C. P. Dullemond

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (208)895.11 Total impact

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    J. P. Ramsey, C. P. Dullemond
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. The importance of radiation to the physical structure of protoplanetary disks cannot be understated. However, protoplanetary disks evolve with time, and so to understand disk evolution and by association, disk structure, one should solve the combined and time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics. Methods. We implement a new implicit radiation solver in the AZEuS adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics fluid code. Based on a hybrid approach that combines frequency-dependent ray-tracing for stellar irradiation with non-equilibrium flux limited diffusion, we solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics while preserving the directionality of the stellar irradiation. The implementation permits simulations in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates, on both uniform and adaptive grids. Results. We present several hydrostatic and hydrodynamic radiation tests which validate our implementation on uniform and adaptive grids as appropriate, including benchmarks specifically designed for protoplanetary disks. Our results demonstrate that the combination of a hybrid radiation algorithm with AZEuS is an effective tool for radiation hydrodynamics studies, and produces results which are competitive with other astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In a molecular cloud dust opacity typically dominates over gas opacity, yet in the vicinities of forming stars dust is depleted, and gas is the sole provider of opacity. In the optically thin circumstellar environments the radiation temperature cannot be assumed to be equal to the gas temperature, hence the two-temperature Planck means are necessary to calculate the radiative equilibrium. By using the two-temperature mean opacity one does obtain the proper equilibrium gas temperature in a circumstellar environment, which is in a chemical equilibrium. A careful consideration of a radiative transfer problem reveals that the equilibrium temperature solution can be degenerate in an optically thin gaseous environment. We compute mean gas opacities based on the publicly available code DFSYNTHE by Kurucz and Castelli. We performed the calculations assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an ideal gas equation of state. The values were derived by direct integration of the high-resolution opacity spectrum. We produced two sets of gas opacity tables: Rosseland means and two-temperature Planck means (the tables available via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ as well as via http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/homes/malygin). For three metallicities [Me/H] = 0.0,+/-0.3 we covered the parameter range 3.48 <= log T_rad[K] <= 4.48 in radiation temperature, 2.8 <= log T_gas[K]} <= 6.0 in gas temperature, and -10 <= log P[dyn cm^-2] <= 6 in gas pressure. We show that in the optically thin circumstellar environment for a given stellar radiation field and local gas density there are several equilibrium gas temperatures possible. We conclude that, in general, equilibrium gas temperature cannot be determined without treating the temperature evolution.
    08/2014;
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    Joanna Drazkowska, Fredrik Windmark, Cornelis P. Dullemond
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    ABSTRACT: Simple toy models are often not sufficient to cover the complexity of the dust coagulation process, and a number of numerical approaches are therefore used, among which integration of the Smoluchowski equation and various versions of Monte Carlo algorithm are the most popular. In this paper, we directly compare the Smoluchowski and Monte Carlo approaches and we find a general agreement for most of the coagulation problems. However, for the sweep-up growth driven by the "lucky" breakthrough mechanism, the methods exhibit very different resolution dependencies. With too few mass bins, the Smoluchowski algorithm tends to overestimate the growth rate and the probability of breakthrough. The Monte Carlo method is less resolution dependent in the growth timescale aspect but it tends to underestimate the breakthrough chance due to its limited dynamic mass range. We discuss the features and drawbacks of both the approaches, which may limit their astrophysical applications.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present subarcsecond resolution observations of continuum emission associated with the GG Tau quadruple star system at wavelengths of 1.3, 2.8, 7.3, and 50 mm. These data confirm that the GG Tau A binary is encircled by a circumbinary ring at a radius of 235 AU with a FWHM width of ~60 AU. We find no clear evidence for a radial gradient in the spectral shape of the ring, suggesting that the particle size distribution is spatially homogeneous on angular scales 0.''1. A central point source, likely associated with the primary component (GG Tau Aa), exhibits a composite spectrum from dust and free-free emission. Faint emission at 7.3 mm is observed toward the low-mass star GG Tau Ba, although its origin remains uncertain. Using these measurements of the resolved, multifrequency emission structure of the GG Tau A system, models of the far-infrared to radio spectrum are developed to place constraints on the grain size distribution and dust mass in the circumbinary ring. The non-negligible curvature present in the ring spectrum implies a maximum particle size of 1-10 mm, although we are unable to place strong constraints on the distribution shape. The corresponding dust mass is 30-300 M ⊕, at a temperature of 20-30 K. We discuss how this significant concentration of relatively large particles in a narrow ring at a large radius might be produced in a local region of higher gas pressures (i.e., a particle "trap") located near the inner edge of the circumbinary disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 787(2):148. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present sub-arcsecond resolution observations of continuum emission associated with the GG Tau quadruple star system at wavelengths of 1.3, 2.8, 7.3, and 50 mm. These data confirm that the GG Tau A binary is encircled by a circumbinary ring at a radius of 235 AU with a FWHM width of ~60 AU. We find no clear evidence for a radial gradient in the spectral shape of the ring, suggesting that the particle size distribution is spatially homogeneous on angular scales of ~0.1". A central point source, likely associated with the primary component (GG Tau Aa), exhibits a composite spectrum from dust and free-free emission. Faint emission at 7.3 mm is observed toward the low-mass star GG Tau Ba, although its origin remains uncertain. Using these measurements of the resolved, multifrequency emission structure of the GG Tau A system, models of the far-infrared to radio spectrum are developed to place constraints on the grain size distribution and dust mass in the circumbinary ring. The non-negligible curvature present in the ring spectrum implies a maximum particle size of 1-10 mm, although we are unable to place strong constraints on the distribution shape. The corresponding dust mass is 30-300 M_earth, at a temperature of 20-30 K. We discuss how this significant concentration of relatively large particles in a narrow ring at a large radius might be produced in a local region of higher gas pressures (i.e., a particle "trap") located near the inner edge of the circumbinary disk.
    04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Transition disks are protoplanetary disks with inner depleted dust cavities and excellent candidates to investigate the dust evolution under the existence of a pressure bump. A pressure bump at the outer edge of the cavity allows dust grains from the outer regions to stop their rapid inward migration towards the star and efficiently grow to millimetre sizes. Dynamical interactions with planet(s) have been one of the most exciting theories to explain the clearing of the inner disk. We look for evidence of the presence of millimetre dust particles in transition disks by measuring their spectral index with new and available photometric data. We investigate the influence of the size of the dust depleted cavity on the disk integrated millimetre spectral index. We present the 3mm photometric observations carried out with PdBI of four transition disks: LkHa330, UXTauA, LRLL31, and LRLL67. We use available values of their fluxes at 345GHz to calculate their spectral index, as well as the spectral index for a sample of twenty transition disks. We compare the observations with two kind of models. In the first set of models, we consider coagulation and fragmentation of dust in a disk in which a cavity is formed by a massive planet located at different positions. The second set of models assumes disks with truncated inner parts at different radius and with power-law dust size distributions, where the maximum size of grains is calculated considering turbulence as the source of destructive collisions. We show that the integrated spectral index is higher for transition disks than for regular protoplanetary disks. For transition disks, the probability that the measured spectral index is positively correlated with the cavity radius is 95%. High angular resolution imaging of transition disks is needed to distinguish between the dust trapping scenario and the truncated disk case.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: For over a decade, the structure of the inner ``hole'' in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Planet formation and clearing of protoplanetary disks is one of the long standing problems in disk evolution theory. The best test of clearing scenarios is observing systems that are most likely to be actively forming planets: the transitional disks with large inner dust cavities. We present the first results of our ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) Cycle 0 program using Band 9, imaging the Herbig Ae star Oph IRS 48 in CO 6-5 and the submillimeter continuum in the extended configuration. The resulting ~0.2'' spatial resolution completely resolves the cavity of this disk in the gas and the dust. The gas cavity of IRS 48 is half as large as the dust cavity, ruling out grain growth and photoevaporation as the primary cause of the truncation. On the other hand, the continuum emission reveals an unexpected large azimuthal asymmetry and steep edges in the dust distribution along the ring, suggestive of dust trapping. We will discuss the implications of the combined gas and dust distribution for planet formation at a very early stage. This is one of the first transition disks with spatially resolved gas inside the cavity, demonstrating the superb capabilities of the Band 9 receivers.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
  • Sebastian M. Stammler, Cornelis P. Dullemond
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years many models of chondrule formation have been proposed. One of those models is the processing of dust in shock waves in protoplanetary disks. In this model, the dust and the chondrule precursors are overrun by shock waves, which heat them up by frictional heating and thermal exchange with the gas. In this paper we reanalyze the nebular shock model of chondrule formation and focus on the downstream boundary condition. We show that for large-scale plane-parallel chondrule-melting shocks the postshock equilibrium temperature is too high to avoid volatile loss. Even if we include radiative cooling in lateral directions out of the disk plane into our model (thereby breaking strict plane-parallel geometry) we find that for a realistic vertical extent of the solar nebula disk the temperature decline is not fast enough. On the other hand, if we assume that the shock is entirely optically thin so that particles can radiate freely, the cooling rates are too high to produce the observed chondrules textures. Global nebular shocks are therefore problematic as the primary sources of chondrules.
    Icarus 01/2014; 242:1–10. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The growth process of dust particles in protoplanetary disks can be modeled via numerical dust coagulation codes. In this approach, physical effects that dominate the dust growth process often must be implemented in a parameterized form. Due to a lack of these parameterizations, existing studies of dust coagulation have ignored the effects a hydrodynamical gas flow can have on grain growth, even though it is often argued that the flow could significantly contribute either positively or negatively to the growth process. Aims. We intend to provide a quantification of hydrodynamical effects on the growth of dust particles, such that these effects can be parameterized and implemented in a dust coagulation code. Methods. We numerically integrate the trajectories of small dust particles in the flow of disk gas around a proto-planetesimal, sampling a large parameter space in proto-planetesimal radii, headwind velocities, and dust stopping times. Results. The gas flow deflects most particles away from the proto-planetesimal, such that its effective collisional cross section, and therefore the mass accretion rate, is reduced. The gas flow however also reduces the impact velocity of small dust particles onto a proto-planetesimal. This can be beneficial for its growth, since large impact velocities are known to lead to erosion. We also demonstrate why such a gas flow does not return collisional debris to the surface of a proto-planetesimal. Conclusions. We predict that a laminar hydrodynamical flow around a proto-planetesimal will have a significant effect on its growth. However, we cannot easily predict which result, the reduction of the impact velocity or the sweep-up cross section, will be more important. Therefore, we provide parameterizations ready for implementation into a dust coagulation code.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    N. J. Turner, M. Benisty, C. P. Dullemond, S. Hirose
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    ABSTRACT: Young stars with masses 2-8 Suns, called the Herbig Ae and Be stars, often show a near-infrared excess too large to explain with a hydrostatically-supported circumstellar disk of gas and dust. At the same time the accretion flow carrying the circumstellar gas to the star is thought to be driven by magneto-rotational turbulence, which according to numerical MHD modeling yields an extended low-density atmosphere supported by the magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the base of the atmosphere can be optically-thick to the starlight and that the parts lying near 1 AU are tall enough to double the fraction of the stellar luminosity reprocessed into the near-infrared. We generate synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations with opacities for sub-micron silicate and carbonaceous grains. The synthetic SEDs closely follow the median Herbig SED constructed recently by Mulders and Dominik, and in particular match the large near-infrared flux, provided the grains have a mass fraction close to interstellar near the disk's inner rim.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 780(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: H II regions are important signatures of star formation both in the Milky Way and in external galaxies, play an important role in destroying the parental molecular clouds in which stars form, and, while still in the ultracompact phase, give insight into the process of high-mass star formation. We present simulations that consistently follow the gravitational collapse of a massive molecular cloud, the subsequent build-up and fragmentation of the accretion disk surrounding the nascent massive star, and, for the first time, the interaction between its intense UV radiation field and the infalling material. We show how these simulations help explain the origin of ultracompact H II region morphologies, their number statistics, their time variability, and the long-standing lifetime problem.
    07/2013;
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    J. Drazkowska, F. Windmark, C. P. Dullemond
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    ABSTRACT: The early stages of planet formation are still not well understood. Coagulation models have revealed numerous obstacles to the dust growth, such as the bouncing, fragmentation and radial drift barriers. We study the interplay between dust coagulation and drift in order to determine the conditions in protoplanetary disk that support the formation of planetesimals. We focus on planetesimal formation via sweep-up and investigate whether it can take place in a realistic protoplanetary disk. We have developed a new numerical model that resolves spatial distribution of dust in the radial and vertical dimension. The model uses representative particles approach to follow the dust evolution in protoplanetary disk. The coagulation and fragmentation of solids is taken into account using Monte Carlo method. A collision model adopting the mass transfer effect, that can occur for different-sized dust aggregate collisions, is implemented. We focus on a protoplanetary disk including a pressure bump caused by a steep decline of turbulent viscosity around the snow line. Our results show that sufficient resolution of the vertical disk structure in dust coagulation codes is necessary to obtain adequately short growth timescales, especially in the case of a low turbulence region. We find that a sharp radial variation of the turbulence strength at the inner edge of dead zone promotes planetesimal formation in several ways. It provides a pressure bump that efficiently prevents the dust from drifting inwards. It also causes a radial variation in the size of aggregates at which growth barriers occur, favoring the growth of large aggregates via sweeping up of small particles. In our model, by employing an ad hoc alpha viscosity change near the snow line, it is possible to grow planetesimals by incremental growth on timescales of approximately 10^5 years.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The statistics of discovered exoplanets suggest that planets form efficiently. However, there are fundamental unsolved problems, such as excessive inward drift of particles in protoplanetary disks during planet formation. Recent theories invoke dust traps to overcome this problem. We report the detection of a dust trap in the disk around the star Oph IRS 48 using observations from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 0.44-millimeter-wavelength continuum map shows high-contrast crescent-shaped emission on one side of the star, originating from millimeter-sized grains, whereas both the mid-infrared image (micrometer-sized dust) and the gas traced by the carbon monoxide 6-5 rotational line suggest rings centered on the star. The difference in distribution of big grains versus small grains/gas can be modeled with a vortex-shaped dust trap triggered by a companion.
    Science 06/2013; 340(6137):1199-202. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    C. P. Dullemond
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    ABSTRACT: In this small review I will address three recent topics in the field of theoretical planet formation studies. This review is not meant to be complete in any way. It is meant to give an idea where some of the recent developments are.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 06/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Planets have been detected around a variety of stars, including low-mass objects, such as brown dwarfs. However, such extreme cases are challenging for planet formation models. Recent sub-millimeter observations of disks around brown dwarf measured low spectral indices of the continuum emission that suggest that dust grains grow to mm-sizes even in these very low mass environments. To understand the first steps of planet formation in scaled-down versions of T-Tauri disks, we investigate the physical conditions that can theoretically explain the growth from interstellar dust to millimeter-sized grains in disks around brown dwarf. We modeled the evolution of dust particles under conditions of low-mass disks around brown dwarfs. We used coagulation, fragmentation and disk-structure models to simulate the evolution of dust, with zero and non-zero radial drift. For the non-zero radial drift, we considered strong inhomogeneities in the gas surface density profile that mimic long-lived pressure bumps in the disk. We studied different scenarios that could lead to an agreement between theoretical models and the spectral slope found by millimeter observations. We find that fragmentation is less likely and rapid inward drift is more significant for particles in brown dwarf disks than in T-Tauri disks. We present different scenarios that can nevertheless explain millimeter-sized grains. As an example, a model that combines the following parameters can fit the millimeter fluxes measured for brown dwarf disks: strong pressure inhomogeneities of $\sim$ 40% of amplitude, a small radial extent $\sim$ 15 AU, a moderate turbulence strength $\alpha_{\mathrm{turb}}= 10^{-3}$, and average fragmentation velocities for ices $v_f = 10 m s^{-1}$.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Transition disks typically appear in resolved millimeter observations as giant dust rings surrounding their young host stars. More accurate observations with ALMA have shown several of these rings to be in fact asymmetric: they have lopsided shapes. It has been speculated that these rings act as dust traps, which would make them important laboratories for studying planet formation. It has been shown that an elongated giant vortex produced in a disk with a strong viscosity jump strikingly resembles the observed asymmetric rings. Aims. We aim to study a similar behavior for a disk in which a giant planet is embedded. However, a giant planet can induce two kinds of asymmetries: (1) a giant vortex, and (2) an eccentric disk. We studied under which conditions each of these can appear, and how one can observationally distinguish between them. This is important because only a vortex can trap particles both radially and azimuthally, while the eccentric ring can only trap particles in radial direction. Methods. We used the FARGO code to conduct the hydro-simulations. We set up a disk with an embedded giant planet and took a radial grid spanning from 0.1 to 7 times the planet semi-major axis. We ran the simulations with various viscosity values and planet masses for 1000 planet orbits to allow a fully developed vortex or disk eccentricity. Afterwards, we compared the dust distribution in a vortex-holding disk with an eccentric disk using dust simulations. Results. We find that vorticity and eccentricity are distinguishable by looking at the azimuthal contrast of the dust density. While vortices, as particle traps, produce very pronounced azimuthal asymmetries, eccentric features are not able to accumulate millimeter dust particles in azimuthal direction, and therefore the asymmetries are expected to be modest.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Cornelis Dullemond
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    ABSTRACT: In this review I will give a brief overview of the latest observational constraints on the structure and dynamics of protoplanetary disks, with a particular emphasis on the topic of the conference: vortices.
    04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a possible identification strategy for first hydrostatic core (FHSC) candidates and make predictions of ALMA dust continuum emission maps from these objects. We analyze the results given by the different bands and array configurations and identify which combinations of the two represent our best chance of solving the fragmentation issue in these objects. If the magnetic field is playing a role, the emission pattern will show evidence of a pseudo-disk and even of a magnetically driven outflow, which pure hydrodynamical calculations cannot reproduce.
    02/2013;
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    T. Birnstiel, C. P. Dullemond, P. Pinilla
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Particle trapping in local or global pressure maxima in protoplanetary disks is one of the new paradigms in the theory of the first stages of planet formation. However, finding observational evidence for this effect is not easy. Recent work suggests that the large ring-shaped outer disks observed in transition disk sources may in fact be lopsided and constitute large banana-shaped vortices. Aims. We wish to investigate how effective dust can accumulate along the azimuthal direction. We also want to find out if the size- sorting resulting from this can produce a detectable signatures at millimeter wavelengths. Methods. To keep the numerical cost under control we develop a 1+1D method in which the azimuthal variations are treated sepa- rately from the radial ones. The azimuthal structure is calculated analytically for a steady-state between mixing and azimuthal drift. We derive equilibration time scales and compare the analytical solutions to time-dependent numerical simulations. Results. We find that weak, but long-lived azimuthal density gradients in the gas can induce very strong azimuthal accumulations of dust. The strength of the accumulations depends on the P\'eclet number, which is the relative importance of advection and diffusion. We apply our model to transition disks and our simulated observations show that this effect would be easily observable with ALMA and in principle allows to put constraints on the strength of turbulence and the local gas density.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
895.11 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Stanford University
      • Kavli Institute for Particle Physics and Cosmology (KIPAC)
      Stanford, CA, United States
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2004–2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2010
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2009
    • SETI Institute
      Mountain View, California, United States
    • University of St Andrews
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Saint Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2009
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2001–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Planetary Sciences
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1998
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands