Cynthia A Conklin

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Are you Cynthia A Conklin?

Claim your profile

Publications (32)109.15 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent research has identified that the environments in which smoking has previously occurred can alone, in the absence of any explicit smoking stimuli (e.g., cigarettes, lighters), serve as cues that induce robust craving to smoke. The goal of the present study was to determine if people can similarly function as smoking and nonsmoking cues capable of directly affecting smokers' cue-induced craving. Smokers (N = 72) borrowed cameras to take photos of the people in their lives around whom they do and do not smoke ("personal" smoking and nonsmoking people, PS and PN, respectively). Self-report and physiological cue reactivity to those photos were compared with smokers' reactivity to photos of people unknown to them ("standard" smoking and nonsmoking people, SS and SN, respectively). Results suggest that the people around whom smokers regularly smoke (PS) can alone function as cues capable of eliciting patterns of reactivity similar to that evoked by proximal and environment smoking cues, namely, increased craving to smoke, negative affect, and excitement. In contrast, the people around whom smokers do not smoke become associated with not smoking (PN) and serve a potential protective function by reducing craving and increasing calm. This novel investigation and its results have implications for promoting smoking cessation by developing strategies to manage a smoker's social environment.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 07/2013; · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The association between smokers' cue-induced craving and subsequent ability to initiate abstinence is unclear. Dependent smokers (N = 158) completed a single cue-reactivity session prior to participating in a larger within-subjects study, which independently examined predictors of initiating quitting during 5 days each on nicotine versus placebo patch. In the larger study, all smokers used nicotine and placebo patch (double blind) for 1 week each following a preceding week of ad lib smoking, in a 2 × 2 cross-over design. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models determined the predictive ability of cue-induced craving (cue reactivity) on subsequent success at initiating a quit attempt (at least 24 hr quit) for each patch condition. Smokers who exhibited greater craving during exposure to smoking cues had significantly greater odds of successfully initiating abstinence during either quit attempt week (i.e., the nicotine or placebo patch week). This relationship was not statistically significant for self-reported craving in response to neutral cues. However, a greater smoking-neutral cue difference score for cue-induced craving was also a significant predictor of successfully initiating abstinence, but only among those not monetarily reinforced. Implications of these seemingly counterintuitive findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 08/2012; · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Negative mood situations increase craving to smoke, even in the absence of any tobacco deprivation (e.g. "stressors"). Individual differences in effects of negative mood situations on craving have received relatively little attention but may include variability between men and women. Across two separate within-subjects studies, we examined sex differences in craving (via the QSU-brief) as functions of brief smoking abstinence (versus satiation; Study 1) and acute induction of negative mood (versus neutral mood; Study 2). Subjective ratings of negative affect (via the Mood Form) were also assessed. In Study 1, we compared the effects of overnight (>12h) abstinence versus non-abstinence on craving and affect in adult male (n=63) and female (n=42) smokers. In Study 2, these responses to negative versus neutral mood induction (via pictorial slides and music) were examined in male (n=85) and female (n=78) satiated smokers. Results from each study were similar in showing that craving during the abstinence and negative mood induction conditions was greater in women than men, as hypothesized, although the sex difference in craving due to abstinence was only marginal after controlling for dependence. Craving was strongly associated with negative affect in both studies. These results suggest that very acute negative mood situations (e.g. just a few minutes in Study 2), and perhaps overnight abstinence, may increase craving to smoke to a greater extent in women relative to men.
    Addictive behaviors 06/2012; · 2.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Negative mood situations often increase smoking behavior and reward, effects that may be greater among women and smokers low in tolerance for distress. METHODS: Adult dependent smokers (N = 164; 86 men, 78 women) first completed measures of distress tolerance via self-report and by mirror-tracing and breath-holding tasks. They then participated in 2 virtually identical laboratory sessions, involving induction of negative versus neutral mood (control) via pictorial slides and music. They rated negative affect (NA) before and during mood induction and smoked their preferred brand ad libitum during the last 14 min of mood induction. Our aim was to examine mood effects on NA, smoking reward ("liking"), and smoking intake (puff volume and number) as a function of sex and distress tolerance. RESULTS: Negative mood induction increased NA, as planned, and smoking reward and intake compared with neutral mood. Increases in NA and puff volume due to negative mood were greater in women compared with men, as hypothesized, but no main effects of the self-report or behavioral distress tolerance measures were seen in responses to mood induction. However, unexpectedly, lower self-reported distress tolerance was associated with greater smoking intake due to negative (but not neutral) mood in men and generally due to neutral (but not negative) mood in women.Conclusions:Negative mood may increase smoking intake more in women compared with men. Yet, low distress tolerance may enhance smoking intake due to negative versus neutral mood differentially between women and men, suggesting that sex and distress tolerance may interact to influence smoking responses to negative mood.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 03/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smoking behavior may be more persistent among those who expect that smoking will relieve negative affect (NA). Assessing smoking expectancies temporally close to mood situations could enhance the predictive value of that assessment. Dependent smokers (n = 71; 43 male, 28 female) participated in five laboratory sessions, each involving mood induction. The NA relief scale of the Smoking Consequences Questionnaire-Adult (SCQ-A), a very common measure of smoking expectancies during hypothetical situations, was assessed during initial screening. The SCQ-A was compared with a modified acute version administered each session, in which items asked about immediate expectancy for NA relief by smoking "right now" (termed Immediate Negative Affect Relief, or INAR). Actual NA relief due to smoking was measured each session by change on the NA scale of the Diener & Emmons Mood Form. The five sessions (counterbalanced) involved three different negative mood tasks, the negative mood condition of overnight smoking abstinence, and neutral mood (control). Generalized estimating equations showed that temporal proximity to the mood situation slightly enhanced the ability of expectancy to predict actual change in NA due to smoking, as the interaction with condition was significant for the INAR but marginal for the SCQ-A. However, the acute INAR predicted NA relief due to smoking only after overnight smoking abstinence and not during the other specific mood induction conditions, contrary to expectations, while the SCQ-A was not significant during any of the individual conditions. In sum, assessment of expectancy for NA relief may be of limited use in predicting actual NA relief from smoking during a current mood situation, aside from NA due to overnight abstinence.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 12/2011; 20(2):161-6. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute smoking behavior (i.e., puff topography) and subjective responses during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette in the laboratory may provide useful measures of smoking reinforcement and reward, respectively. However, the reliability of such measures is not clear, leaving uncertain the utility of a single assessment of smoking behavior as an individual difference measure. Dependent smokers (N = 94) smoked normally prior to each of 4 laboratory sessions during which they were instructed to smoke 1 cigarette of their preferred brand in ad libitum and unblinded fashion and then rate it for subjective effects. Puff topography (puff number, total volume, and maximum volume) was assessed via portable Clinical Research Support System device. Subjective reward and perception were assessed by visual analog scales of "liking" and "how strong," respectively. The reliability of puff topography and subjective measures was determined across days by intra-class correlations (ICCs). Differences due to sex and nicotine dependence (high and low Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence score) were also examined. Reliability was highly significant for each measure. ICCs were .70 for total puff volume, .60 for maximum puff volume, .73 for puff number, .64 for liking, and .78 for how strong. Reliability generally did not differ by sex or dependence, but absolute values for total volume and maximum puff volume were greater in men and in high dependent smokers. Liking was also greater in high dependent smokers. Puff topography and subjective measures during the ad lib smoking of a single cigarette are highly reliable. Smoking responses during a single ad lib smoking session may be useful in identifying stable individual differences in smoking reinforcement and reward.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10/2011; 14(4):490-4. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Social learning theory considers self-efficacy as a causal factor in behavior change. However, in line with behavioral theory, recent clinical research suggests self-efficacy ratings may reflect, rather than cause, behavior change. To test these two disparate views, self-efficacy was related to actual smoking abstinence on the next day (i.e., self-efficacy causes change), and abstinence status over 1 day was tested as a predictor of rated self-efficacy for quitting the next day (i.e., reflects change). All data were from two similar crossover studies evaluating the short-term effects of both placebo versus medication, nicotine patch (n = 209) or varenicline (n = 123), on smoking abstinence during week-long practice quit attempts. Placebo and active medication periods were separated by an ad lib smoking washout, and analyses were controlled for prior-day's abstinence or self-efficacy values. Results were very consistent between studies in showing essentially bidirectional associations: daily self-efficacy predicted next-day's abstinence, and current-day's abstinence status predicted self-efficacy for abstinence the next day. However, secondary factors differentially predicted abstinence and, to a lesser extent, self-efficacy, between these two medication studies. These data provide some support for both social learning and behavioral theories of smoking behavior change, although self-efficacy may only briefly predict subsequent short periods of abstinence as assessed in these studies. Nonetheless, because self-efficacy has long been assumed to cause behavior change, including smoking cessation, the notion of self-efficacy as a reflection of recent smoking behavior change in these studies warrants greater attention in clinical research on smoking cessation treatment.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 09/2011; 20(1):56-62. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pictorial representations of specific environments related to smoking can evoke robust craving to smoke, even in the absence of any proximal cues to smoke (e.g., cigarettes, lighters). To evaluate the salience of smoking environment cues, we developed a novel procedure for bringing smokers' real world smoking and nonsmoking environments into the laboratory to compare them with standard (i.e., not personalized) environments within a cue-reactivity paradigm. Seventy-two smokers used digital cameras to take pictures of the environments in which they do and do not smoke. They then completed a cue-reactivity session during which they viewed and rated pictures of smoking and nonsmoking environments, half personal and half standard, all devoid of proximal smoking cues. As hypothesized, personal environments led to a significantly larger smoking-nonsmoking difference in craving, compared with the standard environments. Personalization also enhanced stimuli vividness, relevance, positive affect, and excitement, as well as heart rate changes from baseline. Implications of these findings for exposure-based research and treatment for addiction, as well as other psychological disorders, are discussed.
    Drug and alcohol dependence 09/2010; 111(1-2):58-63. · 3.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smoking acutely relieves negative affect (NA) due to smoking abstinence but may not relieve NA from other sources, such as stressors. Dependent smokers (n = 104) randomly assigned to one of three smoking conditions (nicotine or denicotinized cigarettes, or no smoking) completed four negative mood induction procedures (one per session): 1) overnight smoking abstinence, 2) challenging computer task, 3) public speech preparation, and 4) watching negative mood slides. A fifth session involved a neutral mood control. The two smoking groups took four puffs on their assigned cigarette and then smoked those same cigarettes ad libitum during continued mood induction. All subjects rated their level of NA and positive affect on several measures (Mood Form, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Stress-Arousal Checklist, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-state). They also rated craving and withdrawal. Negative affect relief from smoking depended on the NA source (i.e., mood induction procedure) and the affect measure. Smoking robustly relieved NA due to abstinence on all four measures but only modestly relieved NA due to the other sources and typically on only some measures. Smoking's effects on positive affect and withdrawal were similar to effects on NA, but relief of craving depended less on NA source. Smoking reinforcement only partly matched the pattern of NA relief. Few responses differed between the nicotine and denicotinized smoking groups. Acute NA relief from smoking depends on the situation and the affect measure used but may not depend on nicotine intake. These results challenge the common assumption that smoking, and nicotine in particular, broadly alleviates NA.
    Biological psychiatry 04/2010; 67(8):707-14. · 8.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and may do so to a greater degree in smokers vulnerable to negative mood dysregulation. Adult smokers (N = 71) without current depression were randomly assigned to one of two smoking conditions (nicotine or denic cigarettes, presented blind) maintained across all sessions. Subjects completed one neutral mood session and four negative mood induction sessions. Negative mood inductions included one each of the following: 1) overnight smoking abstinence, 2) challenging computer task, 3) public speech preparation, 4) watching negative mood slides. In each session, subjects took 4 puffs on their assigned cigarette, rated it for "liking" (reward), and then smoked those cigarettes ad libitum (reinforcement) during continued mood induction. Affect was assessed intermittently before and after smoking. Differences in responses were examined as functions of self-reported history of major depression and levels of distress tolerance and anxiety sensitivity. Smoking reinforcement, but not reward or negative affect relief, was greater in all sessions in those with a history of depression and greater after overnight abstinence in those with lower distress tolerance. Reward and affect relief, but not reinforcement, were greater during speech preparation among those high in anxiety sensitivity. Low distress tolerance may enhance acute smoking reinforcement due to abstinence, while depression history may broadly increase acute smoking reinforcement regardless of mood. Neither smoking reward nor affect help explain these individual differences in smoking reinforcement.
    Psychopharmacology 03/2010; 210(1):25-34. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We recently showed effects of nicotine dose and nicotine expectancy on some responses to cigarette smoking, with generally no influence of induced mood on these effects. The present study extended this line of research to Nicotrol nasal spray, to determine whether formulation (spray vs. smoking) alters responses. Smokers abstained overnight before each of two virtually identical sessions, involving negative or positive mood induction. They were randomized to one of five groups, four comprising the 2 x 2 balanced placebo design, varying actual and expected dose of nicotine in the nasal spray, and the fifth group a no-spray control. Dependent measures included self-reported affect, craving, withdrawal, and spray ratings of "liking" and "how much nicotine." Analyses were limited to those whose nicotine expectancies were manipulated successfully (N = 48). The following results matched those from our smoking study: expecting nicotine increased liking; expected, but not actual, nicotine dose increased dose perception; neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on affect or withdrawal; and mood had no influence on these effects. However, both actual and expected nicotine dose decreased craving in response to spray, contrary to our prior study with smoking. Formulation made little difference in some effects of nicotine and expectancies, but other effects differed by formulation. Some of these findings, particularly for craving reduction, may have implications for enhancing the acute therapeutic effects of nasal spray and, perhaps, other medications in smokers trying to maintain abstinence after quitting.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 05/2009; 11(5):540-6. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Negative mood increases smoking reinforcement and risk of relapse. We explored associations of gene variants in the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin pathways with smoking reward ('liking') and reinforcement (latency to first puff and total puffs) as a function of negative mood and expected versus actual nicotine content of the cigarette. Smokers of European ancestry (n=72) were randomized to one of four groups in a 2x2 balanced placebo design, corresponding with manipulation of actual (0.6 vs. 0.05 mg) and expected (told nicotine and told denicotinized) nicotine 'dose' in cigarettes during each of two sessions (negative vs. positive mood induction). Following mood induction and expectancy instructions, they sampled and rated the assigned cigarette, and then smoked additional cigarettes ad lib during continued mood induction. The increase in smoking amount owing to negative mood was associated with: dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T (CC>TT or CT), SLC6A3 (presence of 9 repeat>absence of 9), and among those given a nicotine cigarette, DRD4 (presence of 7 repeat>absence of 7) and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA (TT or CT>CC). SLC6A3, and DRD2/ANKK1 TaqIA were also associated with smoking reward and smoking latency. OPRM1 (AA>AG or GG) was associated with smoking reward, but SLC6A4 variable number tandem repeat was unrelated to any of these measures. These results warrant replication but provide the first evidence for genetic associations with the acute increase in smoking reward and reinforcement owing to negative mood.
    Behavioural Pharmacology 09/2008; 19(5-6):641-9. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Smokers are highly reactive to smoking-related cues that are directly linked, or most proximal, to actual smoking behavior (e.g., lit cigarettes). However, over the course of smoking, proximal cues may not be the only stimuli to become strongly associated with smoking. Distal cues, such as the environments in which smoking occurs (e.g., bar) might also gain associative properties and come to evoke robust reactivity from smokers. To test this, a pilot study was first conducted to develop standard pictorial stimuli of smoking and nonsmoking environments, all of which were completely devoid of proximal smoking cues. A comparison set of smoking and nonsmoking proximal cues was then created. Using the 12 total pictorial cues developed, 62 adult smokers participated in a cue-reactivity study during which they viewed and rated pictorial smoking and nonsmoking environment and proximal cues. Results demonstrate that, similar to proximal cues, environments associated with smoking can alone function as stimuli capable of evoking strong subjective reactivity from smokers. This work supports a broader conceptualization of drug-related cues in cue-based research and treatment development that includes proximal and distal cues as distinct categories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 07/2008; 16(3):207-14. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute responses to smoking are influenced by nicotine and by nonpharmacological factors such as nicotine dose expectancy and sensory effects of smoke inhalation. Because negative mood increases smoking reinforcement, the authors examined whether these effects may be altered by mood context. Smokers (n=200) participated in 2 sessions, negative or positive mood induction, and were randomized to 1 of 5 groups. Four groups comprised the 2x2 balanced placebo design, varying actual (0.6 mg vs. 0.05 mg yield) and expected nicotine dose (expected nicotine vs. denicotinized [denic]) of cigarettes. A fifth group was a no-smoking control. Smoking, versus not smoking, attenuated negative affect, as well as withdrawal and craving. Negative mood increased smoking reinforcement. However, neither actual nor expected nicotine dose had much influence on these responses; even those smokers receiving and expecting a denic cigarette reported attenuated negative affect. A follow-up comparison suggested that the sensory effects of smoke inhalation, but not the simple motor effects of smoking behavior, were responsible. Thus, sensory effects of smoke inhalation had a greater influence on relieving negative affect than actual or expected nicotine intake.
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology 03/2008; 117(1):79-93. · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Compared to men, the smoking behavior of women may be less responsive to nicotine and more responsive to nonpharmacological factors, perhaps including verbal information (e.g., dose instructions). This study compared the influence of the presence vs absence of dose instructions on the subjective and reinforcing effects of nicotine via cigarette smoking in men and women. Subjects (n=120) abstained overnight from smoking and were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Half of the subjects received nicotine cigarettes (Quest 1, yield of 0.6 mg), and the other half received denicotinized cigarettes ("denic"; Quest 3, yield of 0.05 mg). Furthermore, half of each subsample was accurately instructed they were receiving a "normal nicotine" or a "no nicotine" cigarette, while the other half received no instructions. Subjects completed baseline measures of craving and mood (positive and negative affect), took two puffs from the cigarette after receiving dose instructions or no instructions, and then rated the cigarette's "reward" value (liking, satisfying) and other characteristics. They also repeated the craving and mood measures. Subjects then smoked more of that same brand ad libitum over the next 30 min to measure reinforcement (puff number and latency to first puff). Overall, nicotine increased reward, other cigarette ratings, and positive affect, but did not affect craving or smoking behavior. However, results varied by sex. Dose instructions enhanced the effects of nicotine on smoking reward and reinforcement in women, while instructions tended to dampen or even reverse these effects of nicotine in men (i.e., interaction of sex x nicotine x instructions). In women but not in men, the influence of nicotine on smoking reward and reinforcement is enhanced by accurate verbal information about the cigarette's nicotine dose. These results are consistent with the notion that the smoking behavior of women, relative to men, may be more responsive to nonpharmacological factors.
    Psychopharmacology 04/2006; 184(3-4):600-7. · 4.06 Impact Factor
  • Cynthia A Conklin
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Animal research has shown that the environments, or contexts, in which drug use occurs can play a key role in how animals respond to drug-related cues. Less is known about the role of environmental contexts in human drug-dependence research. Traditionally, cue-based studies and treatments focus on conditioned cues most proximal to drug administration (e.g., lit cigarettes, pictorial stimuli of drug paraphernalia). However, there is reason to believe that more distal cues, such as the environments in which drugs were previously used, might similarly gain associative control over human responding. This article describes a body of systematic research aimed at identifying and studying the impact of environmental contexts on smokers' cue reactivity in the laboratory. Overall, results of this program of research demonstrate that exposure to environments associated with smoking, but completely devoid of proximal smoking cues, can function as conditioned stimuli capable of evoking strong subjective responding from abstinent smokers. Furthermore, more robust reactivity can be achieved if environmental context cues are personalized using novel techniques described in this article.
    Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 03/2006; 14(1):12-9. · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research has demonstrated that a lapse in cigarette abstinence often leads smokers to fully relapse (i.e., return to daily smoking). However, patterns of smoking resumption beyond the point at which relapse occurs have not been examined in systematic follow-up studies. Daily cigarette intake data for 108 female adult smokers who participated in a smoking cessation trial were recorded at several points during the 365 days following the participants' quit date. SAS Proc Traj, a group-based mixture modeling procedure, was used to determine cigarette-use trajectories over time (i.e., patterns of smoking resumption). Over the 365 days, 27% of the sample maintained abstinence. Among the 73% who relapsed, four distinct trajectories emerged: low-level users (8% of the overall sample), moderate users (17%), slow-returners (15%), and quick-returners (33%). A few individual characteristics differentiated these groups. Overall, the findings illustrate that, after relapsing, smokers do not follow a unitary course of smoking resumption; rather, they exhibit more variable resumption patterns than previously assumed.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 09/2005; 7(4):533-40. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Cynthia A Conklin, Kenneth A Perkins
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Two notions strongly held by many smokers are that negative mood increases smoking behavior and that this increase is due to the ability of smoking to alleviate negative affect. This study used a modified mood induction procedure to examine both the impact of smoking on induced mood, as well as the effect of induced mood on actual smoking behavior. Forty-eight smokers were randomly assigned to a smoking or a water-drinking comparison group. Each participant attended 3 sessions during which 1 of 3 mood states (positive, negative, or neutral) was induced. Contrary to expectation, smoking did not attenuate negative affect. However, negative mood induction subsequently quickened latency to smoke and increased number of puffs consumed ad lib.
    Journal of Abnormal Psychology 03/2005; 114(1):153-64. · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effects of substance use are typically assumed to be related to pharmacological actions. However, beliefs about the drug content of a substance may strongly influence subjective and reinforcing responses to that substance (i.e., "placebo" effects). We examined the subjective and reinforcing effects of a nasal spray containing no nicotine as a function of instructions about the nicotine content of the spray (Told Nicotine vs. Told No Nicotine). Smokers (n=49) not interested in quitting smoking abstained overnight prior to a single session in which they were randomly assigned to one of three groups, involving one of the two instructional sets or a group that got no spray. Following dose instructions, subjects in the two spray groups were administered one set of four sprays from the spray bottle and then rated them intermittently on items related to "reward" (e.g., "liking", amount they would pay for more) and other effects. At the same time points, they also rated mood, craving, and withdrawal, and had heart rate and blood pressure measured. Reinforcement was then determined by the number of ad libitum sprays they self-administered during a 20-min period. The no-spray group simply rested quietly during the session, while measures were assessed at the same time points as subjects in the other two groups. Those in the Told Nicotine group reported greater spray ratings of "how much nicotine," "liking," "satisfying," "buzz/head rush," and "similar to smoking" compared with the Told No Nicotine group. Craving decreased more for those Told Nicotine versus those Told No Nicotine, but also decreased more for those Told No Nicotine compared with the no spray group. There were no significant differences in amount they would pay for more sprays, withdrawal, mood, cardiovascular responses, or in spray self-administration. These results show that instructions about the nicotine content of a novel delivery device (nasal spray) can influence self-reported spray ratings and reduce craving but are limited with respect to effects on other measures of drug response.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 01/2005; 6(6):1051-60. · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the processes that underlie changes in smoking that occur between the first use of a cigarette, subsequent regular use and eventual addictive use. At present, assessments of those critical processes are poorly developed and not strongly informed by contemporary models of drug dependence. The preceding three papers in this special issue address explicitly how modern drug-dependence theories describe the emergence of drug dependence and the implications of those theories for assessment. The papers covered three domains of theories: negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and cognitive and social learning. In this paper, we summarize these reviews and extract general themes and issues that emerge across all the articles. These include: (1) the importance of learning processes; (2) limitations of self-report measures; (3) the view of dependence as a process and not a state; (4) the conception of dependence on a continuum in contrast to the conventional perspective of tobacco dependence as a natural category; (5) the ontological status of the dependence concept; (6) limitations of backward extrapolations from adult assessments; (7) the possibility of multiple dimensions or forms of dependence; and (8) the value of a transdisciplinary approach when studying the emergence of tobacco dependence.
    Addiction 07/2004; 99 Suppl 1:78-86. · 4.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
109.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2013
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Psychology
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2002–2010
    • Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000–2002
    • Purdue University
      • Department of Psychological Sciences
      West Lafayette, IN, United States