[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is vitally important in diabetic wound healing. We had previously demonstrated that a Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) significantly stimulated angiogenesis of HUVEC in wound healing. However, the molecular mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In line with this, global expression profiling of NF3-treated HUVEC was performed so as to assess the regulatory role of NF3 involved in the underlying signaling pathways in wound healing angiogenesis. The microarray results illustrated that different panels of differentially expressed genes were strictly governed in NF3-treated HUVEC in a time-regulated manner. The microarray analysis followed by qRT-PCR and western blotting verification of NF3-treated HUVEC at 6 h revealed the involvement of various genes in diverse biological process, e.g., MAP3K14 in anti-inflammation; SLC5A8 in anti-tumorogenesis; DNAJB7 in protein translation; BIRC5, EPCAM, INSL4, MMP8 and NPR3 in cell proliferation; CXCR7, EPCAM, HAND1 and MMP8 in migration; CXCR7, EPCAM and MMP8 in tubular formation; and BIRC5, CXCR7, EPCAM, HAND1, MMP8 and UBD in angiogenesis. After 16 h incubation of NF3, other sets of genes were shown with differential expression in HUVEC, e.g., IL1RAPL2 and NR1H4 in anti-inflammation; miR28 in anti-tumorogenesis; GRIN1 and LCN1 in anti-oxidation; EPB41 in intracellular signal transduction; PRL and TFAP2A in cell proliferation; miR28, PRL and SCG2 in cell migration; PRL in tubular formation; and miR28, NR1H4 and PRL in angiogenesis. This study provided concrete scientific evidence in support of the regulatory role of NF3 on endothelial cells involved in wound healing angiogenesis.
PLoS ONE 10/2015; 10(10-10):e0139342. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0139342 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF) is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC) were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s) of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS) analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD) surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preclinical ResearchSchisandrae Chinensis Fructus (SCF), the fruit of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. (family Schisandraceae) is traditionally used as a tonic and antidiabetic agent in Asia. In this study, SCF was investigated for its effects on sodium glucose cotransporters 1 and 2 (SGLT 1 and 2) expressed in a COS-7 cell line for its specificity in inhibiting SGLT2, which is a novel mechanism to screen for potential antidiabetic agents. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation, we then tried to isolate and identify the active fraction(s)/component(s). The ethanol extract of SCF at a concentration of 1 mg/mL significantly inhibited 89% of SGLT1 and 73% of SGLT2 activities in a [14C]-α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside ([14C]-AMG) uptake assay. Fractionation of the ethanol extract yielded nine fractions, of which F8, at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, was specific in inhibiting SGLT 2 (42% inhibition, P < 0.001), without inhibiting SGLT 1. Using LC/MS-MS, three compounds, deoxyschisandrin, schisandrin B (γ-schisandrin) and schisandrin were identified in F8 and their amounts quantified. However, subsequent evaluation in the [14C]-AMG uptake assay showed that these three compounds failed to inhibit SGLT 2 activity indicating that the SGLT active component(s) from SCF have yet to be identified.
Drug Development Research 12/2014; 76(1). DOI:10.1002/ddr.21233 · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Backbround:
We investigated the effect of a Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) on the enumeration and angiogenic differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in diabetic foot ulcer rats.
EPCs and stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) were quantified by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. In vitro angiogenesis assays included proliferation, adhesion, migration and tube formation.
Our result demonstrated that NF3 (0.98 g/kg) could significantly enhance the circulating CD34(+) /VEGFR2(+) /CD45(-) EPCs levels in diabetic foot ulcer rats by 60% (P < 0.05) through the partial elevation of SDF-1α, restoring the mobilization ability of EPCs for wound neovascularization. We successfully isolated the BM-derived EPCs to study their angiogenic potential after NF3 treatment. BM-derived EPCs significantly expressed cell surface markers of CD34, CD146 and VEGFR2 (P < 0.05 - 0.01). NF3 could significantly stimulate the proliferation and attachment ability of EPCs dose-dependently (P < 0.01-0.001). Besides, NF3 could significantly augment EPCs migration (P < 0.001) and tube formation (P < 0.01-0.001).
NF3 modulated diabetic wound healing through regulation of systemic EPCs level and increase in local vascular formation.
Journal of Diabetes 10/2014; 7(5):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1111/1753-0407.12230 · 1.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The aims of this study were to identify the active ingredients from Portulaca oleracea L. (PO) that could provide synergism with antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and their possible mechanisms of resistance inhibition.Methods
High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a panel of laboratory MRSA strains were used for checkerboard and efflux inhibitory assays.Key findingsLinoleic and oleic acids were identified from HSCCC fraction 18 of PO with synergistic antibacterial activity when combined with erythromycin against RN4220/pUL5054. Ethidium bromide efflux inhibitory studies revealed that linoleic and oleic acids may interfere the activity of MsrA pump. By comparing among a panel of linoleic and oleic acids analogues, unsaturated fatty acids in salt form with cis configuration and an increase in number of double bonds were found to further increase the antibacterial activity when used alone or in combination with antibiotics.Conclusion
This study reported for the first time that two active ingredients, namely linoleic and oleic acids, were identified from PO with synergistic antibacterial activity when combined with erythromycin against MRSA RN4220/pUL5054 and possibly act by inhibiting the efflux pumps of the bacteria cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endothelial cells were crucially involved in wound healing angiogenesis, restoring blood flow to wound tissues. Our previous study demonstrated that the Chinese 2-herb formula (NF3) possessed significant wound healing effect in diabetic foot ulcer rats with promising in vitro pro-angiogenic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Here we presented the comparative global proteome analysis of NF3-treated HUVEC in static or scratch conditions, screening the comprehensive molecular targets in governing the pro-angiogenic response in wound healing. Our results suggested PAI-1, specifically down-regulated in static condition and ANXA1 and ANXA2, up-regulated in scratch condition, as principal proteins which were responsible for the pro-angiogenesis in wound healing. We also identified a panel of cytoskeleton regulatory proteins in static and scratch condition, mediating the migratory behavior of NF3-treated HUVEC. The key proteins in static state included MYL9, SPAST, TPM2 and VIM while that in scratch state contained LMNA, TPM1, TPM2 and VIM. In addition, NF3 was shown to regulate transcription and translation, cell-cell interaction and ROS defense in HUVEC. Proliferation and migration assays further confirmed the identified principal proteins PAI-1 and ANXA2 which are responsible for NF3-induced pro-angiogenesis of HUVEC in wound healing. This was the first study on the global proteome expression of NF3-treated HUVEC with the identification of the differences at the molecular level, between static and scratch conditions involved in wound healing angiogenesis.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Chlorhexidine (CHX) is a widely used antimicrobial agent in dentistry. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel mesoporous silica nanoparticle-encapsulated pure CHX (Nano-CHX), and its mechanical profile and antimicrobial properties against oral biofilms.
The release of CHX from the Nano-CHX was characterized by UV/visible absorption spectroscopy. The antimicrobial properties of Nano-CHX were evaluated in both planktonic and biofilm modes of representative oral pathogenic bacteria. The Nano-CHX demonstrated potent antibacterial effects on planktonic bacteria and mono-species biofilms at the concentrations of 50–200 µg/mL against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Enterococccus faecalis. Moreover, Nano-CHX effectively suppressed multi-species biofilms such as S. mutans, F. nucleatum, A. actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis up to 72 h.
This pioneering study demonstrates the potent antibacterial effects of the Nano-CHX on oral biofilms, and it may be developed as a novel and promising anti-biofilm agent for clinical use.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103234. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103234 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bitter melon, the fruit of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), is a widely-used treatment for diabetes in traditional medicine systems throughout the world. Various compounds have been shown to be responsible for this reputed activity, and, in particular, cucurbitane triterpenoids are thought to play a significant role. The objective of this study was to investigate the gastrointestinal transport of a triterpenoid-enriched n-butanol extract of M. charantia using a two-compartment transwell human intestinal epithelial cell Caco-2 monolayer system, simulating the intestinal barrier. Eleven triterpenoids in this extract were transported from the apical to basolateral direction across Caco-2 cell monolayers, and were identified or tentatively identified by HPLC-TOF-MS. Cucurbitane triterpenoids permeated to the basolateral side with apparent permeability coefficient (P app) values for 3-β-7-β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al and momordicines I and II at 9.02 × 10(-6), 8.12 × 10(-6), and 1.68 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively. Also, small amounts of these triterpenoids were absorbed inside the Caco-2 cells. This is the first report of the transport of the reputed antidiabetic cucurbitane triterpenoids in human intestinal epithelial cell monolayers. Our findings, therefore, further support the hypothesis that cucurbitane triterpenoids from bitter melon may explain, at least in part, the antidiabetic activity of this plant in vivo.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiol-containing antioxidant systems play an important role in regulating cellular redox homeostasis. Several anti-cancer agents act by targeting these systems by inducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our earlier studies have shown that Eriocalyxin B (EriB), a diterpenoid isolated from Isodon eriocalyx, possesses anti-pancreatic tumour activities in vitro and in vivo. The present study further demonstrated that only thiol-containing antioxidants, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or dithiothreitol (DTT), inhibited EriB-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. EriB suppressed the glutathione and thioredoxin antioxidant systems, thus increasing the intracellular ROS levels and regulating the MAPK, NFκB pathways. Treatment with EriB depleted the intracellular thiol-containing proteins in CAPAN-2 cells. In vivo studies also showed that EriB treatment (2.5 mg/kg) reduced the pancreatic tumour weights significantly in nude mice with increased superoxide levels. Taken together, our results shed important new light on the molecular mechanisms of EriB acting as an apoptogenic agent and its therapeutic potential for pancreatic cancer.
Current Molecular Medicine 07/2014; 14(5). DOI:10.2174/1566524014666140603102459 · 3.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study objective was to evaluate the composition of a neutral and weakly acidic water-soluble extract from Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (EchNWA) previously shown to modify murine influenza infection, and to assess immunomodulatory effects on human T-cells. EchNWA extract from fresh aerial parts was extracted with water, ethanolic precipitation, and size-exclusion chromatography. The chemical profile of EchNWA was characterized by chromatography (size-exclusion, HPLC, GC-MS), and small molecule fingerprint analysis performed by HPLC-PDA. Jurkat T-cells at high and low cell density were pretreated or not with doses of EchNWA, followed by activation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin (PMA+I). Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (IFNg) cytokine secretions were measured by multi-cytokine luminex technology. Results showed that EchNWA contains 80% polysaccharides, predominantly a 10 kDa entity; phenolic compounds, cynarin, cichoric and caftaric acids, but no detectable alkylamides. Cytokine production required stimulation and was lower after PMA+I activation in high-density compared to low-density conditions. EchNWA mediated a strong dose-dependent enhancement of high-density T-cell production of IL-2 and IFNg response to PMA+I. EchNWA alone did not stimulate T-cells. EchNWA enhanced mean fluorescence intensity of IL-2 in Jurkat T-cells activated by PMA+1 or ionomycin alone. Conversely EchNWA mediated modest but significant suppression of IFNg response and reduced the percentage of CD25+ T-cells under low-density conditions. Conclusions are that EchNWA polysaccharides, but not phenolic compounds have dose-related adjuvant effects on human T-cell cytokine responses characterized by enhancing and suppressive effects that are regulated by T-cell density.
International immunopharmacology 01/2014; 19(1). DOI:10.1016/j.intimp.2013.12.019 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over 60 years of clinical research on coronary and cerebral vascular diseases have established the genuine value of preventive measures using effective therapeutic measures consisting of the statin group of anti-cholesterol agents and haemodilutants. In spite of the improved survivals and decreased vascular accidents, disappointments still exist in three directions: (i) Unsatisfactory maintenance of vascular health, (ii) Vascular accidents still occur in spite of aggressive treatment and (iii) Deterioration after major surgical interventions. Exploration for additional preventive agents would be justified under the three special situations. A specific, safe and effective preventive agent using cardio-protective herbal items could be the answer. Ten years' research on a simple herbal formula has resulted in a two-herb combination, consisting of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The formula has been studied extensively on cardiovascular biological platforms and then put on three clinical trials. In the laboratory, the formula was found to have the biological effects of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-foam cell formation on vascular endothelium, and vasodilation. Clinical trials using ultrasonic carotid intima thickness as a surrogate marker showed very significant benefits. No significant adverse effects were encountered. It is therefore recommended that the herbal formula could be used as an adjuvant therapy for those who require additional cardio-protective support.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Danshen and Gegen are two commonly used Chinese herbal medicines for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the combination effects of these two herbs on cerebral vascular tone and their underlying mechanisms of actions. Basilar artery rings were obtained from rats and precontracted with U46619. Cumulative administrations of aqueous extracts of Danshen, Gegen, or the two herbs combined (DG; ratio 7:3) produced concentration-dependent relaxation of the artery rings. Statistical analysis on these findings produced a combination index (CI) of 1.041 at ED50, which indicates the two herbs produced additive vasodilator effects when used as a combined decoction. Removal of the endothelium had no effect on the vasodilator properties of Danshen, Gegen, and DG. However, their maximum effects (Imax) were significantly blunted by a KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide, a non-selective K(+) channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA), and by a combination of K(+) channel inhibitors (glibenclamide+TEA+iberiotoxin+4-aminopyridine+barium chloride). In addition, Danshen, Gegen, and DG produced augmentation of KATP currents and inhibited Ca(2+) influx in vascular smooth muscle cells isolated from rat basilar arteries. Furthermore, these agents inhibited CaCl2-induced contraction in the artery rings. In conclusion, the present study showed that Danshen and Gegen produced additive vasodilator effects on rat cerebral basilar arteries. These effects were independent of endothelium-derived relaxant factors (EDRF), but required the opening of KATP channels and inhibition of Ca(2+) influx in the vascular smooth muscle cells. It is suspected that the cerebral vasodilator effects of Danshen and Gegen produced either on their own or in combination, can help patients with obstructive cerebrovascular diseases.
Phytomedicine: international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology 11/2013; 21(4). DOI:10.1016/j.phymed.2013.09.016 · 3.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mast cells are believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis as their number is increased in osteoporotic bones. Herba Epimedii, Fructus Ligustri Lucidi and Fructus Psoraleae are three Chinese herbs traditionally for tonifying the 'kidney system' and a herbal formula (ELP) containing the respective herbs at the weight ratio of 5 : 4 : 1 was shown to prevent osteoporosis. This study evaluated if suppression of mast cell accumulation and activity contribute to the anti-osteoporotic action of ELP.
The herbs were boiled under reflux to produce the aqueous extract that was further concentrated under reduced pressure and lyophilized. An in-vivo rat osteoporosis model using hind limb unloading was employed for studying the accumulation of mast cells. The human mast cell line, LAD2, was employed to evaluate the mast cell modulating action of ELP.
Mast cell number in the tibiae of hind limb unloaded rats increased significantly during the course of osteoporosis. ELP treatment (10 g/kg/day) prevented both osteoporosis and mast cell accumulation in these rats. Furthermore, ELP significantly inhibited histamine and tumour necrosis factor-α release from LAD2 cells.
Mast cells contributed to hormone independent osteoporosis. The suppression of mast cell accumulation and activation may contribute to the anti-osteoporotic action of ELP.