C. P. Dullemond

Universität Heidelberg, Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (177)681.6 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We combined hydrodynamical simulations of planet-disk interactions with dust evolution models that include coagulation and fragmentation of dust grains over a large range of radii and derived observational properties using radiative transfer calculations. We studied the role of the snow line in the survival of the inner disk of transition disks. Inside the snow line, the lack of ice mantles in dust particles decreases the sticking efficiency between grains. As a consequence, particles fragment at lower collision velocities than in regions beyond the snow line. This effect allows small particles to be maintained for up to a few Myrs within the first astronomical unit. These particles are closely coupled to the gas and do not drift significantly with respect to the gas. For lower mass planets (1$M_{\rm{Jup}}$), the pre-transition appearance can be maintained even longer because dust still trickles through the gap created by the planet, moves invisibly and quickly in the form of relatively large grains through the gap, and becomes visible again as it fragments and gets slowed down inside of the snow line. The global study of dust evolution of a disk with an embedded planet, including the changes of the dust aerodynamics near the snow line, can explain the concentration of millimetre-sized particles in the outer disk and the survival of the dust in the inner disk if a large dust trap is present in the outer disk. This behaviour solves the conundrum of the combination of both near-infrared excess and ring-like millimetre emission observed in several transition disks.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201527131 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    A. Pohl · P. Pinilla · M. Benisty · S. Ataiee · A. Juhasz · C. P. Dullemond · R. Van Boekel · T. Henning ·
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    ABSTRACT: Scattered light images of transition discs in the near-infrared often show non-axisymmetric structures in the form of wide-open spiral arms in addition to their characteristic low-opacity inner gap region. We study self-gravitating discs and investigate the influence of gravitational instability on the shape and contrast of spiral arms induced by planet-disc interactions. Two-dimensional non-isothermal hydrodynamical simulations including viscous heating and a cooling prescription are combined with three-dimensional dust continuum radiative transfer models for direct comparison to observations. We find that the resulting contrast between the spirals and the surrounding disc in scattered light is by far higher for pressure scale height variations, i.e. thermal perturbations, than for pure surface density variations. Self-gravity effects suppress any vortex modes and tend to reduce the opening angle of planet-induced spirals, making them more tightly wound. If the disc is only marginally gravitationally stable with a Toomre parameter around unity, an embedded massive planet (planet-to-star mass ratio of $10^{-2}$) can trigger gravitational instability in the outer disc. The spirals created by this instability and the density waves launched by the planet can overlap resulting in large-scale, more open spiral arms in the outer disc. The contrast of these spirals is well above the detection limit of current telescopes.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2015; 453(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1746 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the striking discoveries of protoplanetary disc research in recent years are the spiral arms seen in several transitional discs in polarised scattered light. An interesting interpretation of the observed spiral features is that they are density waves launched by one or more embedded (proto-)planets in the disc. In this paper we investigate whether planets can be held responsible for the excitation mechanism of the observed spirals. We use locally isothermal hydrodynamic simulations as well as analytic formulae to model the spiral waves launched by planets. Then H-band scattered light images are calculated using a 3D continuum radiative transfer code to study the effect of surface density and pressure scale height perturbation on the detectability of the spirals. We find that a relative change of about 3.5 in the surface density is required for the spirals to be detected with current telescopes in the near-infrared for sources at the distance of typical star-forming regions (140pc). This value is a factor of eight higher than what is seen in hydrodynamic simulations. We also find that a relative change of only 0.2 in pressure scale height is sufficient to create detectable signatures under the same conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the spiral arms observed to date in protoplanetary discs are the results of changes in the vertical structure of the disc (e.g. pressure scale height perturbation) instead of surface density perturbations.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2014; 451(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv1045 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    S. Ataiee · C. P. Dullemond · W. Kley · Zs. Regaly · H. Meheut ·
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    ABSTRACT: Context: Anticyclonic vortices are considered as a favourable places for trapping dust and forming planetary embryos. On the other hand, they are massive blobs that can interact gravitationally with the planets in the disc. Aims: We aim to study how a vortex interacts gravitationally with a planet which migrates toward it or a planet which is created inside the vortex. Methods: We performed hydrodynamical simulations of a viscous locally isothermal disc using GFARGO and FARGO-ADSG. We set a stationary Gaussian pressure bump in the disc in a way that RWI is triggered. After a large vortex is established, we implanted a low mass planet in the outer disc or inside the vortex and allowed it to migrate. We also examined the effect of vortex strength on the planet migration and checked the validity of the final result in the presence of self-gravity. Results: We noticed regardless of the planet's initial position, the planet is finally locked to the vortex or its migration is stopped in a farther orbital distance in case of a stronger vortex. For the model with the weaker vortex, we studied the effect of different parameters such as background viscosity, background surface density, mass of the planet and different planet positions. In these models, while the trapping time and locking angle of the planet vary for different parameters, the main result, which is the planet-vortex locking, remains valid. We discovered that even a planet with a mass less than 5 * 10^{-7} M_{\star} comes out from the vortex and is locked to it at the same orbital distance. For a stronger vortex, both in non-self-gravitated and self-gravitating models, the planet migration is stopped far away from the radial position of the vortex. This effect can make the vortices a suitable place for continual planet formation under the condition that they save their shape during the planetary growth.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 10/2014; 572. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322715 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    J. P. Ramsey · C. P. Dullemond ·
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. The importance of radiation to the physical structure of protoplanetary disks cannot be understated. However, protoplanetary disks evolve with time, and so to understand disk evolution and by association, disk structure, one should solve the combined and time-dependent equations of radiation hydrodynamics. Methods. We implement a new implicit radiation solver in the AZEuS adaptive mesh refinement magnetohydrodynamics fluid code. Based on a hybrid approach that combines frequency-dependent ray-tracing for stellar irradiation with non-equilibrium flux limited diffusion, we solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics while preserving the directionality of the stellar irradiation. The implementation permits simulations in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates, on both uniform and adaptive grids. Results. We present several hydrostatic and hydrodynamic radiation tests which validate our implementation on uniform and adaptive grids as appropriate, including benchmarks specifically designed for protoplanetary disks. Our results demonstrate that the combination of a hybrid radiation algorithm with AZEuS is an effective tool for radiation hydrodynamics studies, and produces results which are competitive with other astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; 574. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424954 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    M. G. Malygin · R. Kuiper · H. Klahr · C. P. Dullemond · Th. Henning ·
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    ABSTRACT: In a molecular cloud dust opacity typically dominates over gas opacity, yet in the vicinities of forming stars dust is depleted, and gas is the sole provider of opacity. In the optically thin circumstellar environments the radiation temperature cannot be assumed to be equal to the gas temperature, hence the two-temperature Planck means are necessary to calculate the radiative equilibrium. By using the two-temperature mean opacity one does obtain the proper equilibrium gas temperature in a circumstellar environment, which is in a chemical equilibrium. A careful consideration of a radiative transfer problem reveals that the equilibrium temperature solution can be degenerate in an optically thin gaseous environment. We compute mean gas opacities based on the publicly available code DFSYNTHE by Kurucz and Castelli. We performed the calculations assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an ideal gas equation of state. The values were derived by direct integration of the high-resolution opacity spectrum. We produced two sets of gas opacity tables: Rosseland means and two-temperature Planck means (the tables available via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/ as well as via http://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/homes/malygin). For three metallicities [Me/H] = 0.0,+/-0.3 we covered the parameter range 3.48 <= log T_rad[K] <= 4.48 in radiation temperature, 2.8 <= log T_gas[K]} <= 6.0 in gas temperature, and -10 <= log P[dyn cm^-2] <= 6 in gas pressure. We show that in the optically thin circumstellar environment for a given stellar radiation field and local gas density there are several equilibrium gas temperatures possible. We conclude that, in general, equilibrium gas temperature cannot be determined without treating the temperature evolution.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2014; 568. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423768 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For over a decade, the structure of the inner ``hole'' in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 06/2014; 8:104-108. DOI:10.1017/S1743921313008016
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    ABSTRACT: We present subarcsecond resolution observations of continuum emission associated with the GG Tau quadruple star system at wavelengths of 1.3, 2.8, 7.3, and 50 mm. These data confirm that the GG Tau A binary is encircled by a circumbinary ring at a radius of 235 AU with a FWHM width of ~60 AU. We find no clear evidence for a radial gradient in the spectral shape of the ring, suggesting that the particle size distribution is spatially homogeneous on angular scales 0.''1. A central point source, likely associated with the primary component (GG Tau Aa), exhibits a composite spectrum from dust and free-free emission. Faint emission at 7.3 mm is observed toward the low-mass star GG Tau Ba, although its origin remains uncertain. Using these measurements of the resolved, multifrequency emission structure of the GG Tau A system, models of the far-infrared to radio spectrum are developed to place constraints on the grain size distribution and dust mass in the circumbinary ring. The non-negligible curvature present in the ring spectrum implies a maximum particle size of 1-10 mm, although we are unable to place strong constraints on the distribution shape. The corresponding dust mass is 30-300 M ⊕, at a temperature of 20-30 K. We discuss how this significant concentration of relatively large particles in a narrow ring at a large radius might be produced in a local region of higher gas pressures (i.e., a particle "trap") located near the inner edge of the circumbinary disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 787(2):148. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/787/2/148 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    C. Brinch · C. P. Dullemond ·
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    ABSTRACT: Interferometers play an increasingly important role for spatially resolved observations. If employed at full potential, interferometry can probe an enormous dynamic range in spatial scale. Interpretation of the observed visibilities requires the numerical compu- tation of Fourier integrals over the synthetic model images. To get the correct values of these integrals, the model images must have the right size and resolution. Insufficient care in these choices can lead to wrong results. We present a new general-purpose scheme for the computation of visibilities of radiative transfer images. Our method requires a model image that is a list of intensities at arbitrarily placed positions on the image-plane. It creates a triangulated grid from these vertices, and assumes that the intensity inside each triangle of the grid is a linear function. The Fourier integral over each triangle is then evaluated with an analytic expression and the complex visibility of the entire image is then the sum of all triangles. The result is a robust Fourier trans- form that does not suffer from aliasing effects due to grid regularities. The method automatically ensures that all structure contained in the model gets reflected in the Fourier transform.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2014; 440(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu524 · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transition disks are protoplanetary disks with inner depleted dust cavities and excellent candidates to investigate the dust evolution under the existence of a pressure bump. A pressure bump at the outer edge of the cavity allows dust grains from the outer regions to stop their rapid inward migration towards the star and efficiently grow to millimetre sizes. Dynamical interactions with planet(s) have been one of the most exciting theories to explain the clearing of the inner disk. We look for evidence of the presence of millimetre dust particles in transition disks by measuring their spectral index with new and available photometric data. We investigate the influence of the size of the dust depleted cavity on the disk integrated millimetre spectral index. We present the 3mm photometric observations carried out with PdBI of four transition disks: LkHa330, UXTauA, LRLL31, and LRLL67. We use available values of their fluxes at 345GHz to calculate their spectral index, as well as the spectral index for a sample of twenty transition disks. We compare the observations with two kind of models. In the first set of models, we consider coagulation and fragmentation of dust in a disk in which a cavity is formed by a massive planet located at different positions. The second set of models assumes disks with truncated inner parts at different radius and with power-law dust size distributions, where the maximum size of grains is calculated considering turbulence as the source of destructive collisions. We show that the integrated spectral index is higher for transition disks than for regular protoplanetary disks. For transition disks, the probability that the measured spectral index is positively correlated with the cavity radius is 95%. High angular resolution imaging of transition disks is needed to distinguish between the dust trapping scenario and the truncated disk case.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; 564. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201323322 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    E. Sellentin · J. P. Ramsey · F. Windmark · C. P. Dullemond ·
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    ABSTRACT: Context. The growth process of dust particles in protoplanetary disks can be modeled via numerical dust coagulation codes. In this approach, physical effects that dominate the dust growth process often must be implemented in a parameterized form. Due to a lack of these parameterizations, existing studies of dust coagulation have ignored the effects a hydrodynamical gas flow can have on grain growth, even though it is often argued that the flow could significantly contribute either positively or negatively to the growth process. Aims. We intend to provide a quantification of hydrodynamical effects on the growth of dust particles, such that these effects can be parameterized and implemented in a dust coagulation code. Methods. We numerically integrate the trajectories of small dust particles in the flow of disk gas around a proto-planetesimal, sampling a large parameter space in proto-planetesimal radii, headwind velocities, and dust stopping times. Results. The gas flow deflects most particles away from the proto-planetesimal, such that its effective collisional cross section, and therefore the mass accretion rate, is reduced. The gas flow however also reduces the impact velocity of small dust particles onto a proto-planetesimal. This can be beneficial for its growth, since large impact velocities are known to lead to erosion. We also demonstrate why such a gas flow does not return collisional debris to the surface of a proto-planetesimal. Conclusions. We predict that a laminar hydrodynamical flow around a proto-planetesimal will have a significant effect on its growth. However, we cannot easily predict which result, the reduction of the impact velocity or the sweep-up cross section, will be more important. Therefore, we provide parameterizations ready for implementation into a dust coagulation code.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2013; 560. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201321587 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • N. J. Turner · M. Benisty · C. P. Dullemond · S. Hirose ·
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    ABSTRACT: Young stars with masses 2-8 Suns, called the Herbig Ae and Be stars, often show a near-infrared excess too large to explain with a hydrostatically-supported circumstellar disk of gas and dust. At the same time the accretion flow carrying the circumstellar gas to the star is thought to be driven by magneto-rotational turbulence, which according to numerical MHD modeling yields an extended low-density atmosphere supported by the magnetic fields. We demonstrate that the base of the atmosphere can be optically-thick to the starlight and that the parts lying near 1 AU are tall enough to double the fraction of the stellar luminosity reprocessed into the near-infrared. We generate synthetic spectral energy distributions (SEDs) using Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations with opacities for sub-micron silicate and carbonaceous grains. The synthetic SEDs closely follow the median Herbig SED constructed recently by Mulders and Dominik, and in particular match the large near-infrared flux, provided the grains have a mass fraction close to interstellar near the disk's inner rim.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 780(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/42 · 5.99 Impact Factor
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    C. P. Dullemond ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this small review I will address three recent topics in the field of theoretical planet formation studies. This review is not meant to be complete in any way. It is meant to give an idea where some of the recent developments are.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 07/2013; 334(6):589-. DOI:10.1002/asna.201311899 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    J. Drazkowska · F. Windmark · C. P. Dullemond ·
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    ABSTRACT: The early stages of planet formation are still not well understood. Coagulation models have revealed numerous obstacles to the dust growth, such as the bouncing, fragmentation and radial drift barriers. We study the interplay between dust coagulation and drift in order to determine the conditions in protoplanetary disk that support the formation of planetesimals. We focus on planetesimal formation via sweep-up and investigate whether it can take place in a realistic protoplanetary disk. We have developed a new numerical model that resolves spatial distribution of dust in the radial and vertical dimension. The model uses representative particles approach to follow the dust evolution in protoplanetary disk. The coagulation and fragmentation of solids is taken into account using Monte Carlo method. A collision model adopting the mass transfer effect, that can occur for different-sized dust aggregate collisions, is implemented. We focus on a protoplanetary disk including a pressure bump caused by a steep decline of turbulent viscosity around the snow line. Our results show that sufficient resolution of the vertical disk structure in dust coagulation codes is necessary to obtain adequately short growth timescales, especially in the case of a low turbulence region. We find that a sharp radial variation of the turbulence strength at the inner edge of dead zone promotes planetesimal formation in several ways. It provides a pressure bump that efficiently prevents the dust from drifting inwards. It also causes a radial variation in the size of aggregates at which growth barriers occur, favoring the growth of large aggregates via sweeping up of small particles. In our model, by employing an ad hoc alpha viscosity change near the snow line, it is possible to grow planetesimals by incremental growth on timescales of approximately 10^5 years.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 06/2013; 556. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201321566 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • P. Pinilla · T. Birnstiel · M. Benisty · L. Ricci · A. Natta · C. P. Dullemond · C. Dominik · L. Testi ·
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    ABSTRACT: Planets have been detected around a variety of stars, including low-mass objects, such as brown dwarfs. However, such extreme cases are challenging for planet formation models. Recent sub-millimeter observations of disks around brown dwarf measured low spectral indices of the continuum emission that suggest that dust grains grow to mm-sizes even in these very low mass environments. To understand the first steps of planet formation in scaled-down versions of T-Tauri disks, we investigate the physical conditions that can theoretically explain the growth from interstellar dust to millimeter-sized grains in disks around brown dwarf. We modeled the evolution of dust particles under conditions of low-mass disks around brown dwarfs. We used coagulation, fragmentation and disk-structure models to simulate the evolution of dust, with zero and non-zero radial drift. For the non-zero radial drift, we considered strong inhomogeneities in the gas surface density profile that mimic long-lived pressure bumps in the disk. We studied different scenarios that could lead to an agreement between theoretical models and the spectral slope found by millimeter observations. We find that fragmentation is less likely and rapid inward drift is more significant for particles in brown dwarf disks than in T-Tauri disks. We present different scenarios that can nevertheless explain millimeter-sized grains. As an example, a model that combines the following parameters can fit the millimeter fluxes measured for brown dwarf disks: strong pressure inhomogeneities of $\sim$ 40% of amplitude, a small radial extent $\sim$ 15 AU, a moderate turbulence strength $\alpha_{\mathrm{turb}}= 10^{-3}$, and average fragmentation velocities for ices $v_f = 10 m s^{-1}$.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; 554. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201220875 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    S. Ataiee · P. Pinilla · A. Zsom · C. P. Dullemond · C. Dominik · J. Ghanbari ·
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Transition disks typically appear in resolved millimeter observations as giant dust rings surrounding their young host stars. More accurate observations with ALMA have shown several of these rings to be in fact asymmetric: they have lopsided shapes. It has been speculated that these rings act as dust traps, which would make them important laboratories for studying planet formation. It has been shown that an elongated giant vortex produced in a disk with a strong viscosity jump strikingly resembles the observed asymmetric rings. Aims. We aim to study a similar behavior for a disk in which a giant planet is embedded. However, a giant planet can induce two kinds of asymmetries: (1) a giant vortex, and (2) an eccentric disk. We studied under which conditions each of these can appear, and how one can observationally distinguish between them. This is important because only a vortex can trap particles both radially and azimuthally, while the eccentric ring can only trap particles in radial direction. Methods. We used the FARGO code to conduct the hydro-simulations. We set up a disk with an embedded giant planet and took a radial grid spanning from 0.1 to 7 times the planet semi-major axis. We ran the simulations with various viscosity values and planet masses for 1000 planet orbits to allow a fully developed vortex or disk eccentricity. Afterwards, we compared the dust distribution in a vortex-holding disk with an eccentric disk using dust simulations. Results. We find that vorticity and eccentricity are distinguishable by looking at the azimuthal contrast of the dust density. While vortices, as particle traps, produce very pronounced azimuthal asymmetries, eccentric features are not able to accumulate millimeter dust particles in azimuthal direction, and therefore the asymmetries are expected to be modest.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2013; 553. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201321125 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Cornelis Dullemond ·
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    ABSTRACT: In this review I will give a brief overview of the latest observational constraints on the structure and dynamics of protoplanetary disks, with a particular emphasis on the topic of the conference: vortices.
    The European Physical Journal Conferences 04/2013; 46:01001-. DOI:10.1051/epjconf/20134601001
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    ABSTRACT: We present a possible identification strategy for first hydrostatic core (FHSC) candidates and make predictions of ALMA dust continuum emission maps from these objects. We analyze the results given by the different bands and array configurations and identify which combinations of the two represent our best chance of solving the fragmentation issue in these objects. If the magnetic field is playing a role, the emission pattern will show evidence of a pseudo-disk and even of a magnetically driven outflow, which pure hydrodynamical calculations cannot reproduce.
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    T. Birnstiel · C. P. Dullemond · P. Pinilla ·
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    ABSTRACT: Context. Particle trapping in local or global pressure maxima in protoplanetary disks is one of the new paradigms in the theory of the first stages of planet formation. However, finding observational evidence for this effect is not easy. Recent work suggests that the large ring-shaped outer disks observed in transition disk sources may in fact be lopsided and constitute large banana-shaped vortices. Aims. We wish to investigate how effective dust can accumulate along the azimuthal direction. We also want to find out if the size- sorting resulting from this can produce a detectable signatures at millimeter wavelengths. Methods. To keep the numerical cost under control we develop a 1+1D method in which the azimuthal variations are treated sepa- rately from the radial ones. The azimuthal structure is calculated analytically for a steady-state between mixing and azimuthal drift. We derive equilibration time scales and compare the analytical solutions to time-dependent numerical simulations. Results. We find that weak, but long-lived azimuthal density gradients in the gas can induce very strong azimuthal accumulations of dust. The strength of the accumulations depends on the P\'eclet number, which is the relative importance of advection and diffusion. We apply our model to transition disks and our simulated observations show that this effect would be easily observable with ALMA and in principle allows to put constraints on the strength of turbulence and the local gas density.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; 550. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201220847 · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a detailed analysis of the spatially and spectrally resolved 12CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 emission lines from the TW Hya circumstellar disk, based on science verification data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). These lines exhibit substantial emission in their high-velocity wings (with projected velocities out to 2.1 km/s, corresponding to intrinsic orbital velocities >20 km/s) that trace molecular gas as close as 2 AU from the central star. However, we are not able to reproduce the intensity of these wings and the general spatio-kinematic pattern of the lines with simple models for the disk structure and kinematics. Using three-dimensional non-local thermodynamic equilibrium molecular excitation and radiative transfer calculations, we construct some alternative models that successfully account for these features by modifying either (1) the temperature structure of the inner disk (inside the dust-depleted disk cavity; r < 4 AU); (2) the intrinsic (Keplerian) disk velocity field; or (3) the distribution of disk inclination angles (a warp). The latter approach is particularly compelling because a representative warped disk model qualitatively reproduces the observed azimuthal modulation of optical light scattered off the disk surface. In any model scenario, the ALMA data clearly require a substantial molecular gas reservoir located inside the region where dust optical depths are known to be substantially diminished in the TW Hya disk, in agreement with previous studies based on infrared spectroscopy. The results from these updated model prescriptions are discussed in terms of their potential physical origins, which might include dynamical perturbations from a low-mass companion with an orbital separation of a few AU.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2012; 757(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/757/2/129 · 5.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
681.60 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2015
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • • Institute of Theoretical Physics
      • • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2011
    • University of California, Berkeley
      • Department of Astronomy
      Berkeley, California, United States
  • 2004-2011
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • Midwestern Psychological Association
      United States
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago Metropolitan, Chile
  • 2009
    • SETI Institute
      Mountain View, California, United States
    • University of St Andrews
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Saint Andrews, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2001-2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2004-2005
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 1998
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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