · 4.78 Impact Factor
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    Non-Motor Dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders, Nice, France; 12/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To find the frequency of probable REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in mild dementia with Lewybodies (DLB) as compared with mild Alzheimer’s dementia (AD). Method: A well validated sleep questionnaire, The Mayo Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ), was administered to the bed partners and caregivers of patients included in the dementia study of western Norway (Dem-West-study). The questionnaire includes screening questions to detect REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and other sleep disturbances. DLB was diagnosed according to the revised consensus criteria which includes RBD as a diagnostic criterion for DLB. Results: A total of 83 (37, 6%) persons were diagnosed with DLB and 138 (62.4%) persons were diagnosed with AD and were included in this study. Mean age in DLB was 77.0 years (7.2) and in AD 75.5 years (7.8), p=0.260 and mean MMSE scores were 23.0 (3.2) in DLB and 23.8 (2.2) in AD, p=0.028. Sleep partners confirmed probable RBD in 40 % of participants diagnosed with DLB and in 9 % of participants diagnosed with AD. The average duration of RBD symptoms among participants diagnosed with DLB was 6.2 years (SD=7.7) and 4.6 years (SD=4.0) in AD, p=0.583. Two DLB patients and three bed partners were seriously injured under RBD episodes. Twenty patients reported vivid or violent dreams: 16 (55.2%) with DLB and 4 (22.2%) with AD and, p=0.066. Conclusion: Probable RBD is frequently reported from bed partners of persons diagnosed clinically with mild DLB applying the MAYO sleep questionnaire (MSQ). Probable RBD was also reported in persons diagnosed clinically with AD. Probable RBD is potentially harmful for patients and bed partners in mild dementia. Circularity must be considered in this study as RBD was also part of the diagnostic criteria for DLB.
    Non-Motor Dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders, Niece, France; 12/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Cognitive impairment is one of the earliest, most common, and most disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, routine screening of global cognitive abilities is important for the optimal management of PD patients. Few global cognitive screening instruments have been developed for or validated in PD patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Dementia Rating Scale-2 (DRS-2) have been used extensively for cognitive screening in both clinical and research settings. Determining how to convert the scores between instruments would facilitate the longitudinal assessment of cognition in clinical settings and the comparison and synthesis of cognitive data in multicenter and longitudinal cohort studies. The primary aim of this study was to apply a simple and reliable algorithm for the conversion of MoCA to MMSE scores in PD patients. A secondary aim was to apply this algorithm for the conversion of DRS-2 to both MMSE and MoCA scores. The cognitive performance of a convenience sample of 360 patients with idiopathic PD was assessed by at least two of these cognitive screening instruments. We then developed conversion scores between the MMSE, MoCA, and DRS-2 using equipercentile equating and log-linear smoothing. The conversion score tables reported here enable direct and easy comparison of three routinely used cognitive screening assessments in PD patients. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society
    Movement Disorders 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/mds.26062 · 5.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Pain is frequent and distressing in people with dementia, but no randomized controlled trials have evaluated the effect of analgesic treatment on pain intensity as a key outcome.Methods Three hundred fifty-two people with dementia and significant agitation from 60 nursing home units were included in this study. These units, representing 18 nursing homes in western Norway, were randomized to a stepwise protocol of treating pain (SPTP) or usual care. The SPTP group received acetaminophen, morphine, buprenorphine transdermal patch and pregabalin for 8 weeks, with a 4-week washout period. Medications were governed by the SPTP and each participant's existing prescriptions. We obtained pain intensity scores from 327 patients (intervention n = 164, control n = 163) at five time points assessed by the primary outcome measure, Mobilization-Observation-Behaviour-Intensity-Dementia-2 (MOBID-2) Pain Scale. The secondary outcome was activities of daily living (ADL). We used a linear intercept mixed model in a two-way repeated measures configuration to assess change over time and between groups.ResultsThe SPTP conferred significant benefit in MOBID-2 scores compared with the control group [average treatment effect (ATE) −1.388; p < 0.001] at week 8, and MOBID-2 scores worsened during the washout period (ATE = −0.701; p = 0.022). Examining different analgesic treatments, benefit was conferred to patients receiving acetaminophen compared with the controls at week 2 (ATE = −0.663; p = 0.010), continuing to increase until week 8 (ATE = −1.297; p < 0.001). Although there were no overall improvements in ADL, an increase was seen in the group receiving acetaminophen (ATE = +1.0; p = 0.022).Conclusion Pain medication significantly improved pain in the intervention group, with indications that acetaminophen also improved ADL function.
    European journal of pain (London, England) 11/2014; 18(10). DOI:10.1002/ejp.523 · 3.22 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

17k Citations
2,187.07 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2015
    • Stavanger University Hospital
      • • Division of Psychiatry
      • • Department of Neurology
      Stavenger, Rogaland, Norway
    • Ruhr-Universität Bochum
      Bochum, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2014
    • Karolinska University Hospital
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2011–2014
    • Karolinska Institutet
      • • Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society - NVS
      • • KI Alzheimer's Disease Research Center - ADRC
      Solna, Stockholm, Sweden
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neurology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2008–2014
    • University of Stavanger (UiS)
      Stavenger, Rogaland, Norway
  • 2013
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • University of Oslo
      • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2007–2011
    • King's College London
      • Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2011
    • University of Bergen
      • Institute of Medicine
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2005–2009
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2001
    • Henry M Jackson Foundation
      Maryland City, Maryland, United States
  • 1999
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 1995–1996
    • NKS Olaviken, Hospital for Old Age Psychiatry
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway