Chi-Min Shu

Western Kentucky University, Боулинг-Грин, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (138)253.17 Total impact

  • Shang-Hao Liu, Hung-Yi Hou, Chi-Min Shu
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    ABSTRACT: A new approach was used to monitor the autocatalytic reaction of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) by non-isothermal and isothermal kinetic models constructed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal activity monitor III analyses, respectively. Autocatalytic reactions generally start slowly and then accelerate as the reactant is consumed and the autocatalyst is produced. Consequently, an autocatalytic reaction may require special design considerations to avoid certain upset conditions, such as runaway exothermic reactions.
    Thermochimica Acta 04/2015; 605. DOI:10.1016/j.tca.2015.02.008 · 2.11 Impact Factor
  • Yih-Wen Wang, Min-Siou Liao, Chi-Min Shu
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    ABSTRACT: Peracetic acid (PAA) is a widely used green antimicrobial agent of the environmental protection chemicals, whose registered applications have expanded to include in sanitation at food processing and pasteurizers in beverage plants, agricultural premises, wineries and breweries, as well as the disinfection of medical supplies, to prevent biofilm formation in pulp industries, and as a water purifier and disinfectant. The thermal reactivity and hazard characteristics were evaluated for PAA solutions by calorimetry analysis methodology, where the thermal reaction and kinetic data were programmed by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability screening test was able to determine the self-decomposition of PAA solutions, and to observe the initial exothermic temperature (T i) and heat of decomposition (ΔH d). The thermokinetic parameters of PAA were also calculated according to the experimental data by temperature programming and thermal analysis model with Arrhenius equation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the self-heating exothermic excursions associated with the various PAA solutions via C++ programming language. Understanding the thermal decomposition hazard of PAA was beneficial to proactive safety protocol for the industrial process, storage, as well as transportation.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 03/2015; 119(3):2257-2267. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-4369-z · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated a 2010 fire and explosion that occurred at a polypropylene (PP) and copper-clad laminate high-tech plant in Taiwan. Liquid acetone leakage caused the fire and explosion. One person was killed and five were injured; property damage was estimated at US$20 million. In contrast to conventional plants, high-tech plants have sophisticated instrumentation, highly complex pipelines, and confined spaces. In addition, the floor area in a high-tech plant is large and frequently contains a channel through the ground floor to the second or third floor. This channel design enables the fire compartment to be destroyed. Therefore, the system cannot confine the fire to a specific area, thus hindering fire-relief operations. In this study, the original fire outbreak occurred in the PP processing area on the ground floor. The acetone storage tank was located on the third floor. The investigation conducted at the fire site of the situations of the burning (bursting) loss determined that the acetone liquid leaked and dripped from floor cracks and tunnel oven to the PP processing area. Because the PP manufacturing process rapidly generates static electricity, the flammable liquids made contact with the source of ignition, which caused the explosion and fire. Various procedures, such as those involving the operating environment of production, packaging, and processing in a high-tech plant, are likely to produce static electricity in a workplace. Improved electrostatic management can prevent the loss of property and lives, liquid acetone leakage, and loss of equipment caused by static electricity fire.
    Process Safety and Environmental Protection 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.psep.2015.02.007 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to polypropylene, acrylonitrile, and carbonyl alcohol, propylene oxide is the fourth major derivative among propylene derivatives and one of the important basic organic chemicals. A thermal stability test of catalyst, methanol, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was conducted via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Propylene epoxidation with H2O2 over catalyst, methanol, and propylene evenly mixed by specific pressure was carried out, and then the runaway reaction under adiabatic conditions was further simulated by the vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) to measure temperature and pressure data with respect to time of the runaway excursion. Finally, the apparent activation energy of H2O2 and propylene oxide reaction was obtained via temperature variation equation to evaluate the degree of potential hazard in industry.
    Chemical Engineering & Technology 02/2015; 38(3):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1002/ceat.201400117 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the adsorptive removal of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) from aqueous solutions by electrochemically generated iron hydroxides was investigated in batch mode. Four electrode pairs were used to characterize the performance of electro-coagulation (EC) for the DMP removal efficiency. Experimental results indicated that a Fe/Al electrode pair was the optimum choice out of four different electrode pair combinations. In addition, the effects of varying current density and solution temperature on DMP adsorption characteristics were evaluated. The findings indicated that complete DMP removal could be achieved within reasonable removal efficiency and with relatively low electrical energy consumption. The optimum current density and temperature were found to be 20 mA/cm2 and 298 K, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the DMP adsorption of aqueous solutions on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288–318 K. The experimental data were fitted with several adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The adsorption of DMP preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2015; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.jtice.2014.12.028 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A green analytical method was applied to evaluate the incompatible hazard for 3,4-epoxycyclohexane methyl-3′4′-epoxycyclohexyl-carboxylate (EEC) mixed with its synthetic materials. During the manufacturing process, numerous accidents of human poisoning, explosion, or fire have been reported due to the chemical’s incompatible reaction. A calorimetric application and product’s analysis approach have been employed to obtain related information for the incompatible hazard investigations of chemicals. This study also used nonlinear regression analysis to establish a kinetic model. The results proved that H2SO4 can cause an abnormal curing reaction and release significant amounts of heat of the curing reaction for EEC, increasing the occurrence probability of accidents.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4771-1 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Shang-Hao Liu, Chi-Min Shu
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to organic peroxides, azo compounds are important basic initiators applied in chemical plants. In general, these compounds decompose at lower temperatures than aldehydes, ketones, and ethers, some of which decompose unimolecularly at higher temperatures so that the first products are not as stable due to the bivalent -N=N- composition, which has very active characteristics. In this study, thermal stability tests of two azo compounds, 2,2′-azobis (2-methylbutyronitrile) and 2,2′-azobis-(2-4-dimethylvaleronitrile), were evaluated via differential scanning calorimetry to determine the apparent exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), and apparent exothermic peak temperature (T p) for intrinsic thermal safety analysis. Following the dynamic tests, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was employed to determine the maximum pressure (P max), maximum temperature (T max), maximum self-heating rate [(dT/dt)max], maximum pressure rise rate [(dP/dt)max], and adiabatic time to maximum rate [(TMR)ad] under a credible case. Finally, we attempted to obtain the apparent activation energy (E a) and pre-exponential factor (A) during decomposition via a non-isothermal approach through Flynn-Wall-Ozawa equation and the approximate solution for the design of safer reaction conditions with greater efficiency when azo compounds are used as initiators. As a whole, a prudent approach for the integration of thermal hazard data was developed that is necessary and useful for determining a proactive emergency response procedure associated with industrial applications on azo compounds during thermal upsets.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4559-3 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is an important power storage system with efficient energy densities and long life cycle characteristics. However, potential safety issues still need to be further discussed. This study used an adiabatic calorimeter and vent sizing package 2 to appraise the thermal runaway behaviour of 18650 lithium-ion battery on various charging levels. The batteries were tested for states of charge at 30, 50, 80, and 100 %. By calorimetric experimental trials, we could determine the thermal hazard features, such as apparent exothermic initial temperature (T 0), maximum temperature (T max), pressure, temperature, maximum pressure (P max), self-heating rate (dT dt −1), pressure rise rate (dP dt −1), and runaway patterns. During the thermal runaway, T max and P max under full chargeable Li-ion battery were 774.9 K and 1519.6 kPa, respectively. These experimental results could assist in estimating uncontrolled behaviours and thermokinetic parameters for various charged states of the 18650 Li-ion battery. They could be used in proactive design, and ultimately, they could provide the process safety parameters to forestall commercial batteries from thermal damage.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4672-3 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 12/2014; 118(3):1675-1683. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-4045-3 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Shang-Hao Liu, Chi-Min Shu, Hung-Yi Hou
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    ABSTRACT: In 2011, a large petrochemical complex in Taiwan incurred several fire and explosion accidents, which had considerable negative impact for the industry on both environmental and safety issues. Reactive substances are widely used in many chemical industrial fields as an initiator, hardeners, or cross-linking agents of radical polymerization process with unsaturated monomer. However, the unpredictable factors during the process having risk to runaway reaction, thermal explosion, fire, and exposure to harmful toxic chemicals release due to the huge heat and gas products by thermal decomposition could not be removed from the process. This study used differential technology of thermal analysis to characterize the inherent hazard behaviors of azo compounds and organic peroxides in the process, to seek the elimination of the source of the harmful effects and achieve the best process safety practices with zero disaster and sound business continuity plan.
    Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 11/2014; 33. DOI:10.1016/j.jlp.2014.11.007 · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid development of the petrochemical industry of Taiwan over the past four decades has resulted in a booming economy in Taiwan that drives derived industries to develop progressively. However, it has also caused many runaway reaction accidents, such as toxic gas release, fire, and explosion. It is crucial to eliminate those potential hazard factors which can induce consequent runaway reaction accidents during the life span of the manufacturing process. In response to this crucial issue, we performed a thermokinetic parameter analysis for 1,1-bis-(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane at isothermal conditions to conduct a thermal safety assessment of chemical materials. The five isothermal temperatures, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 A degrees C, measured by DSC, were adopted in this study to calculate process safety parameters, including TMRad, T (NR), and SADT, which can be employed in process safety parameters for the manufacturing process. A novel, green kinetic approach accompanied with non-isothermal DSC results is used to derive thermokinetic parameters in safety protocol in this study.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 11/2014; 118(2):1085-1094. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3744-0 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,1-bis(tert-Butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH) is commonly used as a crosslinking agent or an initiator of the heat-curing agent for polybutadiene rubber. Metal ions that remain in the pipelines or containers of manufacturing processes may affect the thermal stability of the organic peroxides. Moreover, pipelines or metal containers may contain some metal ions because of inner corrosive chemicals or surface deterioration, which may induce a chemical reaction, while TMCH is mixed with them. To avoid these unexpected chemical reactions, we focused on the thermal hazard analysis of TMCH mixed with metal ions, such as nickel(II) bromide or copper(II) bromide. The experiments can determine thermokinetic parameters, including exothermic onset temperature (T (0)), maximum temperature (T (max)), and heat of decomposition (Delta H (d)), under non-isothermal conditions by differential scanning calorimetry. Non-isothermal experimental results combined with isoconversional kinetic analysis can acquire further safety parameters, such as apparent activation energy (E (a)) and time to maximum heating rate. The results of this study could be used as a proactive case for the storage of TMCH mixed with metal ions.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 11/2014; 118(2):1003-1010. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3813-4 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fire that occurred at ALA nightclub was the deadliest nightclub fire in Taiwan. This study used the ALA nightclub fire as a case study and conducted a burning test based on the official fire investigation report. Fireworks that had been used during the performance were the cause of fire. Their heat release rate is approximately 180 kW, and the flame temperature is 300 A degrees C. Soundproof foam collected from the fire debris was used to conduct a thermal analysis experiment under two different heating rates. In addition, related studies were referenced. It was found that when the sample was heated to between 45 and 55 A degrees C, pyrolysis reaction started and the sample started to release harmful substances. The burning behavior of soundproof foam is considered ultrafast. When the heating temperature reaches between 225 and 370 A degrees C, the sample releases 1,819.09-2,894.59 J g(-1) of heat. It is evident that it poses a serious degree of thermal hazard. Finally, it is recommended that the emergency egress time in entertainment establishments such as nightclubs should be kept between 60 and 90 s or less as a reference for fire safety strategies for nightclubs.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2014; 117(3):1065-1071. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3913-1 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Possessing thermal instability inherently, organic peroxides have caused many severe accidents in chemical industries all over the world. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) is usually used as initiator or oxidant because of its strong oxidizing ability in the chemical process. In this study, the thermal hazard analysis of TBHP mixed with various acids was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 were used to figure out the thermal runaway behaviors of TBHP. Thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), maximum temperature (T max), and enthalpy (ΔH), were obtained from thermal curves. In addition, the activation energy (E a) and rate constant (k) were calculated by the Arrhenius equation. Therefore, the T 0 was determined to be 91.6 °C for exothermic reaction using DSC under 4 °C min−1 of heating rate. The E a for exothermic reaction was calculated to be 92.38 kJ mol−1 by DSC in this study. As far as loss prevention is concerned, thermokinetic parameters are crucial to the relevant processes in the chemical industries, particularly under process upsets.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 08/2014; 117(2):851-855. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3777-4 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (3-4-Epoxycyclohexane) methyl-3′-4′-epoxycyclohexyl-carboxylate (EEC) is a typical epoxy resin (EP). In Asia, due to the unstable reactive natures of EP, various thermal hazard and runaway reaction incidents have been occasioned by EP in the manufacturing process, such as fire, explosion, and toxic release, resulting in loss of life as well financial catastrophes and social outcries. Certain catalysis substances, H2SO4, acetic acid, or NaOH, may accelerate the reaction or curing rate for EP. However, an incompatible reaction with these chemical substances may induce a thermal hazard, causing a runaway excursion during the last stage. We employed thermogravimetry (TG) to obtain thermal stability parameters under non-isothermal conditions to evaluate the runaway reactions for EEC. The experimental data were compared with kinetics-based curve fitting to assess thermally hazardous phenomena by optimizing curve fitting on the kinetic parameters. The aim of this study was to estimate the incompatible hazards for EEC, provide thermal hazard information in order to determine the optimum operation conditions, and diminish the likelihood of fire and explosion accidents incurred by EP.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 06/2014; 116(3):1445-1452. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3685-7 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, we have witnessed a deluge of multimedia data such as texts, images, and videos. However, the research of managing and retrieving these data efficiently is still in the development stage. The conventional tag-based searching approaches suffer from noisy or incomplete tag issues. As a result, the content-based multimedia data management framework has become increasingly popular. In this research direction, multimedia high-level semantic concept mining and retrieval is one of the fastest developing research topics requesting joint efforts from researchers in both data mining and multimedia domains. To solve this problem, one great challenge is to bridge the semantic gap which is the gap between high-level concepts and low-level features. Recently, positive inter-concept correlations have been utilized to capture the context of a concept to bridge the gap. However, negative correlations have rarely been studied because of the difficulty to mine and utilize them. In this paper, a concept mining and retrieval framework utilizing negative inter-concept correlations is proposed. Several research problems such as negative correlation selection, weight estimation, and score integration are addressed. Experimental results on TRECVID 2010 benchmark data set demonstrate that the proposed framework gives promising performance.
    2014 IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing (ICSC); 06/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Isoprene monomer (IPM) is a colorless, volatile liquid obtained from petroleum or coal tar that occurs naturally in many process plants. It is used chiefly to make synthetic rubber. Our study used calorimetric approaches to conduct thermal analysis and hazard assessment of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) and IPM relevant studies. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermal activity monitor III, thermogravimetry, and vent sizing package 2 were used to discuss thermal instability reaction of Al2O3, which adsorbed IPM, and find every possible reason for cases of fire to prevent any future recurrence of the package store and transport related hazards. By means of calorimetric analysis technology, we can observe thermal decomposition or mass loss for different adsorbed concentrations of IPM and Al2O3 to discuss the related thermal stability parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), self-accelerating exothermic rate (dT dt −1), pressure rise rate, and maximum reaction temperature (T max). Then, we can understand the potential hazard factors that contribute to disasters related to processing, transport, and storage of security controls and reaction process design.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 06/2014; 116(3). DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3815-2 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lauroyl peroxide (LPO) is a commonly used organic peroxide that has caused many thermal runaway reactions and explosions worldwide. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal decomposition of LPO and its exothermic onset temperature, reaction heat, and other safety parameters for prevention of runaway reactions and thermal explosions. Pre-exponential factor and apparent activation energy were determined by Friedman isoconversional method, which demonstrates that the decomposition of LPO shows a multi-step nature. The kinetic parameters and heat balance were analyzed and used for simulation of the adiabatic behavior time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions (TMRad) and self-accelerating decomposition temperature (SADT). When the initial temperature is 32.7 °C, TMRad equals 24 h and calculated SADT of LPO is 45 °C. Application of finite element analysis (FEA) and accurate kinetic description allows determining the effect of scale, geometry, heat transfer, thermal conductivity, and ambient temperature on the heat accumulation. The reaction progress (α) and temperature distribution can be determined quantitatively at every point in time and space. This information is essential for the design of containers of LPO, cooling systems, and the measures to be taken in the event of a cooling failure.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 03/2014; 45(2):461–467. DOI:10.1016/j.jtice.2013.06.004 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compared to tunnels used for other modes of transportation, fire safety design problems in road tunnels are more challenging because of high-speed wind environmental impact. A video-based fire detection system (VFDS) applies inventive mathematical calculations and sophisticated computer models to analyze and tackle real-time video signals statistically and intelligently. VFDS-based temporal flicker modeling of flames and wavelet-based contour modeling approaches are used as weak classifiers. Experimental results have shown that false alarms issued by earlier methods can be significantly reduced by using separate flame and non-flame moving pixels. Whenever the system detects fire or smoke under wind or no wind environment, the VFDS server initiates actions, including visual and audible alarms, alarm messages, and video recording.
    Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 02/2014; 40:16–21. DOI:10.1016/j.tust.2013.09.001 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To explore the thermal runaway behavior of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) in industrial processes during upsets situations and to compare the difference of values between simulation and experimentation, two calorimeters, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and vent sizing package 2 (VSP2), were employed to measure thermokinetic data of the thermal decomposition of BPO, and to calculate values of parameters by simulation approach, which were based on kinetic models and the thermal safety software. This study shows the novel finding that benzoyl peroxide (BPO) has an autocatalytic reaction at low temperature. The simulation results showed that the Ea value was 124 kJ/mol by VSP2 tests. The Ea value was much closer to Zaman's studies than the Ea values developed by the Kissinger and/or Ozawa methods. The Ea value resulting from the optimal fit approach average was 91.47 +/- 17.69 kJ/mol also closer to Zaman's studies than values from the Kissinger and Ozawa methods.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2014; 45(1):115-120. DOI:10.1016/j.jtice.2013.06.002 · 3.00 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

788 Citations
253.17 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Western Kentucky University
      • Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology
      Боулинг-Грин, Kentucky, United States
  • 2000–2014
    • National Yunlin University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering
      Tou-liu, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2010–2013
    • R.D. University
      Jubbulpore, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • 2002
    • Jen-Teh Junior College Of Medicine, Nursing And Management
      Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan