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ABSTRACT: Chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) causes volume overload on the left ventricle and, if uncorrected, will over time lead to left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. The benefits of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) in primary MR are not well defined.
MEDLINE was searched for studies in which the effects of ACE inhibitors and ARBs on chronic MR had been examined. The inclusion criteria required the patient population to have chronic MR, a normal left ventricular ejection fraction, and to report a quantitative measure of the change in MR severity. Studies in which patients had secondary MR were excluded.
Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria (13 daily therapy, five single-dose, and one combined study). The pooled mean decrease in regurgitant fraction (RF) was 7.7% [95% CI 4.9, 10.6] and 9.3% [95% CI 3.4, 15.2] for studies in patients with daily therapy and single-dose therapy, respectively. Among studies which reported changes in regurgitant volume (RV), the pooled mean decrease was 7.9 ml [95% CI 1.4, 14.5]. For patients with mitral valve prolapse (MVP), the pooled mean reduction in RF was 8.1% [95% CI 4.3, 11.9] and in rheumatic disease it was 3.4% [95% CI 13.2 - 7.0]. Across the seven studies of daily therapy which reported a change in left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), the mean decrease was 11.5 ml/m2 [95% CI 2.4, 20.6].
ACE inhibitors and ARBs each reduced the RF, RV, and left ventricular size by a modest degree in chronic primary MR.
The Journal of heart valve disease 05/2012; 21(3):275-85. · 1.07 Impact Factor
Circulation 04/2012; 125(16):2035-44. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In acute aortic dissection, delays exist between presentation and diagnosis and, once diagnosed, definitive treatment. This study aimed to define the variables associated with these delays.
Acute aortic dissection patients enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) between 1996 and January 2007 were evaluated for factors contributing to delays in presentation to diagnosis and in diagnosis to surgery. Multiple linear regression was performed to determine relative delay time ratios (DTRs) for individual correlates. The median time from arrival at the emergency department to diagnosis was 4.3 hours (quartile 1-3, 1.5-24 hours; n=894 patients) and from diagnosis to surgery was 4.3 hours (quartile 1-3, 2.4-24 hours; n=751). Delays in acute aortic dissection diagnosis occurred in female patients; those with atypical symptoms that were not abrupt or did not include chest, back, or any pain; patients with an absence of pulse deficit or hypotension; or those who initially presented to a nontertiary care hospital (all P<0.05). The largest relative DTRs were for fever (DTR=5.11; P<0.001) and transfer from nontertiary hospital (DTR=3.34; P<0.001). Delay in time from diagnosis to surgery was associated with a history of previous cardiac surgery, presentation without abrupt or any pain, and initial presentation to a nontertiary care hospital (all P<0.001). The strongest factors associated with operative delay were prolonged time from presentation to diagnosis (DTR=1.35; P<0.001), race other than white (DTR=2.25; P<0.001), and history of coronary artery bypass surgery (DTR=2.81; P<0.001).
Improved physician awareness of atypical presentations and prompt transport of acute aortic dissection patients could reduce crucial time variables.
Circulation 11/2011; 124(18):1911-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor
Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 07/2010; 3(4):424-30. · 5.66 Impact Factor
Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2010; 55(10).