[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a previous study the authors determined that non-woody materials including brewers' grain (BG) and oil palm frond (OPF) could be alternatives to wood powder as organic fillers. However, they have the disadvantage of deteriorating the strength of paperboard. If the strength of paperboard could be improved, then one would expect more production cost reductions and bulk improvements by increasing the addition of organic fillers. In this study, surface modification of organic fillers was used as a method to improve paperboard strength. The goal was to find the most effective condition for surface modifications. Surface modifications of BG and OPF fillers were carried out using cationic and oxidized starches, and the strengths and reductions in the drying energies of the sheets were measured. The zeta potentials of the modified organic fillers showed that the surface modifications were performed properly. Surface modification with starches improved the bulk and strength of the sheets simultaneously, and modification with the addition of a large amount of cationic starch was more effective in improving the strengths and the reductions in drying energies of the sheets than using cationic and oxidized starches together.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchial mucous gland adenoma is a very rare benign tumor that arises from the bronchial mucous-secreting glands. Its detection and appearance using F-FDG PET/CT has not been well characterized. We present a case of a 59-year-old man with FDG-avid mucous gland adenoma that mimicked lung cancer on F-FDG PET/CT.
Clinical nuclear medicine 08/2015; DOI:10.1097/RLU.0000000000000921 · 3.93 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are widely applied in the papermaking process to improve the CIE whiteness and the ISO brightness of papers. Large amounts of FWAs are used in the paper and paperboard industry, but no standard method exists for quantitative FWA analysis. Therefore, a new method is needed to analyze the presence of FWAs in paper and paperboard to control their additions and applications. In particular, FWA analysis must concentrate on those used for surface treatment of paper because their use in surface applications has increased recently. The purposes of this study were to measure the optical properties of papers surface-treated with oxidized starch containing FWAs and to deduce the regression equations for the quantitative analysis of FWAs used for surface treatments. Surface sizing was carried out to treat the surface of a base paper with T-FWA and H-FWA, and the pickup weight of the surface sized paper was measured to determine the real weight of FWAs transferred onto the paper surface. After surface sizing and preconditioning, the paper was evaluated for CIE whiteness, ISO brightness, fluorescence index, and reflectance at 440 nm using an Elrepho spectrophotometer. The CIE whiteness and the ISO brightness increased linearly as FWA content increased. The fluorescence index and the reflectance showed linear relationships with T-FWA and H-FWA. Linear regression equations were determined for the quantitative analysis of FWAs used for surface treatments.
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry 06/2015; 47(3):34-39. DOI:10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.3.034
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Calcifying aponeurotic fibroma (CAF) is a rare, benign fibroblastic tumor that typically occurs in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, in children and adolescents. Due to its infiltrative nature, this tumor can mimic malignancy on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and has a predilection for local recurrence. There are very few reports in the literature that describe features of CAF on MRI, especially those arising in the foot. We present an unusual case of a CAF affecting the dorsum of the foot in a four-year-old boy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: White ledger usually includes white office paper, computer paper, and copy machine paper. Because these grades need high optical properties, fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs) are widely used in the papermaking process. FWAs are the most powerful and effective chemical used to obtain high CIE whiteness and ISO brightness in papers. The rising demand for white or ultra-white papers has increased the use of FWAs. However, FWAs used in white ledger can restrict its use, even though white ledger is widely used as a raw material in paperboard mills. Therefore, it is necessary to develop methods to control FWAs from white ledger to increase its use in paperboard mills. In this study, the behaviors of disulpho fluorescent whitening agent (D-FWA), tetrasulpo fluorescent whitening agent (T-FWA), and hexasulpho fluorescent whitening agent (H-FWA) during the recycling process were identified as a first step to remove FWAs from white ledger. We prepared four types of papers (dyed with D-FWA, T-FWA, and H-FWA), disintegrated these papers, and made handsheets. This recycling process was carried out three times in a laboratory. After each round of recycling, the handsheets' CIE whiteness and fluorescence index were measured, and the distribution of FWAs in the Z-direction was observed using CLSM images. FWA reductions in the model papers were calculated using fluorescence indices as a function of the number of recycling. FWAs in handsheets containing T-FWA and H-FWA decreased linearly as a function of the number of recycling, but D-FWA did not show a significant reduction in the fluorescence index after recycling. T-FWA and H-FWA showed similar distributions of D-FWA after recycling. Therefore, as much T-FWA and H-FWA as possible must be detached in the early processes of papermaking at paperboard mills.
Palpu Chongi Gisul/Journal of Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry 02/2015; 47(1):52-58. DOI:10.7584/ktappi.2015.47.1.052
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most serious complications of breast reconstruction and augmentation using silicone implants is capsular contracture. Several preventive treatments, including vitamin E, steroids, antibiotics, and cysteinyl leukotriene inhibitors, have been studied, and their clinical effects have been reported. However, the problem of capsular contracture has not yet been completely resolved. This study was performed to compare anti-adhesion barrier solution (AABS) and fibrin in their ability to prevent fibrotic capsule formation and simultaneously evaluated their effect when used in combination by capsular thickness analysis and quantitative analysis of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), and type I collagen within the fibrous capsule.
This study used female six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Eighty rats were equally subdivided into the four following groups: AABS-treated, fibrin-treated, AABS and fibrin combined-treated, and untreated control groups. Each rat received two silicone chips under the panniculus carnosus muscle layer. The test materials were applied around the silicon chips. Four weeks later, the implantation sites including the skin and muscle were excised to avoid the risk of losing the fibrous capsule around the implants. The capsular thickness was analyzed by Masson's trichrome stain. Quantitative analysis of type I collagen, MMPs, and TIMPs was performed by real-time PCR, Western blot, and zymography.
The mean capsular thickness was 668.10 ± 275.12 μm in the control group, 356.97 ± 112.11 μm in the AABS-treated group, 525.96 ± 130.97 μm in the fibrin-treated group, and 389.24 ± 130.51 μm in the AABS and fibrin combined-treated group. Capsular thickness was significantly decreased in all experimental groups (p < 0.05). Capsular thickness was greater in the fibrin-treated group than in the AABS-treated group (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in capsular thickness between the AABS and fibrin combined-treated group and the AABS- or fibrin-treated group (p > 0.05). Compared to the control group, the experimental groups had significantly lower expressions of type I collagen and MMP-1 (p < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference in expressions of type I collagen and MMP-1 between the AABS-, fibrin-, and AABS and fibrin combined-treated groups (p > 0.05). The expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-2 were not significantly different between the control and the experimental groups (p > 0.05).
AABS is more effective in reducing capsular thickness compared with fibrin treatment in a white rat model.
This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 .
Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 12/2014; 39(1). DOI:10.1007/s00266-014-0436-x · 0.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the applicability of wood powder to the manufacture of paperboard. Laboratory studies and mill trials were carried out to develop wood powder suitable for a functional additive of paperboard and to determine its ability to improve the sheet bulk and to reduce the drying steam. The wood powder was manufactured by grinding and screening. The maximum particle size was a critical factor affecting the applicability of the wood powder as an additive. In the laboratory studies, handsheets containing the wood powder were made, and their physical strength properties were analyzed. The wood powder increased the sheet bulk and decreased the physical strength of the sheets. The mill trials were performed in a white lined chipboard (duplex board) mill, and the wood powder was added to the middle ply of Sunny Coated (SC) 300 g/m2 and 400 g/m2, a commercial grade of duplex board that contains a back ply made of deinked pulp. As the level of the wood powder was increased, the bulk increased linearly, and the drying steam decreased significantly. We conclude that well-manufactured wood powder can be used as an additive for paperboard and is beneficial with respect to bulk improvement and drying steam reduction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metformin is the most widely used anti-diabetic drug in the world. Recent evidence indicates that metformin could potentially inhibit tumorigenesis. In the present study, we found that metformin inhibited cell migration and invasion of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MCF-7 and tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells. This inhibition was correlated with the modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) via the suppression of its expression and proteolytic activity. These results indicate that metformin leads to the suppression of migration and invasion through regulation of MMP9 and it may have potential as an anticancer drug for therapy in human breast cancer, especially of chemoresistant cancer cells.
Anticancer research 08/2014; 34(8):4127-34. · 1.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An increased understanding of the genetic pathways involved in renal cell carcinoma has resulted in the development of various drugs that target relevant signaling cascades for the specific treatment of this disease. However, no validated predictive markers have been identified to guide the decision whether patients should receive vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy or mammalian target of rapamycin-targeted therapy. We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of renal cell carcinoma in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex who was successfully treated with everolimus.
The patient was a 49-year-old Korean woman with tuberous sclerosis complex and recurrent renal cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib followed by the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus. This treatment resulted in a prolonged response and significant clinical benefit. Notably, everolimus ameliorated the symptoms related not only to renal cell carcinoma but also to tuberous sclerosis complex.
This case provides a rationale for the use of everolimus as first-line treatment for this specific patient population in order to target the correct pathway involved in carcinogenesis.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 03/2014; 8(1):95. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-8-95
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) seems to be involved in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its site-specific expression in lung tissue and the relationship with hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) expression in chronic bronchitis (CB) type COPD have not been studied.
We evaluated the expression of VEGF and its receptors in various compartments of lung tissue in three groups: non-smokers with normal lung function (non-smokers, n=10), smokers without COPD (healthy smokers, n=10) and smokers with CB (CB, n=10), using immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. The expression of HIF-1α was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Compared with healthy smokers, VEGF expression in CB was significantly increased in bronchiolar epithelium, vascular endothelium and vascular smooth muscle (p<0.05). VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 expression in CB was also increased in bronchiolar smooth muscle, vascular endothelium and vascular smooth muscle compared with healthy smokers (p<0.05). The level of HIF-1α was increased in CB compared with healthy smokers and positively correlated with those of VEGF (r=0.64, p<0.05).
VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression was up-regulated in CB and increased expression of VEGF was related with HIF-1α. HIF-1α-regulated VEGF overexpression may be a characteristic of chronic bronchitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myxoid liposarcoma is a subtype of liposarcoma. This specific subtype can be identified based on its characteristic histological and cytogenetical features. The tumor has a fusion transcript of the CHOP and TLS genes, which is caused by t(12;16)(q13;p11). Most of the fusion transcripts that have been identified fall into three categories, specifically type I (exons 7-2), type II (exons 5-2), and type III (exons 8-2). A total of seven myxoid liposarcomas associated with the rare phenomenon of cartilaginous differentiation have been documented in the literature. Currently, only one of these cases has been cytogenetically analyzed, and the analysis indicated that it was a type II TLS-CHOP fusion transcript in both the typical myxoid liposarcoma and cartilaginous areas. This study presents a second report of myxoid liposarcoma with cartilaginous differentiation, and includes a cytogenetical analysis of both the myxoid and cartilaginous areas.
The Korean Journal of Pathology 06/2013; 47(3):284-8. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.3.284 · 0.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naked cuticle Drosophila 1 (NKD1) has been related to non-small cell lung cancer in that decreased NKD1 levels have been associated with both poor prognosis and increased invasive quality.
Forty cases of lung adenocarcinoma staged as Tis or T1a were selected. Cases were subclassified into adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA), and small adenocarcinoma (SAD). Immunohistochemical studies for NKD1 were performed.
Forty samples comprised five cases of AIS (12.5%), eight of MIA (20.0%), and 27 of SAD (67.5%). AIS and MIA showed no lymph node metastasis and 100% disease-free survival, whereas among 27 patients with SAD, 2 (7.4%) had lymph node metastasis, and 3 (11.1%) died from the disease. Among the 40 cases, NKD1-reduced expression was detected in 8 (20%) samples, whereas normal expression was found in 15 (37.5%) and overexpression in 17 (42.5%). Loss of NKD1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (p=0.001). All cases with predominant papillary pattern showed overexpression of NKD1 (p=0.026).
Among MIA and SAD, MIA had better outcomes than SAD. Down-regulated NKD1 expression was closely associated with nodal metastasis, and overexpression was associated with papillary predominant adenocarcinoma.
The Korean Journal of Pathology 06/2013; 47(3):211-8. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.3.211 · 0.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a surrogate marker for basal-like breast cancer. A recent study suggested that EGFR may be used as a target for breast cancer treatment.
A total of 706 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC) of the breast were immunophenotyped, and 82 cases with EGFR protein expression were studied for EGFR gene amplification.
EGFR protein was expressed in 121 of 706 IDCs (17.1%); 5.9% were of luminal type, 25.3% of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) type, and 79.3% of basal-like tumors. EGFR gene amplification and high polysomy (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]-positive) were found in 18 of 82 cases (22.0%); 41.2% of the HER-2(+), EGFR(+), cytokeratin 5/6(-) (CK5/6(-)) group, 11.2% of the HER-2(-), EGFR(+), CK5/6(-) group, and 19.1% of the HER-2(-), EGFR(+), CK5/6(+) group. FISH-positive cases were detected in 8.3% of the EGFR protein 1(+) expression cases, 15.9% of 2(+) expression cases, and 38.5% of 3(+) expression cases. In group 2, the tumors had a high Ki-67 labeling (>60%), but the patients showed better disease-free survival than those with tumors that co-expressed HER-2 or CK5/6.
EGFR-directed therapy can be considered in breast cancer patients with EGFR protein overexpression and gene amplification, and its therapeutic implication should be determined in HER-2 type breast cancer patients.
The Korean Journal of Pathology 04/2013; 47(2):107-15. DOI:10.4132/KoreanJPathol.2013.47.2.107 · 0.17 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased expression of thymidylate synthase (TS) is thought to be associated with resistance to antifolate drugs such as pemetrexed. Excision repair cross-complementation group 1 (ERCC1) is a predictive marker for platinum-based chemotherapy. This study evaluated whether the expression of TS and ERCC1 proteins is associated with clinical outcomes of the patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma who were treated with pemetrexed/cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy. The expressions of TS and ERCC1 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in biopsy specimens obtained from patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma who had received pemetrexed/cisplatin as first-line treatment. Patients were categorized according to median H-score. Response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed retrospectively. Both low TS and ERCC1 expressions were significantly associated with better RR (p=0.037 and p=0.015, respectively) and longer PFS (p<0.001 and p=0.004, respectively). Low ERCC1 expression was also associated with longer OS (p=0.003) while TS only showed a trend (p=0.105). TS expression was independent predictor for the better PFS in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.14-0.76). Combining the two markers, the low TS/low ERCC1 group showed significantly longer PFS (HR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.26-0.75) and OS (HR=0.57, 95% CI: 0.36-0.89) compared with high TS/high ERCC1 group. Protein expressions of TS and ERCC1 were associated with clinical outcomes in patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma who were treated with pemetrexed/cisplatin as first-line chemotherapy. TS and ERCC1 protein expressions can be potential predictive markers in this setting.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigated the incidence of diversion colitis (DC) and impact of DC symptoms on quality of life (QoL) after ileostomy reversal in rectal cancer.
We performed a prospective study with 30 patients who underwent low anterior resection and the creation of a temporary ileostomy for the rectal cancer between January 2008 and July 2009 at the Department of Surgery, Korea University Anam Hospital. The participants totally underwent two rounds of the examinations. At first examination, endoscopies, tissue biopsies, and questionnaire survey about the symptom were performed 3-4 mo after the ileostomy creations. At second examination, endoscopies, tissue biopsies, and questionnaire survey about the symptom and QoL were performed 5-6 mo after the ileostomy reversals. Clinicopathological data were based on the histopathological reports and clinical records of the patients.
At the first examination, all of the patients presented with inflammation, which was mild in 15 (50%) patients, moderate in 11 (36.7%) and severe in 4 (13.3%) by endoscopy and mild in 14 (46.7%) and moderate in 16 (53.3%) by histology. At the second examination, only 11 (36.7%) and 17 (56.7%) patients had mild inflammation by endoscopy and histology, respectively. There was no significant difference in DC grade between the endoscopic and the histological findings at first or second examination. The symptoms detected on the first and second questionnaires were mucous discharge in 12 (40%) and 5 (17%) patients, bloody discharge in 5 (17%) and 3 (10%) patients, abdominal pain in 4 (13%) and 2 (7%) patients and tenesmus in 9 (30%) and 5 (17%) patients, respectively. We found no correlation between the endoscopic or histological findings and the symptoms such as mucous discharge, bleeding, abdominal pain and tenesmus in both time points. Diarrhea was detected in 9 patients at the second examination; this number correlated with the severity of DC (0%, 0%, 66.7%, 33.3% vs 0%, 71.4%, 23.8%, 4.8%, P = 0.001) and the symptom-related QoL (r = -0.791, P < 0.001).
The severity of DC is related to diarrhea after an ileostomy reversal and may adversely affect QoL.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2013; 19(4):542-9. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v19.i4.542 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that have been reported to be promising diagnostic tools. We used quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) to analyze differentially expressed miRNAs in prostate tumor samples to determine its prognostic value. From 2007 to 2009, tumor tissues were obtained from 73 radical prostatectomy specimens. Differentially expressed miR-96, -145 and -221 were validated by TaqMan RT-qPCR using all 73 tissues. The prognostic value was assessed in terms of biochemical recurrence using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. For our patient cohort, the mean age was 64.7 years (50-76 years) and the mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 7.5 ng ml(-1). During the follow-up period (mean, 19.4 months), 14 of 73 (19.2%) patients developed biochemical recurrence. Expression of miR-96, -145 and -221 correlated strongly with each other, but there were no correlations between miRNA expression and clinicopathologic parameters. Kaplan-Meier survival curves using the log-rank test showed a decreased biochemical recurrence-free interval with pathologic stage (P<0.001). In addition, patients with Gleason scores over 8, compared with those with a Gleason score of 6, showed a decreased biochemical recurrence-free interval in Kaplan-Meier analysis (P=0.001). However, expression of miR-96, -145 and -221 did not correlate with the biochemical recurrence interval in Kaplan-Meier survival curves or by multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard regression model, either. In conclusion, we did not observe a significant correlation between the expression of miR-96, -145 and -221 and clinicopathologic parameters. To utilize miRNA as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice, more research is needed to understand miRNA mechanisms, identify miRNA targets, and further characterize miRNA function.
Asian Journal of Andrology 08/2012; 14(5):752-7. DOI:10.1038/aja.2012.68 · 2.60 Impact Factor