[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leukemia is one of the leading journals in hematology and oncology. It is published monthly and covers all aspects of the research and treatment of leukemia and allied diseases. Studies of normal hemopoiesis are covered because of their comparative relevance.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 08/2015; DOI:10.1038/leu.2015.215 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this phase I/II study we explored the combination of Temsirolimus with Bendamustine and Rituximab (BeRT) in patients with r/r Follicular Lymphoma (FL) or Mantle Cell Lymphoma (MCL). Patients with 1-3 prior therapies received Bendamustine (90 mg/m(2), day 1+2) and Rituximab (375 mg/m(2), day 1) with Temsirolimus in doses from 25 to 75 mg added on day 1, 8, 15 of a 28 d cycle. 15 (11 MCL, 4 FL) patients were included in the phase I. Median age was 73 years and median pretreatment number was 2. No formal DLT was observed. Dominant non-hematologic side effects were fatigue in 11 (73%), nausea in 9 (60%), mucositis in 7 (47%), vomiting in 6 patients (40%). Cough, diarrhea, pyrexia, rash were observed in 5 patients (33%) each. Grade 3/4 events included leukopenia in 6 (40%), neutropenia in 4 (27%) and thrombocytopenia in 2 patients (13%). An objective response was observed in 14/15 patients (93%), including 5 CR (33% all MCL). After a median follow-up of 19 months, 67% of patients are without signs of progression. Temsirolimus can be safely added to BR with promising preliminary activity. Recruitment in phase II is ongoing.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 13 March 2015. doi:10.1038/leu.2015.60.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transformation of follicular lymphoma (FL) into aggressive disease and relapse of de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are considered highly unfavourable events. However, most published data were acquired when rituximab was not routinely used. We retrospectively analysed 50 patients with transformed FL (tFL) in a multicenter study and compared them to 50 individuals with relapsed DLBCL (rDLBCL) who all obtained rituximab for the treatment of their disease. Our goal was to identify factors that predict a more favourable prognosis. After a median follow-up of 5.4 years from diagnosis, there was no significant difference in median overall survival (OS) from the date of transformation (tFL) or date of the first relapse (rDLBCL) (1.9 versus 3.9 years, P = .542). Of note, 5-year OS of patients with tFL was 46 %. Follicular lymphoma patients, treatment naïve prior to transformation, fared significantly better than pretreated patients (median not reached versus 1.4 years, P = .014). Regarding rDLBCL, female gender (13.9 versus 1.8 years, P = .019) and absence of rituximab prior to the first relapse (14.0 versus 1.8 years, P = .035) were favourable prognostic factors in a uni- and multivariate analysis. Only a proportion of patients received high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (HDT-ASCT), i.e. 38 and 52 % of patients with tFL and rDLBCL, respectively. Our data indicate that a favourable prognosis is conferred by treatment naivety in tFL and by rituximab naivety in rDLBCL. In contrast, we did not find a prognostic impact of HDT-ASCT in our series.
Annals of Hematology 02/2015; 94(6). DOI:10.1007/s00277-015-2303-5 · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aim:
BCR-ABL-positive (BCR-ABL(+)) leukemia is very difficult to treat although much improvement has been achieved due to the clinical application of imatinib and the second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This study aimed to evaluate for the first time the treatment value of the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor TKI258 in BCR-ABL(+) leukemia.
Materials and methods:
Proliferation of different BCR-ABL(+) leukemic cells was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; cell apoptosis with Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) and flow cytometry. Gene expression at the protein level was determined by western blotting.
This drug showed treatment efficacy in naïve and imatinib-resistant BCR-ABL(+) leukemia cells, particularly in cells harboring T315I-mutated BCR-ABL, for which no effective inhibitor is available to date. By combination with the mTOR inhibitor RAD001, a synergistic effect on cell proliferation was observed in these cell lines.
TKI258 may become a potent therapeutic agent, either alone or in combination with RAD001, for treatment of BCR-ABL(+) leukemia.
Anticancer research 09/2014; 34(9):4909-14. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/aim:
The goal of the present study was to evaluate if the multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) TKI258 has any treatment value for infant/childhood acute lymphoblatic leukemia (ALL), especially those ALLs bearing the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) genes.
Materials and methods:
Cell proliferation was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; cell apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution with flow cytometry. Gene expression at the protein level was determined by western blotting.
These ALL cells were extremely sensitive to TKI258 treatment with a concentration for 50% inhibition of cell proliferation (IC50) values in the nanomolar range in vitro. By combination with mTOR inhibitor RAD001, a synergistic effect on cell death and cell proliferation was observed in these cells.
TKI258 may become a potent therapeutic agent, either alone or in combination with RAD001, for treatment of ALL, especially the entity with MLL genes.
Anticancer research 09/2014; 34(9):4899-907. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Very few reliable clinical data about the use of radioimmunotherapy in aggressive B-cell lymphoma exist.
Patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma registered in the international RIT-Network were analysed with regard to prior treatment, response and side effects. The RIT-Network is a web-based registry that collects observational data from radioimmunotherapy-treated patients with malignant lymphoma across 13 countries.
This analysis included 215 with aggressive B-cell lymphoma out of 232 patients registered in the RIT-Network. Histological subtypes were as follows: 190 diffuse large B-cell, 15 primary mediastinal, 9 anaplastic large cell, and 1 intravascular lymphoma. The median age of the patients was 62 years (range 17 - 88), with 27 % above the age of 70 years. Radioimmunotherapy was mainly used as consolidation after first-line or second-line chemotherapy (56.1 %), as part of third-line to eighth-line therapy for relapse (16.4 %), and in refractory disease (12.2 %). Grade IV neutropenia and thrombopenia and grade III anaemia were observed. The median time to recovery of blood count was 81 days (range 0 - 600 days). The overall response rate was 63.3 %. The complete response rate was 76.4 % in patients treated as part of first-line therapy, and 44.3 % in patients with relapse. Mean overall survival in first-line therapy patients was 32.7 months and 14.0 months in patients with relapse or refractory disease, respectively.
Most patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma in the RIT-Network received radioimmunotherapy as consolidation after first-line therapy with excellent complete remission and overall survival rates compared to published data. In relapsed aggressive B-cell lymphoma, radioimmunotherapy is a safe and feasible treatment leading to satisfactory response rates with acceptable toxicity.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2014; 41(8). DOI:10.1007/s00259-014-2758-y · 5.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that occurs as extra nodal, nodal, or splenic. While MZL is generally considered an indolent disease, a substantial percentage of patients follow an unfavorable course. The objective of this retrospective analysis was to identify predictors for a reduced overall survival (OS), or conversely an increased OS.
One hundred and ninety-seven MZL patients were analyzed. Apart from assessing previously published risk factors, concomitant morbidity at diagnosis, transformation into aggressive lymphoma, and occurrence of additional malignancies were evaluated.
Next to the known risk factors, i.e. above 60 years of age and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), we demonstrate that transformation into aggressive lymphoma, as well as additional malignancies, are important independent risk factors for a shortened OS in a multivariate analysis, irrespective of the MZL localization. Impressively, in the group of patients lacking LDH elevation, transformation, and/or additional malignancies, only 1 of 63 patients died during follow-up compared with 37 of 87 patients in the high-risk group (HR = 22.8; 95% confidence interval 3.1-167.0; P = 0.002).
Our analysis proposes novel risk factors and warrants for a continuous follow-up to detect the occurrence of transformation and additional malignancies early on.
Annals of Oncology 01/2014; 25(1):210-5. DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdt507 · 7.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most frequent aggressive lymphoma with a great demand of novel treatments for relapsing and refractory disease. Constitutive activation of the phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway is often detected in this lymphoma. Inhibition of this signalling cascade with the pan-class I PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptotic cell death. DLBCL proliferation was further decreased if NVP-BKM120-induced autophagy was blocked. Treatment with NVP-BKM120 was associated with increase of the proapoptotic BH3-only proteins Puma and Bim and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. Translation of Bcl-xL and Mcl-1 is facilitated by cap-dependent mRNA translation, a process that was partially inhibited by NVP-BKM120. We demonstrate for the first time the potential of NVP-BKM120 for the treatment of DLBCL.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. The prognosis of patients with central nervous system relapse of aggressive lymphoma is very poor with no therapy established thus far. In a prospective multicenter phase II study we evaluated a potentially curative chemotherapy-only regimen in these patients. Design and Methods. Adult immunocompetent patients ≤65 years received induction chemotherapy with MTX/IFO/DEP (methotrexate 4 g/m2 i.v. day1, ifosfamide 2 g/m2 i.v. day3-5 and liposomal cytarabine 50mg intrathecally day6) and AraC/TT/DEP (cytarabine 3g/m2 i.v. day1-2, thiotepa 40 mg/m2 i.v. day2 and i.th. liposomal cytarabine 50mg intrathecally day3) followed by high-dose chemotherapy with carmustine 400 mg/m2 i.v. day -5, thiotepa 2x5mg/kg i.v. day -4 to -3 and etoposide 150 mg/m2 i.v. day -5 to -3 and autologous stem cell transplantation day0 (HD-ASCT). Results. Thirty eligible patients (median age 58 years) were enrolled. After HD-ASCT (n=24) there was a complete remission in 15 (63%), partial remission in two (8%) and progressive disease in seven (29%) patients. Myelotoxicity was the most adverse event with CTC grade 3/4 infections in 12% of MTX/IFO/DEP courses, 21% of AraC/TT/DEP courses and 46% of HD-ASCT courses. The 2-year time to treatment failure was 49%+/-19 for all patients and 58%+/-22 for patients completing HD-ASCT. Conclusions. The protocol assessed proved feasible and highly active with long-lasting remissions in a large proportion of patients. (ClinicalTrials.govIdentifier NCT01148173).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSEWe report on a multicenter phase II trial of (90)yttrium-ibritumomab-tiuxetan ((90)YIT) as first-line stand-alone therapy for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). PATIENTS AND METHODS
Fifty-nine patients with CD20(+) FL grade 1 to 3a in stages II, III, or IV, age 50 years old or older requiring therapy were enrolled. They received (90)YIT according to standard procedure. If complete response (CR) or unconfirmed complete response (CRu) without evidence for minimal residual disease (MRD) 6 months after application of (90)YIT was achieved, patients were observed without further intervention. The same applied to patients with partial response (PR) or with stable disease (SD). Patients with CR but with persisting MRD were to receive a consolidation treatment with rituximab. Primary end point was the clinical and molecular response rate. Secondary end points were time to progression, safety, and tolerability.ResultsSix months after treatment with (90)YIT, 56% of the patients showed a CR or CRu and 31% achieved a PR. After a median follow-up of 30.6 months, the progression-free survival (PFS) was 26 months. There was a trend for shorter PFS in patients with increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Of the 26 patients who had CR 12 months after (90)YIT, only three had relapsed. Median time to next treatment has not been reached. The most common toxicities were transient thrombocytopenia and leukocytopenia. Nonhematologic toxicities never exceeded grade 2 according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v2.0). CONCLUSION(90)YIT is well tolerated and achieves high response rates. Patients with increased LDH tend to relapse earlier, and individuals in remission 1 year after (90)YIT appear to have long-lasting responses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling is frequently dysregulated in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) including the favourable germinal centre B-cell (GCB) and the unfavourable activated B-cell (ABC) subtypes. mTOR promotes cap-dependent translation of proteins, like Mcl-1, through inhibitory phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4EBP1). Inhibition of mTOR by RAD001 reduces proliferation but fails to dephosphorylate 4EBP1 and to induce cell death in either DLBCL subtype. In contrast, concurrent inhibition of PI3K and mTOR with NVP-BEZ235 inhibits proliferation, dephosphorylates 4EBP1, and induces cells death, notably more pronounced in CGB cells. Small RNA interference identifies Mcl-1 as a crucial cell death mediator of both DLBCL subtypes. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR/4EBP1 by NVP-BEZ235 results in suppression of the cap-dependent translation initiation complex and concomitant downregulation of Mcl-1 in GCB cell lines. In ABC cell lines, this suppression is possibly compensated by NF-κB- or Pim kinase-mediated signalling.
Cancer letters 11/2012; 339(2). DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.11.013 · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In most patients, mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) shows an aggressive clinical course with a continuous relapse pattern and a median survival of only 3-5 years. In the current study generation of the European MCL Network, the addition of high-dose Ara-C to R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone)-like regimen followed by myeloablative consolidation achieved a significant improvement of progression-free survival in younger patients. In elderly patients, rituximab maintenance led to a marked prolongation of remission duration. Emerging strategies include mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors, immune modulatory drugs, Bruton's tyrosine kinase inhibitors and others, all based on the dysregulated control of cell cycle machinery and impairment of several apoptotic pathways. Combination strategies are currently being investigated in numerous trials, but their introduction into clinical practice and current treatment algorithms remains a challenge. In the current survey, the application of the molecular targeted compounds were collected and evaluated by a representative national network of 14 haematological institutions. Optimised strategies are recommended for clinical routine. Future studies will apply individualised approaches according to the molecular risk profile of the patient.
Annals of Hematology 08/2012; 91(11):1765-72. DOI:10.1007/s00277-012-1534-y · 2.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite advances in the the first- and second-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer, there remains a large unmet need for additional treatment options. As preclinical studies have suggested that combining everolimus with carboplatin may produce higher activity than each drug by itself, we initiated a phase I study of this combination.
Patients with pre-treated metastatic breast cancer received weekly carboplatin at AUC2 and daily oral everolimus at different dose-levels (level I: 2.5 mg; II: 5 mg; III: 7.5 mg; IV: 10 mg). Three patients were assigned to dose-levels I to III, and six to dose-level IV. The primary end-point was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD).
Fifteen patients were recruited to the study. The median number of previous chemotherapies was four (range: 1-11). No dose-limiting toxicity occurred at levels I-III during the first cycle. Based on the pre-determined definition, the maximum planned dose-level IV was selected as the MTD. Patients received a median of four cycles of treatment (range 1-13). Most frequent grade 3 and 4 toxicities included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and infection. Response rates were as follows: 21% partial response, 43% stable disease, and 36% progressive disease.
Carboplatin and everolimus is a well-tolerated combination for heavily pre-treated metastatic breast cancer. Everolimus (10 mg/d) and carboplatin (AUC2 weekly) were defined as the MTD. This dose is currently being employed in an ongoing phase II trial.
Anticancer research 08/2012; 32(8):3435-41. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metformin appears to interfere directly with cell proliferation and apoptosis in cancer cells in a non-insulin-mediated manner. One of the key mechanisms of metformin's action is the activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is linked with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) cascades--all known for being frequently dysregulated in breast cancer. Therefore, simultaneously targeting AMPK through metformin and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway by an mTOR inhibitor could become a therapeutic approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of metformin alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs and the mTOR inhibitor RAD001.
The proliferation of breast cancer cells was measured with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; and the cell apoptosis with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Gene expression at the protein level was determined by western blot.
We tested metformin alone and in combination with RAD001 and/or chemotherapeutic agents (carboplatin, paclitaxel and doxorubicin, respectively) on several human breast cancer cell lines with respect to cell proliferation, apoptosis and autophagy. Metformin alone inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in different breast cancer cell lines (ERα-positive, HER2-positive, and triple-negative). The cytotoxic effect of metformin was more remarkable in triple-negative breast cancer cell lines than in other cell lines. The cell apoptosis induced by metformin is, at least partly, caspase-dependent and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF)-dependent. Interestingly, we demonstrated that metformin induced cell autophagy. Inhibiting autophagy with chloroquine, enhanced the treatment efficacy of metformin, indicating that autophagy induced by metformin may protect breast cancer cells from apoptosis. We further demonstrated that co-administration of metformin with chemotherapeutic agents and RAD001 intensified the inhibition of cell proliferation. The analysis of cell cycle-regulating proteins cyclin D, cyclin E and p27 by western blot indicated that the synergistic inhibition of G1 phase of the cell cycle by the combination treatment of metformin, chemotherapeutic drugs and/or RAD001 contributed to the synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation.
Our investigation provides a rationale for the clinical application of metformin within treatment regimens for breast cancer.
Anticancer research 05/2012; 32(5):1627-37. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is defined as thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Cancer-associated TMA, a rare but fatal condition, seems an entity distinct from classical thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)/hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with breast cancer-associated TMA treated at our institution between 2003 and 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. To elucidate pathophysiological mechanisms, we measured the serum activity of the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. RESULTS: 8 patients were identified. All showed bone marrow infiltration of breast cancer as well as thrombocytopenia, schistocytes, and hemolytic anemia. ADAMTS13 activity was mildly decreased in 4/6 patients (20-108%, normal range 30-120%), but none showed severely low levels as is characteristic of classical TTP. 6 patients were treated with anthracycline-containing fractionated chemotherapy, 5/6 patients experienced partial response. Overall survival was 13 months. Fractionated chemotherapy was well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer-associated TMA has an underlying mechanism different from classical TTP. While bone marrow infiltration might be of major relevance, ADAMTS13 deficiency seems to be an epiphenomenon. Fractionated chemotherapy resulted in higher remission rates and comparatively long survival.
Breast Care 12/2011; 6(6):441-445. DOI:10.1159/000335201 · 0.63 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with synchronous metastastic breast cancer and intact primary tumor traditionally undergo systemic treatment. Surgical intervention at the primary site is typically reserved for palliation and often replaceable by radiation. Nevertheless, local surgery in metastatic breast cancer has become an issue of great controversy since retrospective studies published during the recent years suggested a slight benefit from an operative procedure. We evaluated the effect of surgery on long-term survival and progression-free survival in synchronous stage IV breast cancer.
We retrospectively reviewed the records of all breast cancer patients treated at our institution between 1986 and 2007. Information recorded for each patient included age, tumor characteristics, metastasis characteristics, therapy, progression-free survival, and overall survival. Survival data were compared between surgical and nonsurgical patients.
61 patients with synchronous metastastic breast cancer and intact primary tumor were analyzed. 26 patients (43%) received no primary site surgery and 35 (57%) patients had surgery. Overall survival and progression-free survival determined via the Kaplan-Meier method showed no significant difference between the surgery and the non-surgery group.
In patients with metastatic breast cancer, the operation of the primary tumor did not influence overall survival or progression-free survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B(AKT)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in many types of cancer, including breast cancer. It is recognized that breast cancer cells develop resistance to a variety of standard therapies through the activation of this pathway. We hypothesized that targeting this signaling by the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of a conventional chemotherapeutic drug, carboplatin, and enhance the treatment efficacy for breast cancer.
Cell proliferation was measured with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay; cell apoptosis with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Flow cytometry was used for the analysis of cell cycle distribution and mitochondrial membrane function. Gene expression at the protein level was determined by Western blot.
MTOR inhibitor RAD001 enhanced the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to carboplatin. RAD001 in combination with carboplatin resulted in synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation and caspase-independent apoptosis in these cells. Moreover, in MCF-7 and BT-474 cells, synergistic effects of this combination on G₂/M cell cycle arrest and regulation of different molecules responsible for cell cycle transition and apoptosis were observed. The p53 pathway was involved in the synergism of RAD001 and carboplatin on breast cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis, since the synergistic effect was demonstrated in all tested breast cancer cell lines with wild-type p53 and the use of p53 inhibitor partially antagonized the effect of RAD001 and carboplatin on p53 and p21 expression, as well as their inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. However, a synergistic effect of the combination of the two drugs on cell proliferation was observed in two p53-mutated cell lines with high AKT expression, suggesting that an alternative mechanism underlying the observed synergism exists.
Our results suggest that the combination of RAD001 and carboplatin is a promising treatment approach for breast cancer. On the basis of these results, we have initiated a phase I/II clinical trial with the combination of carboplatin and RAD001 in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Anticancer research 09/2011; 31(9):2713-22. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lymphomatous meningitis (LM) represents a severe complication of malignant lymphomas. While clinical suspicion is raised by symptoms ranging from mild disturbances of sensation to severe pain or impaired consciousness, the definite diagnosis of LM is often difficult to obtain. Since B-cell lymphomas are clonally restricted to express either kappa or lambda immunoglobulin light chain, we hypothesised that analysis of free light chain (FLC) ratios might facilitate the diagnosis of LM.
Kappa and lambda FLC were measured using a novel nephelometric assay in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from 17 patients. 5/17 suffered from LM as demonstrated by cytology, immunocytology, and/or imaging procedures.
Measurement of FLC concentrations in CSF was achieved for all 17 patients. FLC levels in CSF were lower than serum FLC levels in samples for the same patient obtained at the same time (p < 0.01). CSF and serum FLC concentrations correlated weakly in all patients irrespective of LM status. Significantly more patients with cytopathologically and immunohistochemically proven LM displayed abnormal kappa/lambda FLC ratios in CSF compared to individuals with no LM (p < 0.01).
This is the first report demonstrating that a significant proportion of LM patients display an abnormal kappa/lambda FLC ratio in the CSF.
BMC Cancer 02/2007; 7(1):185. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-7-185 · 3.36 Impact Factor