P. Eisenhardt

California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States

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Publications (380)1209.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present JCMT SCUBA-2 850microns submillimetre (submm) observations of 30 mid-infrared (mid-IR) luminous AGN, detected jointly by the WISE all-sky IR survey and the NVSS/FIRST radio survey. These rare sources are selected by their extremely red mid-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and compact radio counterparts. Further investigations show that they are highly obscured, have abundant warm AGN-heated dust and are thought to be experiencing intense AGN feedback. These galaxies appear to be consistent with an AGN-dominated galaxy, and could be a transient phase of merging galaxies. When comparing the number of submm galaxies (SMGs) detected serendipitously in the surrounding 1.5-arcmin to those in blank-field submm surveys, there is a very significant overdensity, of order 5, but no sign of radial clustering centred at our primary objects. The WISE/radio-selected AGN thus reside in 10-Mpc-scale overdense environments, that could be forming in pre-viralised clusters of galaxies. WISE/radio-selected AGNs appear to be the strongest signposts of high-density regions of active, luminous and dusty galaxies. SCUBA-2 850microns observations indicate that their submm fluxes are low compared to many popular AGN SED templates, hence the WISE/radio-selected AGNs have either less cold and/or more warm dust emission than normally assumed for typical AGN. Most of the targets are not detected, only four targets are detected at SCUBA-2 850microns, and have total IR luminosities >= 10^13 L_solar, if their redshifts are consistent with the subset of the 10 SCUBA-2 undetected targets with known redshifts, z ~ 0.44 - 2.86.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2015; 448(4). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv214 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a sample of brown dwarfs identified with the {\it Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer} (WISE) for which we have obtained {\it Hubble Space Telescope} ({\it HST}) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared grism spectroscopy. The sample (twenty-two in total) was observed with the G141 grism covering 1.10$-$1.70 $\mu$m, while fifteen were also observed with the G102 grism, which covers 0.90$-$1.10 $\mu$m. The additional wavelength coverage provided by the G102 grism allows us to 1) search for spectroscopic features predicted to emerge at low effective temperatures (e.g.\ ammonia bands) and 2) construct a smooth spectral sequence across the T/Y boundary. We find no evidence of absorption due to ammonia in the G102 spectra. Six of these brown dwarfs are new discoveries, three of which are found to have spectral types of T8 or T9. The remaining three, WISE J082507.35$+$280548.5 (Y0.5), WISE J120604.38$+$840110.6 (Y0), and WISE J235402.77$+$024015.0 (Y1) are the nineteenth, twentieth, and twenty-first spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to date. We also present {\it HST} grism spectroscopy and reevaluate the spectral types of five brown dwarfs for which spectral types have been determined previously using other instruments.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the all-sky Planck catalogue of Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) sources detected from the 29 month full-mission data. The catalogue (PSZ2) is the largest SZ-selected sample of galaxy clusters yet produced and the deepest all-sky catalogue of galaxy clusters. It contains 1653 detections, of which 1203 are confirmed clusters with identified counterparts in external data-sets, and is the first SZ-selected cluster survey containing > 103 confirmed clusters. We present a detailed analysis of the survey selection function in terms of its completeness and statistical reliability, placing a lower limit of 83% on the purity. Using simulations, we find that the Y5R500 estimates are robust to pressure-profile variation and beam systematics, but accurate conversion to Y500 requires. the use of prior information on the cluster extent. We describe the multi-wavelength search for counterparts in ancillary data, which makes use of radio, microwave, infra-red, optical and X-ray data-sets, and which places emphasis on the robustness of the counterpart match. We discuss the physical properties of the new sample and identify a population of low-redshift X-ray under- luminous clusters revealed by SZ selection. These objects appear in optical and SZ surveys with consistent properties for their mass, but are almost absent from ROSAT X-ray selected samples.
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    ABSTRACT: The Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS) is a comprehensive program to detect and characterize the most massive galaxy clusters in the universe at z~1, and is the only all-sky survey sensitive to galaxy clusters at this epoch. We propose a large snapshot program to obtain photometry for clusters drawn from the 2000 highest significance detections in the MaDCoWS catalog. From a previous pilot program and CARMA Sunyaev-Zel'dovich imaging, we have calibrated a low-scatter mass-richness relation. The proposed observations will yield photometric redshifts and richness estimates for the full snapshot sample. The requested observations are designed to be optimal for (1) investigation of the evolution of massive galaxies in the most overdense environments, (2) unbiased calibration of scaling relations for cluster mass observables, and (3) identification of extremely massive clusters that can be used for the fgas cosmological test and as constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity. These observations also have substantial legacy value, providing a fiducial reference sample for the next generation of wide-area cluster surveys. We intend for this survey to be a community resource for years to come.
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    ABSTRACT: Powerful AGN are known to be found in overdense environments at high-redshifts. A joint selection using WISE mid-IR and NVSS radio detections of galaxies over most of the sky has highlighted a new very luminous population of about 150 powerful, physically-compact AGN, which might involve the most powerful feedback processes taking place at any epoch. We propose to probe the environments the 33 examples which have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts z>1.3, to allow Spitzer-based color selection of companions over the 5.2-arcmin wide IRAC field. All have new JVLA radio imaging, all but three have ALMA photometry, 25 have VLBA resolution radio images. From SCUBA2 submillimeter imaging observations of about 50 of these galaxies, including 3 in this proposal, we know that the density of ultraluminous dusty companions in 3-arcmin fields around these AGN is unprecedentedly large: up to a factor of 6 in excess of field surveys, the largest overdensity seen for any population of high-redshift galaxies. We propose to exploit the same techniques pioneered by the CARLA program to probe the spatial distribution and stellar populations of high-redshift galaxies in the environments of our AGN. We will determine whether the dramatic overdensity of ultraluminous galaxies around these AGN is matched in more normal sub-L* objects probed by Spitzer, determine the relationship between the modelled stellar populations in our targets and companions, and the AGN/ environmental properties, and provide accurate positions for spectroscopic investigation using new multi-object spectrographs. The 2.5-Mpc regions probed by Spitzer at z>1.3 are ideal to encompass the protocluster in which the AGNs reside, and to understand their evolution and the relationship with their environments.
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    ABSTRACT: We present CARMA 30 GHz Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations of five high-redshift ($z \gtrsim 1$), infrared-selected galaxy clusters discovered as part of the all-sky Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The SZ decrements measured toward these clusters demonstrate that the MaDCoWS selection is discovering evolved, massive galaxy clusters with hot intracluster gas. Using the SZ scaling relation calibrated with South Pole Telescope clusters at similar masses and redshifts, we find these MaDCoWS clusters have masses in the range $M_{200} \approx 2-6 \times 10^{14}$ $M_\odot$. Three of these are among the most massive clusters found to date at $z\gtrsim 1$, demonstrating that MaDCoWS is sensitive to the most massive clusters to at least $z = 1.3$. The added depth of the AllWISE data release will allow all-sky infrared cluster detection to $z \approx 1.5$ and beyond.
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    ABSTRACT: We present 20 WISE-selected galaxies with bolometric luminosities L_bol > 10^14 L_sun, including five with infrared luminosities L_IR = L(rest 8-1000 micron) > 10^14 L_sun. These "extremely luminous infrared galaxies," or ELIRGs, were discovered using the "W1W2-dropout" selection criteria (Eisenhardt et al. 2012) which requires marginal or non-detections at 3.4 and 4.6 micron (W1 and W2, respectively) but strong detections at 12 and 22 micron in the WISE survey. Their spectral energy distributions are dominated by emission at rest-frame 4-10 micron, suggesting that hot dust with T_d ~ 450K is responsible for the high luminosities. These galaxies are likely powered by highly obscured AGNs, and there is no evidence suggesting these systems are beamed or lensed. We compare this WISE-selected sample with 116 optically selected quasars that reach the same L_bol level, corresponding to the most luminous unobscured quasars in the literature. We find that the rest-frame 5.8 and 7.8 micron luminosities of the WISE-selected ELIRGs can be 30%-80% higher than that of the unobscured quasars. Assuming Eddington-limited accretion, the existence of AGNs with L_bol > 10^14 L_sun at z > 3 places strong constraints on the supermassive black hole growth history, suggesting that these supermassive black holes are born with large mass, or have very rapid mass assembly, possibly by chaotic accretion.
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    ABSTRACT: The WISE mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift ($z=1-4.6$), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities $L_{\rm IR} > 10^{13}~L_{\odot}$, and sometimes exceeding $10^{14}~L_{\odot}$. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-IR SEDs are significantly hotter than expected for star-formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-IR SEDs for a large sample of these so-called "Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies" (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured AGN that dominates the rest-frame emission at $\lambda > 1\mu\rm m$ and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as $10^{11}-10^{12}~M_{\odot}$, the AGN emission, with luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either Hot DOGs have black hole masses significantly in excess of the local relations, or that they radiate significantly above the Eddington limit. We show that, while rare, the number density of Hot DOGs is comparable to that of equally luminous but unobscured (i.e., Type 1) QSOs. This is inconsistent with the trend of a diminishing fraction of obscured objects with increasing luminosity found for less luminous QSOs, possibly indicating a reversal in this relation at high luminosity, and that Hot DOGs are not the torus-obscured counterparts of the known optically selected, largely unobscured Hyper-Luminous QSOs. Hot DOGs may represent a different type of galaxy and thus a new component of the galaxy evolution paradigm. Finally, we discuss the environments of Hot DOGs and show that these objects are in regions as dense as those of known high-redshift proto-clusters.(Abridged)
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    ABSTRACT: NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been brought out of hibernation and has resumed surveying the sky at 3.4 and 4.6 um. The scientific objectives of the NEOWISE reactivation mission are to detect, track, and characterize near-Earth asteroids and comets. The search for minor planets resumed on December 23, 2013, and the first new near-Earth object (NEO) was discovered six days later. As an infrared survey, NEOWISE detects asteroids based on their thermal emission and is equally sensitive to high and low albedo objects; consequently, NEOWISE-discovered NEOs tend to be large and dark. Over the course of its three-year mission, NEOWISE will determine radiometrically-derived diameters and albedos for approximately 2000 NEOs and tens of thousands of Main Belt asteroids. The 32 months of hibernation have had no significant effect on the mission's performance. Image quality, sensitivity, photometric and astrometric accuracy, completeness, and the rate of minor planet detections are all essentially unchanged from the prime mission's post-cryogenic phase.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 792(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/792/1/30 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present SCUBA-2 850um submillimetre (submm) observations of the fields of 10 dusty, luminous galaxies at z ~ 1.7 - 4.6, detected at 12um and/or 22um by the WISE all-sky survey, but faint or undetected at 3.4um and 4.6um; dubbed hot, dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs). The six detected targets all have total infrared luminosities greater than 10^13 L_sun, with one greater than 10^14 L_sun. Their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are very blue from mid-infrared to submm wavelengths and not well fitted by standard AGN SED templates, without adding extra dust extinction to fit the WISE 3.4um and 4.6um data. The SCUBA-2 850um observations confirm that the Hot DOGs have less cold and/or more warm dust emission than standard AGN templates, and limit an underlying extended spiral or ULIRG-type galaxy to contribute less than about 2% or 55% of the typical total Hot DOG IR luminosity, respectively. The two most distant and luminous targets have similar observed submm to mid-infrared ratios to the rest, and thus appear to have even hotter SEDs. The number of serendipitous submm galaxies (SMGs) detected in the 1.5-arcmin-radius SCUBA-2 850um maps indicates there is a significant over-density of serendipitous sources around Hot DOGs. These submm observations confirm that the WISE-selected ultra-luminous galaxies have very blue mid-infrared to submm SEDs, suggesting that they contain very powerful AGN, and are apparently located in unusual arcmin-scale overdensities of very luminous dusty galaxies.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2014; 443(1). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu1157 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been reactivated as NEOWISE-R to characterize and search for Near Earth Objects. The brown dwarf WISE J085510.83-071442.5 has now been reobserved by NEOWISE-R, and we confirm the results of Luhman (2014b), who found a very low effective temperature, a very high proper motion, and a large parallax. The large proper motion has separated the brown dwarf from the background sources that influenced the 2010 WISE data, allowing a measurement of a very red WISE color of W1-W2 > 3.9. A re-analysis of the 2010 WISE astrometry using only the W2 band, combined with the new NEOWISE-R 2014 position, gives an improved parallax of 448 +/- 32 mas and proper motion of 8.072 +/- 0.026 arcsec/yr. These are all consistent with Luhman (2014b).
    The Astronomical Journal 05/2014; 148(5). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/148/5/82 · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: WISE has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies which are faint in the two bluer passbands ($3.4\, \mu$m and $4.6\, \mu$m) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE ($12\, \mu$m and $22\, \mu$m). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the CARMA and SMA interferometer arrays at submm/mm wavelengths. We report continuum detections at $\sim$ 1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1-2 arcsec and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0$\times 10^{8} M_{\odot}$ for W0149+2350 and 3.9$\times 10^{8} M_{\odot}$ for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2$\sigma$ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.4$\times 10^{10} M_{\odot}$ and 2.1$\times 10^{10} M_{\odot}$ for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.
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    ABSTRACT: WISE has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies which are faint in the two bluer passbands ($3.4\, \mu$m and $4.6\, \mu$m) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE ($12\, \mu$m and $22\, \mu$m). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the CARMA and SMA interferometer arrays at submm/mm wavelengths. We report continuum detections at $\sim$ 1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1-2 arcsec and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0$\times 10^{8} M_{\odot}$ for W0149+2350 and 3.9$\times 10^{8} M_{\odot}$ for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2$\sigma$ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.4$\times 10^{10} M_{\odot}$ and 2.1$\times 10^{10} M_{\odot}$ for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 793(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/8 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical and infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy of galaxy clusters which were identified as part of an all-sky search for high-redshift galaxy clusters, the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The initial phase of MaDCoWS combined infrared data from the all-sky data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to select probable z ~ 1 clusters of galaxies over an area of 10,000 deg^2. Our spectroscopy confirms 19 new clusters at 0.7 < z < 1.3, half of which are at z > 1, demonstrating the viability of using WISE to identify high-redshift galaxy clusters. The next phase of MaDCoWS will use the greater depth of the AllWISE data release to identify even higher redshift cluster candidates.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2014; 213(2). DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/213/2/25 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected AGN at z~2 in a broad X-ray band (0.1 - 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4um (W1) and 4.6um (W2) bands but bright at 12um (W3) and 22um (W4), are extremely rare, with only ~1000 so-called W1W2-dropouts across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z~2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of L(6um)~6e46 erg/s and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L(bol)~1e14 L(sun). The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10)~4e45 erg/s for typical quasar templates. These are amongst the most luminous AGN known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5um. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N(H)<1e24 /cm2. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton. A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection. The X-ray data require gas column densities N(H)>1e24 /cm2, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton-thick, luminous quasars. The discovery of a significant population of heavily obscured, extremely luminous AGN does not conform to the standard paradigm of a receding torus, in which more luminous quasars are less likely to be obscured. If a larger sample conforms with this finding, then this suggests an additional source of obscuration for these extreme sources.
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    ABSTRACT: The AllWISE processing pipeline has measured motions for all objects detected on WISE images taken between 2010 January and 2011 February. In this paper, we discuss new capabilities made to the software pipeline in order to make motion measurements possible, and we characterize the resulting data products for use by future researchers. Using a stringent set of selection criteria, we find 22,445 objects that have significant AllWISE motions, of which 3,525 have motions that can be independently confirmed from earlier 2MASS images yet lack any published motions in SIMBAD. Another 58 sources lack 2MASS counterparts and are presented as motion candidates only. Limited spectroscopic follow-up of this list has already revealed eight new L subdwarfs. These may provide the first hints of a "subdwarf gap" at mid-L types that would indicate the break between the stellar and substellar populations at low metallicities (i.e., old ages). Another object in the motion list -- WISEA J154045.67-510139.3 -- is a bright (J ~ 9 mag) object of type M6; both the spectrophotometric distance and a crude preliminary parallax place it ~6 pc from the Sun. We also compare our list of motion objects to the recently published list of 762 WISE motion objects from Luhman (2014). While these first large motion studies with WISE data have been very successful in revealing previously overlooked nearby dwarfs, both studies missed objects that the other found, demonstrating that many other nearby objects likely await discovery in the AllWISE data products.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2014; 783(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/122 · 6.28 Impact Factor
  • The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 782(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/782/1/58 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The emerging picture of the evolution of cluster galaxies indicates that the epoch of z>1 is a crucial period of active star formation and mass assembly in clusters. In this dissertation, I leverage a uniformly-selected cluster sample from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) with Herschel imaging to analyse the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies over the past ten billion years. This analysis is two-fold: 1) using 274 clusters across the 9 square degree Bootes field, I perform a stacking analysis of mass-limited samples of cluster and field galaxies using wide-field Herschel observations over a long redshift baseline, z=0.3-1.5. I find that the average SF activity in cluster galaxies is evolving faster than in the field, with field-like SF in the cluster cores and enhanced SF activity in the cluster outskirts at z>1.2. By further breaking down my analysis by galaxy mass and type, I determine which mechanisms are capable of driving this evolution. 2) I use unique, deep Herschel imaging of 11 spectroscopically-confirmed clusters from z=1.1-1.8 to study the properties of individual infrared bright cluster galaxies as a function of redshift and cluster-centric radius. Combined with ancillary data, I determine the star formation, dust, and AGN properties of the most active cluster galaxies and tie the evolution of these properties back to the environment by comparing to field populations. By combining these two approaches, I constrain cluster galaxy properties during a pivotal epoch of dust-obscured star formation activity and mass assembly in some of the most extreme structures in the Universe.
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    ABSTRACT: We carried out our survey in a field that benefits from an abundance of supporting data from X-ray to radio wavelengths, and which has extremely low levels of Galactic dust emission, being among the cleanest 1% of contiguous 100deg2 regions on the sky as measured in the 100um IRAS map (Finkbeiner et al. 1999ApJ...524..867F). See section 2 for further details.The SSDF was covered by Astronomical Observation Requests (AORs) having coverage footprints of various (sometimes irregular) shapes and sizes. Although the four-AOR observations of specific areas were performed consecutively, spacecraft visibility constraints meant that coverage of the full SSDF had to be accumulated in separate campaigns spaced roughly six months apart. These took place in 2011 July-August, 2012 January-February, 2012 July-September, and 2012 December-2013 February. See section 3 for further explanations.(2 data files).

Publication Stats

11k Citations
1,209.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1925–2015
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2014
    • Planetary Science Institute
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2013
    • Dartmouth College
      • Department of Physics & Astronomy
      Hanover, New Hampshire, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Los Ángeles, California, United States
  • 2012–2013
    • University of Missouri - Kansas City
      • Department of Physics
      Kansas City, Missouri, United States
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Irvine, CA, United States
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Astronomy
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Naples Federico II
      Napoli, Campania, Italy
  • 1999–2013
    • University of California, Davis
      • Department of Physics
      Davis, California, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • Monash University (Australia)
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2003–2012
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1995–2012
    • NASA
      • Jet Propulsion Laboratory
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 2011
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2008–2011
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
    • University of California, Berkeley
      Berkeley, California, United States
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2004
    • Bowling Green State University
      Боулинг-Грин, Ohio, United States