Chungkun Shih

Capital University, Bexley, Ohio, United States

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Publications (82)201.76 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Apocrita has a special structure that its first abdominal segment has been incorporated into the thorax as the propodeum. The remaining abdomen, metasoma, is connected to this hybrid region via a narrow propodeal-metasomal articulation forming a "wasp waist", which serves an important function of providing maneuverability, flexibility and posture for oviposition. However, the origin and transformation of the propodeal-metasomal articulation are still vague. Ephialtitidae, as the basal group of Apocrita from the Early Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous, have shown various types of propodeal-metasomal articulations. This study describes and illustrates two new genera with three new species, Acephialtitia colossa gen. et sp. nov., Proephialtitia acanthi gen. et sp. nov. and P. tenuata sp. nov., collected respectively from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation at Liutiaogou and the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation at Daohugou, both in Inner Mongolia, China. These genera are assigned to the Ephialtitidae based on their complete wing venation, e.g. 2r-rs, 2r-m, 3r-m and 2 m-cu always present in the forewings and Rs, M and Cu in the hind wings. These new fossil ephialtitids have well-preserved propodeal-metasomal articulations indicating metasoma is broadly attached to propodeum. The broad articulation between the propodeum and metasoma in basal Ephialtitidae, likely passed on from a still more basal family Karatavitidae, suggests three separate pathways of the transformation of the "wasp waist" in three different derived lineages leading from Ephialtitidae to: (i) Kuafuidae and further to the remaining Apocrita, (ii) Stephanidae, and (iii) Evanioidea. In addition, the demise of ephialtitid wasps lagging behind the flourishing of angiosperms suggests that ephialtitid extinction might have been mainly driven by competition with numerous new taxa (eg. the abundant Cretaceous xylophilous Baissinae and Ichneumonoidea) appeared just before or/and soon after the J/K boundary.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 12/2015; 15(1):317. DOI:10.1186/s12862-015-0317-1 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new genera and three new species of the Mesozoic family Aeotheogrammatidae are described from the Lower Cretaceous of Yixian Formation (Liaoning Province, China): Cyclicogramma rotundum gen. et sp. nov. and Aetheogramma bistriatum sp. nov. from Huangbanjigou, and Curtogramma ovatum gen. et sp. nov. from Dawangzhangzi. The hind wing of Cyclicogramma rotundum gen. et sp. nov. differs from that of other species by its smaller size, its overall shape, RP bearing only two oblique radial branches, and its configurations of CuP, AA1, and AA2. Aetheogramma bistriatum sp. nov. is closely related to A. speciosum Ren and Engel, 2008, but distinguished from the latter by its distinctive configuration of RP1, and the narrower and longer AA2 space in the hind wing. Curtogramma ovatum gen. et sp. nov. is distinguished from all other species of the family by the forewing with M forking very far from the wing base.
    Cretaceous Research 07/2015; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.01.005 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new fossil praeaulacid wasp, Habraulacus zhaoigen. et sp. nov., is described and figured from Upper Cretaceous Myanmar amber. The new genus is established based on the following characters: mesosoma stout, metasoma elongated ellipse with the first metasomal segment very thin and tubular (like a petiole), forewing with pterostigma long and narrow, and both veins Rs+M and 1m-cu very long, forming a long cell 1mcu. Species of Praeaulacidae demonstrate a distinct evolutionary trend, which consists of miniaturization, venational reduction and enlargement of pterostigma, and reduction of number of the antennal segments from the Jurassic to Cretaceous. However, except for the miniaturization, this hardly concerns Habraulacus.
    Cretaceous Research 07/2015; 55. DOI:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.01.007 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    Fei Dong, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren
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    ABSTRACT: A new genus and species, Similinannotanyderus lii gen. et sp. nov., is described from Myanmar amber. It differs from other genera of Tanyderidae based on special characters of wing venation and male genitalia. This new taxon broadens the diversity of Tanyderidae in the Cretaceous, and its morphological characters enhance our understanding of the development and evolution of the primitive crane flies.
    Cretaceous Research 05/2015; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.12.011 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One new genus and three new species, Fissilyda compta gen. et sp. nov., F. alba sp. nov., and F. parilis sp. nov., and a new species, Novalyda decora sp. nov., are described and figured on the basis of five well-preserved fossils from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China. All of these well-preserved new fossil specimens have a desclerotized pterostigma which is pale at the base, while F. alba sp. nov. has the crossvein cu-a linearly aligned with vein a in the hind wing, both are rather unusual and important characters in Hymenoptera. These new taxa broaden the diversity of Xyelydidae in the Early Cretaceous and their new morphological characters enhance our understanding of the evolution and relationships of this small extinct family.
    Cretaceous Research 05/2015; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.12.008 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new species of Leptotarsus (Longurio) primitivus sp. nov., a representative of the family Tipulidae from the Lower Cretaceous (ca. 125 Ma) Yixian Formation of Huangbanjigou, Beipiao City, Liaoning Province, China, is described and illustrated. This finding represents one of the earliest fossil record of the Tipulidae in the world. Among 20 subgenera from the genus Leptotarsus Guérin-Méneville, 1831, this new species from China is classified to the subgenus Longurio Loew, 1869 based on characters of wing venation and morphology of rostrum and antenna.
    Cretaceous Research 05/2015; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.12.009 · 2.39 Impact Factor
  • Xiuqin Lin, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren
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    ABSTRACT: A new genus with two new species, Orentalphila gravia gen. et sp. nov. and O. caloa sp. nov., and three new species in two known genera, Sinosciophila angustia sp. nov., Sinosciophila seboa sp. nov. and Similsciophila undulata sp. nov., are described from the Lower Cretaceous of Yixian Formation at Huangbanjigou, Beipiao City, western Liaoning, China. These new taxa, representing the first records of mesosciophilids from this locality, provide morphological information and diversity for Mesosciophilidae in the Early Cretaceous. An updated key to known genera of Mesosciophilidae is provided. In addition, according the generic diagnosis revised by Zhang, 2007, Mesoplecia antiqua Hao and Ren, 2009 should be transferred to Mesosciophila Rohdendorf, 1946.
    Cretaceous Research 05/2015; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.11.007 · 2.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new species of Ferganolyda Rasnitsyn, 1983, F. eucalla and F. insolita, are described. Also, F. scylla Rasnitsyn, Zhang & Wang, 2006 and F. chungkuei Rasnitsyn, Zhang & Wang, 2006 are re-described based on new materials in this study. All of these well-preserved specimens were collected from the latest Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou Village in Inner Mongolia, China. Based on the new morphological data,a key to the eight species of Ferganolyda is provided. This genus has significant sexual dimorphism,and the new materials show that males have head capsules with ratios of width to length ranging from 3.1 to 3.6, whereas females have ratios from 1.9 to 2.1. These new findings enhance our understanding of the evolution and relationships of the extinct Xyelydidae (Hymenoptera).
    Alcheringa An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 01/2015; 39(1). DOI:10.1080/03115518.2015.958286 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    Sulin Liu, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren
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    ABSTRACT: Two new species of Mongolbittacus Petrulevičius, Huang & Ren, 2007, Mongolbittacus speciosus sp. n. and Mongolbittacus oligophlebius sp. n., and two new species of Exilibittacus Yang, Ren & Shih, 2012, Exilibittacus foliaceus sp. n. and Exilibittacus plagioneurus sp. n., in the family Bittacidae, are described and illustrated based on five well-preserved fossil specimens. These specimens were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These new findings enhance our understanding of the morphological characters of early hangingflies and highlight the diversity of bittacids in the Mid Mesozoic ecosystems.
    ZooKeys 12/2014; DOI:10.3897/zookeys.466.8047 · 0.92 Impact Factor
  • GuiFeng Shi, ChungKun Shih, Dong Ren
    Journal of Natural History 12/2014; DOI:10.1080/00222933.2014.951085 · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Fleas, the most notorious insect ectoparasites of human, dogs, cats, birds, etc., have recently been traced to its basal and primitive ancestors during the Middle Jurassic. Compared with extant fleas, these large basal fleas have many different features. Although several fossil species with transitional morphologies filled the evolutionary blank, the early evolution of these ectoparasites is still poorly known.ResultsHere we report a new flea with transitional characters, Pseudopulex tanlan sp. nov., assigned to Pseudopulicidae, from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Different from the previously described pseudopulicids, P. tanlan has relatively smaller body size but lacking any ctenidia on the tibiae or body, while the male with comparatively smaller and shorter genitalia. On the other hand, P. tanlan has some characters similar to the transitional fleas of saurophthirids, such as, a small head, short compacted antennae, small pygidium and many stiff setae covering the body.Conclusions Even though other possibilities can not be ruled out, the female specimen with extremely distended abdomen suggests that it might have consumed its last meal before its demise. Compared with other reported female flea fossils, we calculate and estimate that P. tanlan sp. nov. might have consumed 0.02 milliliter (ml) of blood, which is about 15 times of the intake volume by extant fleas. These new findings further support that fleas had evolved a broad diversity by the Early Cretaceous.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 08/2014; 14(1):168. DOI:10.1186/s12862-014-0168-1 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AbstractThe early history of Panorpidae (Mecoptera) is poorly known due to sparse fossil records. Up to date, only nine fossil species have been described, all from the Paleogene, except the Early Cretaceous Solusipanorpa gibbidorsa Lin, 1980. However, we suggest S. gibbidorsa is too incompletely preserved to permit even family classification. A new genus with two new species, Jurassipanorpa impunctata gen. et sp. n. and Jurassipanorpa sticta sp. n., are described based on four well-preserved specimens from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These two new species are the earliest fossil records of Panorpidae. The new genus is erected based on a combination of forewing characters: both R1 and Rs1 with two branches, 1A reaching posterior margin of wing distad of the forking of Rs from R1, and no crossveins or only one crossvein between veins of 1A and 2A. In all four specimens, long and robust setae ranging from 0.09 to 0.38 mm in length and pointing anteriorly, are present on anal veins of forewings. The function of these setae is enigmatic.
    ZooKeys 08/2014; DOI:10.3897/zookeys.431.7561 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood-feeding insects, as vectors of disease for humans and livestock alike, have garnered significant interest [1, 2], but our understanding of their early evolution is hindered by the scarcity of available material and the difficulty in distinguishing early hematophages from non-blood-feeding relatives. Here, we report a new family of true bugs including two new genera and species from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation in Northeastern China. By utilizing geochemical methods for determining their diets and combining morphological and taphonomic data, we demonstrate that these new species represent the earliest evidence of blood feeding among true bugs, extending the geological record of such lineages by approximately 30 million years. Remarkably, one of the bugs appears to have perished immediately following a blood meal, which may have been from coexisting mammals, birds, or avian-related dinosaurs. These records expand the phylogenetic and ecological diversity of blood-feeding insects in the Early Cretaceous, enriching our knowledge of paleoecological associations in these ancient environments.
    Current Biology 07/2014; 24(15). DOI:10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.045 · 9.92 Impact Factor
  • Xiuqin Lin, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren
    Zootaxa 07/2014; 3838(5):545-556. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3838.5.3 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nygmata are prominent glandular structures on the wings of insects. They have been documented in some extant insects, including several families of Neuroptera and Mecoptera, the majority of Trichoptera, and a few of the hymenopteran Symphyta. However, because nygmata are rarely preserved in compression fossils, their early development and evolution are still enigmatic. For example, the only documented nygmata in the Hymenoptera are on the forewings of the Triassic xyelids Asioxyela paurura and Madygenius primitives.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 06/2014; 14(1):131. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-14-131 · 3.41 Impact Factor
  • Longfeng Li, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren
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    ABSTRACT: A new genus with a new species, Archaulacus probus gen. et sp. nov., and two new species, Praeaulacus subrhombeus sp. nov., P. tenellus sp. nov., belonging to the subfamily Praeaulacinae (Praeaulacidae) are described and illustrated. The specimens were collected from the Middle Jurassic of Jiulongshan Formation at Daohugou in Inner Mongolia, China. Archaulacus gen. nov. differs from other genera of Praeaulacinae in having the first abscissa of Rs of the fore wing subvertical to R and 2m-cu slightly basad of 2r-m. This is the first time that these characters are reported for the Praeaulacinae. Based on new information provided by the new species, an updated key to the known species of Praeaulacus is provided.
    Zootaxa 06/2014; 3814(3):432-42. DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.3814.3.10 · 1.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new genus with two new species, Scabolyda orientalis gen. et sp. nov. and Scabolyda incompleta sp. nov., assigned to the subfamily Juralydinae in the family Pamphiliidae are described and illustrated. They were collected from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation in northeastern China. They represent the first fossil pamphiliids described from China.
    Alcheringa An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology 06/2014; 38(3). DOI:10.1080/03115518.2014.884366 · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundThe Kalligrammatidae are distinctive, large, conspicuous, lacewings found in Eurasia from the Middle Jurassic to mid Early Cretaceous. Because of incomplete and often inadequate fossil preservation, an absence of detailed morphology, unclear relationships, and unknown evolutionary trends, the Kalligrammatidae are poorly understood.ResultsWe describe three new subfamilies, four new genera, twelve new species and four unassigned species from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan and mid Early Cretaceous Yixian Formations of China. These kalligrammatid taxa exhibit diverse morphological characters, such as mandibulate mouthparts in one major clade and siphonate mouthparts in the remaining four major clades, the presence or absence of a variety of distinctive wing markings such as stripes, wing spots and eyespots, as well as multiple major wing shapes. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the Kalligrammatidae are divided into five principal clades: Kalligrammatinae Handlirsch, 1906, Kallihemerobiinae Ren & Engel, 2008, Meioneurinae subfam. nov., Oregrammatinae subfam. nov. and Sophogrammatinae subfam. nov., each of which is accorded subfamily-level status. Our results show significant morphological and evolutionary differentiation of the Kalligrammatidae family during a 40 million-year-interval of the mid Mesozoic.ConclusionA new phylogeny and classification of five subfamilies and their constituent genera is proposed for the Kalligrammatidae. These diverse, yet highly specialized taxa from northeastern China suggest that eastern Eurasia likely was an important diversification center for the Kalligrammatidae. Kalligrammatids possess an extraordinary morphological breadth and panoply of adaptations during the mid-Mesozoic that highlight our conclusion that their evolutionary biology is much more complex than heretofore realized.
    BMC Evolutionary Biology 06/2014; 14(1):126. DOI:10.1186/1471-2148-14-126 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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    Fei Dong, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren
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    ABSTRACT: Two new species, Eotrichocera (Archaeotrichocera) longensis sp. n. and Eotrichocera (Archaeotrichocera) amabilis sp. n. of Trichoceridae are described based on a combination of the following characters: Sc ending proximad of the forking of R2, shape of d cell and A2 rather short and bending sharply toward posterior margin. These fossil specimens were collected from the Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou in Inner Mongolia, China.
    ZooKeys 05/2014; 411(411):145-160. DOI:10.3897/zookeys.411.6858 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    Dan Yang, Chungkun Shih, Dong Ren
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    ABSTRACT: A new earwig genus with a new species, Cylindopygia falcata gen. et sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on two well-preserved, nearly complete female specimens from the Lower Cretaceous, Yixian Formation in Huangbanjigou, Liaoning Province, China. C. falcata is assigned to Pygidicranidae mainly due to the following characters: head obtuse-triangular with posterior margin straight, abdomen robust, subcylindrical and densely setose, and femora compressed and carinate. The new finding represents the earliest fossil record of Pygidicranidae and the first record of Pygidicranidae in China.
    Cretaceous Research 04/2014; 52. DOI:10.1016/j.cretres.2014.03.008 · 2.39 Impact Factor