David A Campbell

University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, United States

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Publications (3)19.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a central regulator of tumor progression in human cancers. Cetuximab is an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody that has been approved for use in oncology. Despite clinical success the majority of patients do not respond to cetuximab and those who initially respond frequently acquire resistance. To understand how tumor cells acquire resistance to cetuximab we developed a model of resistance using the non-small cell lung cancer line NCI-H226. We found that cetuximab-resistant (Ctx (R) ) clones manifested strong activation of EGFR, PI3K/AKT and MAPK. To investigate the role of AKT signaling in cetuximab resistance we analyzed the activation of the AKT pathway effector molecules using a human AKT phospho-antibody array. Strong activation was observed in Ctx (R) clones for several key AKT substrates including c-jun, GSK3β, eIF4E, rpS6, IKKα, IRS-1 and Raf1. Inhibition of AKT signaling by siAKT1/2 or by the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 resulted in robust inhibition of cell proliferation in all Ctx (R) clones. Moreover, the combinational treatment of cetuximab and MK-2206 resulted in further decreases in proliferation than either drug alone. This combinatorial treatment resulted in decreased activity of both AKT and MAPK thus highlighting the importance of simultaneous pathway inhibition to maximally affect the growth of Ctx (R) cells. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that AKT activation is an important pathway in acquired resistance to cetuximab and suggests that combinatorial therapy directed at both the AKT and EGFR/MAPK pathways may be beneficial in this setting.
    Cancer biology & therapy 06/2013; 14(6):481-91. DOI:10.4161/cbt.24342 · 3.07 Impact Factor
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    Mari Iida · Toni M. Brand · David A Campbell · Chunrong Li · Deric L. Wheeler
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    ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a central regulator of tumor progression in human cancers. Cetuximab is an anti-EGFR antibody that has been approved for use in oncology. Previously we investigated mechanisms of resistance to cetuximab using a model derived from the non-small cell lung cancer line NCI-H226. We demonstrated that cetuximab-resistant clones (CtxR) had increased nuclear localization of the EGFR. This process was mediated by Src family kinases (SFK), and nuclear EGFR played a role in resistance to cetuximab. To better understand SFK mediated nuclear translocation of EGFR, we investigated which SFK member(s) controlled this process as well as the EGFR tyrosine residues that are involved. Analyses of mRNA and protein expression indicated up-regulation of the SFK members Yes and Lyn in all CtxR clones. Further, immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that EGFR interacts with Yes and Lyn in CtxR clones, but not in cetuximab-sensitive (CtxS) parental cells. Using RNAi interference, we found that knockdown of either Yes or Lyn led to loss of EGFR translocation to the nucleus. Conversely, overexpression of Yes or Lyn in low nuclear EGFR expressing CtxS parental cells led to increased nuclear EGFR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed nuclear EGFR complexes associated with the promoter of the known EGFR target genes B-Myb and iNOS. Further, all CtxR clones exhibited up-regulation of B-Myb and iNOS at the mRNA and protein levels. siRNAs directed at Yes or Lyn led to decreased binding of EGFR complexes to the B-Myb and iNOS promoters based on ChIP analyses. SFKs have been shown to phosphorylate EGFR on tyrosines 845 and 1101 (Y845 and Y1101) and mutation of Y1101, but not Y845, impaired nuclear entry of the EGFR. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Yes and Lyn phosphorylate EGFR at Y1101 which influences EGFR nuclear translocation in this model of cetuximab resistance.
    Oncogene 03/2012; 32(6). DOI:10.1038/onc.2012.90 · 8.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KRAS mutation is a predictive biomarker for resistance to cetuximab (Erbitux) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This study sought to determine if KRAS mutant CRC lines could be sensitized to cetuximab using dasatinib (BMS-354825, Sprycel), a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of several tyrosine kinases, including the Src family kinases (SFKs). We analyzed 16 CRC lines for: (1) KRAS mutation status, (2) dependence on mutant KRAS signaling and (3) expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and SFKs. From these analyses, we selected three KRAS mutant (LS180, LoVo and HCT116) cell lines and two KRAS wild-type cell lines (SW48 and CaCo2). In vitro, using poly-D-lysine/laminin plates, KRAS mutant cell lines were resistant to cetuximab, whereas KRAS wild-type lines showed sensitivity to cetuximab. Treatment with cetuximab and dasatinib showed a greater antiproliferative effect on KRAS mutant lines when compared with either agent alone in vitro and in vivo. To investigate potential mechanisms for this antiproliferative response in the combinatorial therapy, we performed Human Phospho-Kinase Antibody Array analysis, measuring the relative phosphorylation levels of 39 intracellular proteins in untreated, cetuximab, dasatinib or the combinatorial treatment in the KRAS mutant lines LS180, LoVo and HCT116 cells. The results of this experiment showed a decrease in a broad spectrum of kinases centered on the β-catenin pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and the family of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) when compared with the untreated control or monotherapy treatments. Next, we analyzed tumor growth with cetuximab, dasatinib or their combination in vivo. KRAS mutant xenografts showed resistance to cetuximab therapy, whereas KRAS wild type demonstrated an antitumor response when treated with cetuximab. KRAS mutant tumors exhibited minimal response to dasatinib monotherapy. However, as in vitro, KRAS mutant lines exhibited a response to the combination of cetuximab and dasatinib. Combinatorial treatment of KRAS mutant xenografts resulted in decreased cell proliferation, as measured by Ki67, and higher rates of apoptosis, as measured by TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling). The data presented in this study indicate that dasatinib can sensitize KRAS mutant CRC tumors to cetuximab and may do so by altering the activity of several key signaling pathways. Furthermore, these results suggest that signaling via EGFR and SFKs may be necessary for cell proliferation and survival of KRAS mutant CRC tumors. These data strengthen the rationale for clinical trials combining cetuximab and dasatinib in the KRAS mutant CRC genetic setting.
    Oncogene 10/2010; 30(5):561-74. DOI:10.1038/onc.2010.430 · 8.46 Impact Factor