Chi-Min Shu

National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Tou-liu, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (121)223.97 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated a 2010 fire and explosion that occurred at a polypropylene (PP) and copper-clad laminate high-tech plant in Taiwan. Liquid acetone leakage caused the fire and explosion. One person was killed and five were injured; property damage was estimated at US$20 million. In contrast to conventional plants, high-tech plants have sophisticated instrumentation, highly complex pipelines, and confined spaces. In addition, the floor area in a high-tech plant is large and frequently contains a channel through the ground floor to the second or third floor. This channel design enables the fire compartment to be destroyed. Therefore, the system cannot confine the fire to a specific area, thus hindering fire-relief operations. In this study, the original fire outbreak occurred in the PP processing area on the ground floor. The acetone storage tank was located on the third floor. The investigation conducted at the fire site of the situations of the burning (bursting) loss determined that the acetone liquid leaked and dripped from floor cracks and tunnel oven to the PP processing area. Because the PP manufacturing process rapidly generates static electricity, the flammable liquids made contact with the source of ignition, which caused the explosion and fire. Various procedures, such as those involving the operating environment of production, packaging, and processing in a high-tech plant, are likely to produce static electricity in a workplace. Improved electrostatic management can prevent the loss of property and lives, liquid acetone leakage, and loss of equipment caused by static electricity fire.
    Process Safety and Environmental Protection 02/2015; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to polypropylene, acrylonitrile, and carbonyl alcohol, propylene oxide is the fourth major derivative among propylene derivatives and one of the important basic organic chemicals. A thermal stability test of catalyst, methanol, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was conducted via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Propylene epoxidation with H2O2 over catalyst, methanol, and propylene evenly mixed by specific pressure was carried out, and then the runaway reaction under adiabatic conditions was further simulated by the vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) to measure temperature and pressure data with respect to time of the runaway excursion. Finally, the apparent activation energy of H2O2 and propylene oxide reaction was obtained via temperature variation equation to evaluate the degree of potential hazard in industry.
    Chemical Engineering & Technology 02/2015; · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the adsorptive removal of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) from aqueous solutions by electrochemically generated iron hydroxides was investigated in batch mode. Four electrode pairs were used to characterize the performance of electro-coagulation (EC) for the DMP removal efficiency. Experimental results indicated that a Fe/Al electrode pair was the optimum choice out of four different electrode pair combinations. In addition, the effects of varying current density and solution temperature on DMP adsorption characteristics were evaluated. The findings indicated that complete DMP removal could be achieved within reasonable removal efficiency and with relatively low electrical energy consumption. The optimum current density and temperature were found to be 20 mA/cm2 and 298 K, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the DMP adsorption of aqueous solutions on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288–318 K. The experimental data were fitted with several adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The adsorption of DMP preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2015; · 2.64 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 12/2014; 118(3):1675-1683. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Shang-Hao Liu, Chi-Min Shu, Hung-Yi Hou
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    ABSTRACT: In 2011, a large petrochemical complex in Taiwan incurred several fire and explosion accidents, which had considerable negative impact for the industry on both environmental and safety issues. Reactive substances are widely used in many chemical industrial fields as an initiator, hardeners, or cross-linking agents of radical polymerization process with unsaturated monomer. However, the unpredictable factors during the process having risk to runaway reaction, thermal explosion, fire, and exposure to harmful toxic chemicals release due to the huge heat and gas products by thermal decomposition could not be removed from the process. This study used differential technology of thermal analysis to characterize the inherent hazard behaviors of azo compounds and organic peroxides in the process, to seek the elimination of the source of the harmful effects and achieve the best process safety practices with zero disaster and sound business continuity plan.
    Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 11/2014; 33. · 1.35 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 11/2014; 118(2):1085-1094. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2014; 117(3):1065-1071. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Possessing thermal instability inherently, organic peroxides have caused many severe accidents in chemical industries all over the world. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) is usually used as initiator or oxidant because of its strong oxidizing ability in the chemical process. In this study, the thermal hazard analysis of TBHP mixed with various acids was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 were used to figure out the thermal runaway behaviors of TBHP. Thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), maximum temperature (T max), and enthalpy (ΔH), were obtained from thermal curves. In addition, the activation energy (E a) and rate constant (k) were calculated by the Arrhenius equation. Therefore, the T 0 was determined to be 91.6 °C for exothermic reaction using DSC under 4 °C min−1 of heating rate. The E a for exothermic reaction was calculated to be 92.38 kJ mol−1 by DSC in this study. As far as loss prevention is concerned, thermokinetic parameters are crucial to the relevant processes in the chemical industries, particularly under process upsets.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 08/2014; 117(2):851-855. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isoprene monomer (IPM) is a colorless, volatile liquid obtained from petroleum or coal tar that occurs naturally in many process plants. It is used chiefly to make synthetic rubber. Our study used calorimetric approaches to conduct thermal analysis and hazard assessment of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and IPM relevant studies. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal activity monitor III, thermogravimetry, and vent sizing package 2 were used to discuss thermal instability reaction of Al2O3, which adsorbed IPM, and find every possible reason for cases of fire to prevent any future recurrence of the package store and transport related hazards. By means of calorimetric analysis technology, we can observe thermal decomposition or mass loss for different adsorbed concentrations of IPM and Al2O3 to discuss the related thermal stability parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), self-accelerating exothermic rate (dT dt −1), pressure rise rate, and maximum reaction temperature (T max). Then, we can understand the potential hazard factors that contribute to disasters related to processing, transport, and storage of security controls and reaction process design.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 06/2014; 116(3). · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (3-4-Epoxycyclohexane) methyl-3′-4′-epoxycyclohexyl-carboxylate (EEC) is a typical epoxy resin (EP). In Asia, due to the unstable reactive natures of EP, various thermal hazard and runaway reaction incidents have been occasioned by EP in the manufacturing process, such as fire, explosion, and toxic release, resulting in loss of life as well financial catastrophes and social outcries. Certain catalysis substances, H2SO4, acetic acid, or NaOH, may accelerate the reaction or curing rate for EP. However, an incompatible reaction with these chemical substances may induce a thermal hazard, causing a runaway excursion during the last stage. We employed thermogravimetry (TG) to obtain thermal stability parameters under non-isothermal conditions to evaluate the runaway reactions for EEC. The experimental data were compared with kinetics-based curve fitting to assess thermally hazardous phenomena by optimizing curve fitting on the kinetic parameters. The aim of this study was to estimate the incompatible hazards for EEC, provide thermal hazard information in order to determine the optimum operation conditions, and diminish the likelihood of fire and explosion accidents incurred by EP.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 06/2014; 116(3):1445-1452. · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, we have witnessed a deluge of multimedia data such as texts, images, and videos. However, the research of managing and retrieving these data efficiently is still in the development stage. The conventional tag-based searching approaches suffer from noisy or incomplete tag issues. As a result, the content-based multimedia data management framework has become increasingly popular. In this research direction, multimedia high-level semantic concept mining and retrieval is one of the fastest developing research topics requesting joint efforts from researchers in both data mining and multimedia domains. To solve this problem, one great challenge is to bridge the semantic gap which is the gap between high-level concepts and low-level features. Recently, positive inter-concept correlations have been utilized to capture the context of a concept to bridge the gap. However, negative correlations have rarely been studied because of the difficulty to mine and utilize them. In this paper, a concept mining and retrieval framework utilizing negative inter-concept correlations is proposed. Several research problems such as negative correlation selection, weight estimation, and score integration are addressed. Experimental results on TRECVID 2010 benchmark data set demonstrate that the proposed framework gives promising performance.
    2014 IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is a commonly used organic peroxide that has caused many thermal runaway reactions and explosions worldwide. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of LPO and its exothermic onset temperature, reaction heat, and other safety parameters for prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. Pre-exponential factor and apparent activation energy were determined by Friedman isoconversional method, which demonstrates that the decomposition of LPO shows a multi-step nature. The kinetic parameters and heat balance were analyzed and used for simulation of the adiabatic behavior time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions (TMRad) and self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT). When the initial temperature is 32.7 °C, TMRad equals 24 h and calculated SADT of LPO is 45 °C. Application of finite element analysis (FEA) and accurate kinetic description allows determining the effect of scale, geometry, heat transfer, thermal conductivity, and ambient temperature on the heat accumulation. The reaction progress (α) and temperature distribution can be determined quantitatively at every point in time and space. This information is essential for the design of containers of LPO, cooling systems, and the measures to be taken in the event of a cooling failure.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 03/2014; 45(2):461–467. · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to tunnels used for other modes of transportation, fire safety design problems in road tunnels are more challenging because of high-speed wind environmental impact. A video-based fire detection system (VFDS) applies inventive mathematical calculations and sophisticated computer models to analyze and tackle real-time video signals statistically and intelligently. VFDS-based temporal flicker modeling of flames and wavelet-based contour modeling approaches are used as weak classifiers. Experimental results have shown that false alarms issued by earlier methods can be significantly reduced by using separate flame and non-flame moving pixels. Whenever the system detects fire or smoke under wind or no wind environment, the VFDS server initiates actions, including visual and audible alarms, alarm messages, and video recording.
    Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 02/2014; 40:16–21. · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the thermal hazard features of various lithium-ion batteries, such as LiCoO2 and LiFePO4, were assessed properly by calorimetric techniques. Vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), an adiabatic calorimeter, was used to measure the thermal hazards and runaway characteristics of the 18650 lithium-ion batteries under an adiabatic condition. The thermal behaviors of the lithium-ion batteries were obtained at normal and abnormal conditions in this study. The critical parameters for thermal hazardous behavior of lithium-ion batteries were obtained including the exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH), maximum temperature (T max), maximum pressure (P max), self-heating rate (dT/dt), and pressure rise rate (dP/dt). Therefore, the result indicates the thermal runaway situation of the lithium-ion battery with different materials and voltages in view the of TNT-equivalent method by VSP2. The hazard gets greater with higher voltage. Without the consideration of other anti-pressure measurements, different voltages involving 3.3, 3.6, 3.7, and 4.2 V are evaluated to 0.11, 0.23, 0.88, and 1.77 g of TNT. Further estimation of thermal runaway reaction and decomposition reaction of lithium-ion battery can also be confirmed by VSP2. It shows that the battery of a fully charged state is more dangerous than that of a storage state. The technique results showed that VSP2 can be used to strictly evaluate thermal runaway reaction and thermal decomposition behaviors of lithium-ion batteries. The loss prevention and thermal hazard assessment are very important for development of electric vehicles as well as other appliances in the future. Therefore, our results could be applied to define important safety indices of lithium-ion batteries for safety concerns.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 12/2013; 114(3). · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the effectiveness and performance of smoke management models in a TFT-LCD cleanroom. Several smoke management models are discussed in a distinct 3-level cleanroom compartment. The tools used included a fire dynamics simulator (FDS) and SIMULEX. The design fires were 3 MW and 5.4 MW in ultra fast fire, respectively. In life safety, both a downward smoke exhaust system and upward smoke exhaust system, incorporating a decrease of filter fan unit air supply rate, could be used in a cleanroom, according to the simulation results of performance-based design. For occupant evacuation, the SIMULEX results showed a total evacuation time less than smoke layer descending time, which descended to 1.8 m height from floor to smoke layer in all FDS simulations. In view of property protection, insurance companies generally require significantly higher standards of property protection. For 3 MW or more heat release rate, smoke was hardly controlled by any smoke exhaust system in the cleanroom without sprinklers.
    Building Simulation 12/2013; 6(4). · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates the removal efficiency of PVA from aqueous solutions using UV irradiation in combination with the production of electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at a polyacrylonitrile-based activated carbon fiber (ACF) cathode. Three cathode materials (i.e., platinum, graphite, and ACF) were fed with oxygen and used for the electrogeneration of H2O2. The amount of electrogenerated H2O2 produced using the ACF cathode was five times greater than that generated using the graphite cathode and nearly 24 times greater than that from platinum cathode. Several parameters were evaluated to characterize the H2O2 electrogeneration, such as current density, oxygen flow rate, solution pH, and the supporting electrolyte used. The optimum current density, oxygen flow rate, solution pH, and supporting electrolyte composition were found to be 10 mA cm−2, 500 cm3 min−1, pH 3, and Na2SO4, respectively. The PVA removal efficiencies were achieved under these conditions 3%, 16%, and 86% using UV, H2O2 electrogeneration, and UV/H2O2 electrogeneration, respectively. A UV light intensity of 0.6 mW cm−2 was found to produce optimal PVA removal efficiency in the present study. A simple kinetic model was proposed which confirmed pseudo-first-order reaction. Reaction rate constant () was found to depend on the UV light intensity.
    International Journal of Photoenergy 09/2013; 2013(Article ID 841762):9 pages. · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, organic peroxides, including methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), have often caused thermal runaway reactions, fires, and thermal explosions worldwide. Under normal circumstances, H2O and dry fire-extinguishing chemicals are often employed to eliminate fire situations. We evaluated the thermal runaway reaction for MEKPO and CHP mixed with H2O and dry fire-extinguishing chemicals by differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal runaway reaction for CHP mixed with dry fire-extinguishing chemicals by vent sizing package 2. The results showed that ABC dry chemical, BC dry chemical, and XBC dry chemical all caused the decomposition of MEKPO to occur at lower onset temperature and H2O caused the ΔH d of MEKPO to become higher. On the other hand, H2O and XBC dry chemical induced the decomposition of CHP to occur at lower onset temperature as well as lower thermal explosion temperature. The maximum of self-heating rate ((dT/dt)max) and the maximum pressure-rise rate ((dP/dt)max) of CHP mixed with dry fire-extinguishing chemicals were measured lower than CHP alone. The results indicated that MEKPO and CHP are highly hazardous when mixed with H2O and some dry fire-extinguishing chemicals. In view of loss prevention, the results can be useful references for fire fighters dealing with thermal upsets in chemical plants.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the explosion limits of chemical substances is exceptionally critical while considering prevention of loss in manufacturing processes. The accidental explosions of flammable liquid/gas mixtures are second to none in loss prevention issues. In a previous study, we found a theoretical linear correlation between the reciprocal of the explosion limits and the reciprocal of the molar fraction of hydrocarbons diluted with inert carbon dioxide or nitrogen. In this study, we estimated the effects of inert liquid/gas (H2O), which dilute flammable vapors or gases. The experiments measured the explosion limits of isopropyl alcohol with steam at initial conditions of 1 atm and 150 °C by a 20-L-apparatus. We compared the experimental values with the theoretical model, and found that a linear correlation still exists. The results demonstrated that the experimental values fit the theoretical model well.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Isothermal microcalorimetry can be used to investigate the thermokinetic parameters for reactive mechanisms. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO), a typical organic peroxide, undergoes an autocatalytic reaction under isothermal decomposition. It requires intrinsically safer design of preparation, manufacturing, transportation, storage, and even disposal. The scope of this study was to describe the exothermic reaction and reaction model of BPO and mixed with benzoic acid by the thermal activity monitor III (TAM III). The results showed the isothermal kinetic parameters, such as activation energy (E a), frequency factor (A), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), and time to maximum rate under isothermal conditions (TMR iso), which were necessary and useful to insure safe storage or transportation for self-reactive substances applied in the process industries.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To accomplish an effective analysis of adsorption, the strong acid dye from aqueous solution of sodium alginate (SA) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composite gel beads were used as important parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the heat of breakdown reaction. The experimental conditions were set at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 °C min−1, and the temperature range was 30–300 °C. The heating rates and the temperature range were set as follows: Four kinds of proportion in this experiment contained 2 SA % w/v (SA), 0.03, 0.09, 0.18, 0.36 % w/v (MWCNTs), and 10 % w/v calcium chloride, respectively. Four samples, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 mg, were used to detect the experimental data. It contributed to understanding the reaction for the distinctive MWCNTs. With the thermokinetic data by isoconversional approach obtained from advanced kinetics and technology solutions (AKTS), the related thermal safety information can be obtained from the thermal reaction of MWCNTs. Valuable parameters, such as activation energy (E a) and heat of decomposition, can be applied in operation, including adsorption and desorption processes. After DSC tests, and under the four compositions of SA/MWCNTs, at different heating rates of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 °C min−1, primarily we found that when the heating rate was increased, exothermic onset temperature would increase gradually. After analyzing E a value by isoconversional kinetics, we learned that in four different adsorption compositions, SA/MWCNTs0.03 (161.20 kJ mol−1) was the minimum. Among them, the highest value was SA/MWCNTs0.18 (220.48 kJ mol−1). However, in this study, for SA/MWCNTs compositions we found that E a value will drop in the final material SA/MWCNTs0.36. Accordingly, if the ratio of SA and calcium chloride was fixed, then different compositions of the MWCNTs would affect adsorption efficiency of SA/MWCNTs and E a variation.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2013; · 2.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

695 Citations
223.97 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • National Yunlin University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering
      Tou-liu, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2010–2013
    • R.D. University
      Jubbulpore, Madhya Pradesh, India
    • China Medical University (ROC)
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2012
    • Nanjing University of Science and Technology
      Nan-ching, Jiangsu Sheng, China
  • 2011
    • WuFeng University
      Chia-i-hsien, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2008
    • National Chung Hsing University
      臺中市, Taiwan, Taiwan