[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in young children. Data on the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis are needed to guide recommendations for rotavirus vaccine use. This study was undertaken to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in European children <5 years of age.
This prospective, study was conducted in 12 hospitals in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom. A sample of all children aged <5 years presenting to emergency departments or hospitalized because of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis was enrolled for parental interview and stool collection. Acute gastroenteritis was defined as diarrhea (>/=3 loose stools per 24 hours) for <14 days. Rotavirus was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and typed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.
Between February 2005 and August 2006, 3734 children with community-acquired acute gastroenteritis were recruited and retained for analysis (55.9% via the emergency department, 41.8% hospitalized). Of the 2928 community-acquired acute gastroenteritis cases for which stool samples were available, 43.4% were rotavirus-positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (32.8% emergency department, 56.2% hospitalized). Of these rotavirus gastroenteritis cases 80.9% occurred in children aged <2 years and 15.9% among infants aged <6 months. Acute gastroenteritis was more severe in rotavirus-positive subjects (Vesikari score >/= 11 in 53.3% compared with 31.0% of rotavirus-negative subjects). All 1271 rotavirus-positive strains were genotyped (G1P: 40.3%; G9P: 31.2%; G4P: 13.5%; G3P: 7.1%).
Rotavirus gastroenteritis places high demands on European health care systems, accounting for 56.2% of hospitalizations and 32.8% of emergency department visits because of community-acquired acute gastroenteritis in children aged <5 years. Most community-acquired rotavirus gastroenteritis occurs in children aged <2 years, and a high proportion occurs in infants aged <6 months. Cases were also observed among very young infants <2 months of age. Rotavirus vaccination is expected to have a major impact in reducing morbidity and the pressure on hospital services in Europe.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pneumococcal infection is common in children with HIV infection, but osteomyelits is unusual. The best treatment for bone and joint infection due to antibiotic resistant pneumococci is not known, especially in immunocompromised children.
A 6 month old girl, infected with HIV by mother to child transmission, had recently started combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). She presented with osteomyelitis of the left radius confirmed on bone scan. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus pneumoniae 9S resistant to penicillin, with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone.
Osteomyelitis was treated with parenteral teicoplanin, oral rifampicin and azithromycin. After two weeks of treatment she developed rash and fever. These were thought to be a drug eruption and resolved when teicoplanin was stopped. She completed a 3 month course of rifampicin and azithromycin and continued on cART. She has normal function of her left wrist 18 months after treatment. She remains on her original cART regimen with an undetectable viral load and normal CD4 count (34%; 1398 × 106/l).
The combination of rifampicin and azithromycin was well tolerated, simple to administer and effective. This combination deserves further study in bone and joint infection caused by antibiotic resistant Gram positive bacteria.