Chia-Chi Su

Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan

Are you Chia-Chi Su?

Claim your profile

Publications (28)62.14 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this work, a novel photocatalyst K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 synthesized via a simple sol-gel method was utilized to degrade acetaminophen (ACT) under visible light with the use of blue and green LED lights. Parameters (medium pH, initial concentration of reactant, catalyst concentration, temperature, and number of blue LED lights) affecting photocatalytic degradation of ACT were also investigated. The experimental result showed that compared to commercially available Degussa P-25 (DP-25) photocatalyst, K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 gave higher degradation efficiency and rate constant (kapp) of ACT. The degradation efficiency or kapp decreased with increasing initial ACT concentration and temperature, but increased with increased number of blue LED lamps. Additionally, kapp increased as initial pH was increased from 5.6 to 6.9, but decreased at a high alkaline condition (pH 8.3). Furthermore, the degradation efficiency and kapp of ACT increased as K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 loading was increased to 1 g L(-1) but decreased and eventually leveled off at photocatalyst loading above this value. Photocatalytic degradation of ACT in K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 catalyst system follows a pseudo-first-order kinetics. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood equation was also satisfactorily used to model the degradation of ACT in K3[Fe(CN)6]/TiO2 catalyst system indicated by a satisfactory linear correlation between 1/kapp and Co, with kini = 6.54 × 10(-4) mM/min and KACT = 17.27 mM(-1).
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A 07/2014; 49(8):892-899. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Struvite crystallization has been widely studied for phosphate removal and recovery from aqueous systems. In this study, struvite crystallization was carried out in a fluidized-bed reactor. Multivariate optimization was conducted using Box–Behnken design (BBD) with influent pH, influent phosphate concentration, and Mg/P molar ratio as independent variables. The output variables comprised total and dissolved phosphate concentrations, ammonium and magnesium concentrations, and fines concentrations. Experimental values of the total phosphate and dissolved phosphate concentrations ranged from 25.6 to 109.4 mg/L and from 7.6 to 39.3 mg/L, respectively, while the fines concentration varied from 5.2 to 101.6 mg/L. Quadratic mathematical models describing the response behavior of experimental BBD data were generated for total phosphate, dissolved phosphate, and fines concentration. The model p-values ( <0.0001) were significant and their lack-of-fit p-values ( >0.05) were insignificant. Numerical optimization of process parameters was conducted to minimize total and dissolved phosphate, ammonium and magnesium concentrations, and fines concentration in the effluent. At influent phosphate concentration of 300 mg/L, the results converged to a set of operating conditions: pH 9.5 and Mg/P = 1.3. The close agreement between the data from the validation experiment and the model-predicted values (relative error < 10%) indicates the robustness of the models.
    Desalination and water treatment 05/2014; · 0.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of process conditions, including upward velocity inside the column, the amount of added seed and seed size, the pH value of the precipitant or the phosphate stream and the Ba/P molar ratio in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were studied with a view to producing BaHPO4 crystals of significant size and maximize the removal of barium. XRD were used to identify the products that were collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that an upward velocity of 48cmmin(-1) produced the largest BaHPO4 crystals with a size of around 0.84-1.0mm. The addition of seed crystals has no effect on barium removal. The use of a seed of a size in the ranges unseeded<0.149-0.29mm<0.149mm<0.29-0.42mm produced increasing amounts of increasingly large crystals. The largest BaHPO4 crystals were obtained at pH 8.4-8.8 with a Ba/P molar ratio of 1.0. In the homogeneous and heterogeneous processes, around 98% of barium was removed at pH 8.4-8.6 and [Ba]/[P]=1.0. The XRD results show that a significant amount of barium phosphate (Ba3(PO4)2) was obtained at pH 11. The compounds BaHPO4 and BaO were present at a pH of below 10.
    Chemosphere 01/2014; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of influent pH, the magnesium:phosphate (Mg:P) molar ratio, seed type and inorganic ions (F−, SO42- and NO3-) on phosphate removal were investigated in a fluidized-bed reactor (FBR). Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were used to characterize the products collected from the FBR. Experimental results show that pH and the Mg:P molar ratio played significant roles in phosphate removal. Increasing the influent solution pH from 10 to 12 increased the final phosphate removal from 55% to around 100%. At influent solution pH of 8, increasing the Mg:P molar ratio from 1 to 1.5, and 2 raised the phosphate removal as well to 17%, 28% and 34%, respectively. The seed used and its presence had an effect on the initial phosphate removal rate. Phosphate removal efficiencies were 86%, 88% and 93% for the unseeded FBR, the FBR seeded with calcium phosphate and the FBR seeded with magnesium phosphate, respectively. The inorganic ions in simulated thin film transistors-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater did not significantly impact the phosphate removal. The XRD analysis confirmed that several magnesium phosphate species formed in all FBR experiments.
    Separation and Purification Technology 01/2014; 125:90–96. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, concentrations of several heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and Cd) were measured in Katelysia hiantina, Anomalocardia squamosa, Perna viridis, Anadara antiquata, Paphia undulata, and Sanguinolaria diphos bivalve mollusks from Da-Peng Bay Lagoon near the south-southwestern coast of Taiwan. The metal pollution index (MPI) values were highest and lowest in winter and autumn, respectively. The MPI value in the viscera of P. viridis was higher than in muscles. In all four seasons, Zn concentrations in viscera and muscles of P. viridis were higher than for other metals. The capacities of A. squamosa to accumulate the concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr and of A. antiquata to accumulate concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd were significant. Analytical results suggested that A. squamosa and A. antiquata may be used as bioindicators for monitoring Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd heavy-metal pollution in Da-Peng Bay Lagoon throughout the year.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2014; 77(4):214-22. · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the effects of the Fe2+ concentration and synthetic iron oxide catalysts on o-toluidine degradation using a fluidized-bed Fenton process. The mineralization ofo-toluidine in the synthetic catalyst system is also examined. The H3.5 and H7.3 Fe/SiO2 and A7.8 and A 12.5 Fe/SiO2 catalysts were successfully synthesized by adding H202 and injecting air process, respectively. The optimum initial ferrous ion concentration for degradation of 1 mM o-toluidine was 1 mM. Experimental results reveal that 1 mM o-toluidine can be 100% degraded at 60 and 120 min in the modified fluidized-bed Fenton process with A7.8 Fe/SiO2 and the conventional fluidized-bed Fenton process with SiO2 carrier, respectively, when the optimum conditions of 1mM Fe2+ and 17mM H202 at pH 3 were used. The A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst had a stronger oxidation ability than the H3.5 Fe/SiO2, H7.3 Fe/SiO2 and A12.5 Fe/SiO2 catalysts, and was attributed to the high iron content on the surface of the SiO2 support. The Fenton and Fenton-like reactions occurred in the A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst system. Degradation of o-toluidine in the Fenton-like process follows pseudo-first-order kinetics. The A7.8 Fe/SiO2 catalyst efficiently enhanced o-toluidine oxidation under the pH range of 2-4.
    Environmental Technology 01/2014; 35(1-4):89-94. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, phosphate was removed from aqueous solution and recovered as struvite (MAP, MgNH4PO4·6H2O) by fluidized-bed crystallization (FBC) process. The effects of influent pH and Mg/P molar ratio on MAP crystallization were investigated. Thermal analysis and characterization of the MAP crystals collected from the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) were performed. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the MAP decomposition reaction were determined using the Coats–Redfern method. Experimental results show that the total concentration of phosphate in the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) increased with influent pH and Mg/P molar ratio. Thermal analysis of MAP decomposition at different temperatures revealed two distinct stages: (1) removal of H2O from the crystal surface and (2) removal of NH3. H2O and NH3 removal were highly endothermic, non-spontaneous and thermodynamically unstable. Low pH and high Mg/P ratio favored the production of more stable MAP crystals. The FT-IR and XRD results verified the formation of magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MgHPO4) by the evolution of ammonium from MAP at temperatures between 200 and 500 °C, and its further conversion to magnesium phosphate oxide (Mg2P2O7) at temperatures greater than 800 °C.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2014; · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The effects of important parameters, Fe2+, H2O2 and initial acetaminophen concentrations, on the initial rate and efficiency of ACT degradation in the electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes were investigated. The effect of organic acids on the degradation of ACT molecules was also studied. Experimental results show that the initial rate and removal efficiency of ACT in the EF and PEF processes varied insignificantly with Fe2+ concentration. The initial rate and removal efficiency of ACT in the PEF process were higher than those in the EF process. At a high initial ACT concentration, the initial rate of ACT degradation in the EF process was lower than that in the PEF process. Acetic acid improved ACT degradation efficiency while malonic and oxalic acids reduced it. Oxalic acid exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect, reducing ACT degradation efficiency by 18%. In the presence of oxalic acid in solution, EF yielded a degradation efficiency of 79%, which should be compared to efficiencies of 9% and 3%, for the fluidized-bed and conventional Fenton processes, respectively, showing that the EF process involves beneficial Fe2+ regeneration.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2014; 45(2):565–570. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aniline degradation was investigated using the conventional Fenton process and an electro-Fenton (EF) process with plate and rod electrode EF reactors. The performance of the two EF reactors was evaluated by determining the effect of important parameters (Fe2+, H2O2, and aniline concentrations) on the aniline removal efficiency and the initial aniline degradation rate. The change in the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and ratio BOD5/COD of a high concentration of aniline were also studied. Experimental results reveal that compared with conventional Fenton process, aniline degradation and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the EF process increased 43% and 10%, respectively. In the two EF reactors, the aniline was completely degraded (100%) when the ratio of [H2O2]:[Fe2+]:[aniline] was 5.8:0.1:1. Within the range of Fenton's reagent used in the two reactors, controlling the H2O2 concentration was the key point of promoting the aniline oxidation. The plate electrode system had a higher efficiency than rod electrode system in terms of H2O2 efficiency, due to the reactor design of decreasing the electrical resistance. Treatment with a high concentration aniline increased biodegradability (BOD5 and ratio BOD5/COD) of pollutant when plate and rod electrode EF reactors were used. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Environ Prog, 32: 1111–1117, 2013
    Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy 12/2013; 32(4). · 0.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was examined under varying parameters, including initial pH, initial Fe2+, initial H2O2, initial DMSO concentrations and current density. Efficiency in terms of degradation of DMSO and removal of total organic carbon (TOC) was also compared among Fenton, photo-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes. Effects of inorganic ions, namely Cl−, F− and View the MathML source, on DMSO degradation by the electro-Fenton (EF) process were also studied. The experimental results showed that the optimum pH was 2. The DMSO degradation in the double-cathode EF reactor reached 100% when current density and Fe2+ concentration exceeded 1.5 A and 2.0 mM, respectively. During DMSO degradation, application of electricity by EF process obtained a higher DMSO degradation rate compared to UV-assisted Fenton process. The DMSO degradation rate after 20 min was 2.5 times higher in the PEF process than in the Fenton process. Between 20 min and 120 min, the DMSO degradation rates of the Fenton, photo-Fenton, single-cathode EF, double-cathode EF and PEF processes differed by 34%, 50%, 62%, 57% and 59%, respectively. The rate constant of double-cathode EF process was six times higher than the conventional Fenton process. The order of inhibiting effects of inorganic ions on DMSO degradation was View the MathML source > F− > Cl−.
    Chemical Engineering Journal 10/2013; 232:418-424. · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen (ACT) in synthetic titanium dioxide (TiO2) solution under a visible light (λ >440 nm). The TiO2 photocatalyst used in this study was synthesized via sol-gel method and doped with potassium aluminum sulfate (KAl(SO4)2) and sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). The influence of some parameters on the degradation of acetaminophen was examined, such as initial pH, photocatalyst dosage, and initial ACT concentration. The optimal operational conditions were also determined. Results showed that synthetic TiO2 catalysts presented mainly as anatase phase and no rutile phase was observed. The results of photocatalytic degradation showed that LED alone degraded negligible amount of ACT but with the presence of TiO2/KAl(SO4)2, 95 % removal of 0.10-mM acetaminophen in 540-min irradiation time was achieved. The synthetic TiO2/KAl(SO4)2 presented better photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen than commercially available Degussa P-25. The weak crystallinity of synthesized TiO2/NaAlO2 photocatalyst showed low photocatalytic degradation than TiO2/KAl(SO4)2. The optimal operational conditions were obtained in pH 6.9 with a dose of 1.0 g/L TiO2/KAl(SO4)2 at 30 °C. Kinetic study illustrated that photocatalytic degradation of acetaminophen fits well in the pseudo-first order model. Competitive reactions from intermediates affected the degradation rate of ACT, and were more obvious as the initial ACT concentration increased.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 07/2013; · 2.76 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen (ACT), an over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic, remains one of the most frequently used household medications. This drug persists in domestic effluents in significant concentrations even after conventional treatment. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of fluidized-bed Fenton process to decompose acetaminophen in synthetic wastewater. Parametric studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of initial pH, initial ACT concentration, Fe2+ and H2O2 dosages on ACT oxidation. At optimum operating parameters, up to 97.83% ACT degradation was attained after 2 h of reaction. For interference studies of organic acids (oxalic, fumaric, maleic, acetic, succinic, malonic, and formic acids), oxalic acid was found to limit ACT degradation to only 9.26%.
    Journal of Environmental Engineering 07/2013; 140(1):77-83. · 1.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the degradation of acetaminophen (ACTP) using a novel Fenton aerated reactor. The aerator was used to agitate and sludge was removed from a sludge outlet. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations on the initial rate of ACTP degradation (r), removal efficiency and mineralization were studied. The results indicate that a novel Fenton aerated reactor was successfully performed to degrade ACTP. The highest r value was obtained at pH 3. At pH 3, the r value and ACTP removal efficiency were significantly improved as the [Fe2+]:[H2O2] ratio increased. The removal efficiencies of ACTP, COD and TOC were 99%, 34% and 14%, respectively, at 40 min, when optimum conditions for 5 mM acetaminophen, 25 mM H2O2 and 0.1 mM Fe2+ were used at pH 3.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 03/2013; 44(2):310–316. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of applying the Fered-Fenton process to the degradation of m-phenylenediamine, by examining the effect of varying the initial H2O2 and Fe(2+) concentrations, the initial pH and electric current on the process efficiency. The degradation behavior of m-phenylenediamine was also compared to that of aniline. The Fered-Fenton reactor consists of anodes and cathodes with mesh-type titanium metal coated with IrO2/RuO2 and stainless steel, respectively. The experiments showed that m-phenylenediamine was rapidly degraded by the Fered-Fenton process. Initial pH of 3.2 is optimal for the removal of m-phenylenediamine and chemical oxygen demand (COD). m-Phenylenediamine and COD removal efficiencies increased with the increasing electrical current from 0 A to 4 A, and decreased with a further increase in electrical current. Optimum efficiency resulting in 100% degradation of m-phenylenediamine and elimination of 30% of COD was achieved at pH 3.2 at 60 min in the presence of 10 mM of m-phenylenediamine, 0.268 mM of Fe(2+), 43.6 mM of H2O2, and under a current of 4 A.
    Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering 01/2013; 48(9):1012-8.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen (ACT) was used as the target pollutant in this study. The effects of Fenton’s reagent by electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) processes were investigated to determine the ACT degradation. At pH 3, increasing the Fe2+ and H2O2 concentrations to maximum (from 0.01 to 0.10 mM and 5 to 25 mM), leads to increase on the hydroxyl radicals which improved the degradation efficiency of ACT. The results of Box–Benhken design show that Fe2+ and H2O2 positively affect the degradation efficiency of ACT, while pH was the reverse. The maximum ACT degradation efficiency for EF and PEF processes was 99% at 40 min under pH 3, initial [Fe2+] of 0.10 mM and initial [H2O2] of 25 mM. Result shows that H2O2 to Fe2+ molar ratio obviously affect acetaminophen degradation of both EF and PEF processes. Added UVA irradiation for first stage (PEFi/EFi) increased the acetaminophen degradation, when H2O2 to Fe2+ molar ratio was less than 300. On the contrary, applied UVA efficiency for second stage (PEFk/EFk) was decreased, because there was few hydrogen peroxide available in the solution.
    Separation and Purification Technology 01/2013; 120:43–51. · 2.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen (ACT), an analgesic and antipyretic substance, is one of the most commonly detected pharmaceutical compound in surface waters and wastewaters. In this study, fluidized-bed Fenton (FB-Fenton) was used to decompose ACT into its final degradation products. The 1.45-L cylindrical glass reactor had inlet, outlet and recirculating sections. SiO(2) carrier particles were supported by glass beads with 2-4mm in diameter. ACT concentration was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). During the first 40min of reaction, a fast initial ACT removal was observed and the "two-stage" ACT degradation conformed to a pseudo reaction kinetics. The effects of ferrous ion dosage and [Fe(2+)]/[H(2)O(2)] (FH ratio) were integrated into the derived pseudo second-order kinetic model. A reaction pathway was proposed based on the intermediates detected through SPME/GC-MS. The aromatic intermediates identified were hydroquinone, benzaldehydes and benzoic acids while the non-aromatic substances include alcohols, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Rapid initial ACT degradation rate can be accomplished by high initial ferrous ion concentration and/or low FH ratio.
    Chemosphere 10/2012; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A recyclable and reusable Ru/Al2O3 catalyst is prepared for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis process of alkaline sodium borohydride (NaBH4) solution. The hydrogen generation rate by the hydrolysis and methanolysis of alkaline NaBH4 was explored as a function of NaOH concentration. Meantime, the byproducts derived from the spent alkaline NaBH4 solution were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electro microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance). The effect of NaOH concentration on the hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of NaBH4 significantly depends on the type of catalysts. With increasing NaOH concentration, the hydrogen generation rates decrease when using ruthenium (Ru) composite as a catalyst. The hydrogen generation rate of the methanolysis of NaBH4 is significantly inhibited in the presence of NaOH as compared with the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The durability test of the Ru/Al2O3 catalyst shows that the hydrogen generation rate decreases with recycling and reuse. The XRD and NMR analysis results show that the borate hydrate (NaBO2 H2O) was derived from the hydrolysis of 20 wt% and 30 wt% NaBH4.
    Energy 10/2012; 46(1):242–247. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen is a widely used drug worldwide and is one of the most frequently detected in bodies of water making it a high priority trace pollutant. This study investigated the applicability of the electro-Fenton and photoelectro-Fenton processes using a double cathode electrochemical cell in the treatment of acetaminophen containing wastewater. The Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effects of initial Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations and applied current density. Results showed that all parameters positively affected the degradation efficiency of acetaminophen with the initial Fe(2+) concentration being the most significant parameter for both processes. The acetaminophen removal efficiency for electro-Fenton was 98% and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 43% while a 97% acetaminophen removal and 42% COD removal were observed for the photoelectro-Fenton method operated at optimum conditions. The electro-Fenton process was only able to obtain 19% total organic carbon (TOC) removal while the photoelectro-Fenton process obtained 20%. Due to negligible difference between the treatment efficiencies of the two processes, the electro-Fenton method was proven to be more economically advantageous. The models obtained from the study were applicable to a wide range of acetaminophen concentrations and can be used in scale-ups. Thirteen different types of intermediates were identified and a degradation pathway was proposed.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 03/2012; 217-218:200-207. · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ru immobilized Al2O3 pellets were synthesized as a catalyst for hydrogen generation in NaBH4 solutions. Under the Ru/Al2O3 catalysis, the hydrogen generation rate from the hydrolysis and methanolysis of NaBH4 in alkaline solution was explored as a function of NaBH4 concentration and temperature. Meanwhile, the borate byproducts derived from the NaBH4hydrolysis were characterized by XRD and NMR. The results showed that the hydrogen generation rate depended on NaBH4 concentration for the hydrolysis, but did not for the methanolysis. 10 wt% NaBH4hydrolysis containing 1 wt% NaOH catalyzed with 0.5 g Ru/Al2O3 could generate hydrogen with a rate of about 65.5 ml min−1 g−1. The productivity and activation energy of hydrogen generation from the NaBH4hydrolysis were 93% and 41.8 kJ mol−1, and from the NaBH4methanolysis were 97% and 51.0 kJ mol−1, respectively. The XRD and NMR analyses showed that the species from the hydrolysis byproducts varied with the NaBH4 concentration could be the borax (Na2B4O7·H2O) and sodium borate hydrate (NaBO2·H2O).
    RSC Advances 02/2012; 2(5):2073-2079. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Box-Behnken design (BBD) statistical experimental design was used to investigate the degradation of o-toluidine by the electro-Fenton process. This method can be used to determine the optimal conditions in multivariable systems. Fe(2+) concentration (0.2-1.0mM), H(2)O(2) concentration (1-5mM), pH (2-4), and current (1-4A) were selected as independent variables. The removal efficiencies for o-toluidine and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were represented by the response function. Result by 2-level factorial design show that the pH and the Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations were the principal parameters. Among the main parameters, the removal efficiencies for o-toluidine and COD were significantly affected by pH and Fe(2+) concentration. From the Box-Behnken design predictions, the optimal conditions in the electro-Fenton process for removing 90.8% of o-toluidine and 40.9% of COD were found to be 1mM of Fe(2+) and 4.85 mM of H(2)O(2) at pH 2. Under these optimal conditions, the experimental data showed that the removal efficiencies for o-toluidine and COD in the electro-Fenton process and the photoelectro-Fenton process were more than 91% and 43%, respectively, after 60 min of reaction. The removal efficiencies for o-toluidine and COD in the Fenton process are 56% and 27%, respectively.
    Journal of hazardous materials 11/2011; 196:395-401. · 4.14 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

26 Citations
62.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2014
    • Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science
      • Department of Environmental Resources Management
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2012–2013
    • University of the Philippines Diliman
      • Department of Chemical Engineering
      Diliman, Central Luzon, Philippines
    • University of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital
      Manila, National Capital Region, Philippines
  • 2010–2011
    • King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi
      • Faculty of Engineering
      Thon Buri, Bangkok, Thailand