Chi-Min Shu

R.D. University, Jubbulpore, Madhya Pradesh, India

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Publications (146)275.72 Total impact

  • Wei-Ting Chen · Shu-Min Shen · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA), the effluent of secondary biotreatment units, can be properly biodegraded by Burkholderia cepacia. Through batch degradation of EDTA, the raw wastewater of EDTA was controlled at 50mg/L, and then nutrients was added in diluted wastewater to cultivate activated sludge, which the ratio of composition is depicted as "COD:N:P:Fe=100:5:1:0.5". After 27days, the removal efficiency of Fe-EDTA and COD was 100% and 92.0%, correspondingly. At the continuous process, the raw wastewater of EDTA was dictated at 166mg/L before adding nutrients to cultivate activated sludge, in which the ratio of composition did also follow with batch process. After 22days, the removal efficiency of Fe-EDTA and COD for experimental group was 71.46% and 62.58%, correspondingly. The results showed that the batch process was more suited for EDTA biodegradation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Bioresource Technology 10/2015; 193. DOI:10.1016/j.biortech.2015.06.099 · 4.49 Impact Factor
  • Mitali Das · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the thermal degradation products of 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(tert-butylperoxy) hexane (DBPH), by TG/GC/MS to identify runaway reaction and thermal safety parameters. It also included the determination of time to maximum rate under adiabatic conditions (TMRad) and self-accelerating decomposition temperature obtained through Advanced Kinetics and Technology Solutions. The apparent activation energy (Ea) was calculated from differential isoconversional kinetic analysis method using differential scanning calorimetry experiments. The Ea value obtained by Friedman analysis is in the range of 118.0-149.0kJmol(-1). The TMRad was 24.0h with an apparent onset temperature of 82.4°C. This study has also established an efficient benchmark for a thermal hazard assessment of DBPH that can be applied to assure safer storage conditions.
    Journal of hazardous materials 09/2015; 301:222-232. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.09.005 · 4.53 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4917-1 · 2.04 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4985-2 · 2.04 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4895-3 · 2.04 Impact Factor

  • Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4846-z · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Shang-Hao Liu · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to organic peroxides, azo compounds are important basic initiators applied in chemical plants. In general, these compounds decompose at lower temperatures than aldehydes, ketones, and ethers, some of which decompose unimolecularly at higher temperatures so that the first products are not as stable due to the bivalent -N=N- composition, which has very active characteristics. In this study, thermal stability tests of two azo compounds, 2,2′-azobis (2-methylbutyronitrile) and 2,2′-azobis-(2-4-dimethylvaleronitrile), were evaluated via differential scanning calorimetry to determine the apparent exothermic onset temperature (T 0), heat of decomposition (ΔH d), and apparent exothermic peak temperature (T p) for intrinsic thermal safety analysis. Following the dynamic tests, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) was employed to determine the maximum pressure (P max), maximum temperature (T max), maximum self-heating rate [(dT/dt)max], maximum pressure rise rate [(dP/dt)max], and adiabatic time to maximum rate [(TMR)ad] under a credible case. Finally, we attempted to obtain the apparent activation energy (E a) and pre-exponential factor (A) during decomposition via a non-isothermal approach through Flynn-Wall-Ozawa equation and the approximate solution for the design of safer reaction conditions with greater efficiency when azo compounds are used as initiators. As a whole, a prudent approach for the integration of thermal hazard data was developed that is necessary and useful for determining a proactive emergency response procedure associated with industrial applications on azo compounds during thermal upsets.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 07/2015; 121(1). DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4559-3 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A green analytical method was applied to evaluate the incompatible hazard for 3,4-epoxycyclohexane methyl-3′4′-epoxycyclohexyl-carboxylate (EEC) mixed with its synthetic materials. During the manufacturing process, numerous accidents of human poisoning, explosion, or fire have been reported due to the chemical’s incompatible reaction. A calorimetric application and product’s analysis approach have been employed to obtain related information for the incompatible hazard investigations of chemicals. This study also used nonlinear regression analysis to establish a kinetic model. The results proved that H2SO4 can cause an abnormal curing reaction and release significant amounts of heat of the curing reaction for EEC, increasing the occurrence probability of accidents.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4771-1 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Shang-Hao Liu · Hung-Yi Hou · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: A new approach was used to monitor the autocatalytic reaction of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) by non-isothermal and isothermal kinetic models constructed using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal activity monitor III analyses, respectively. Autocatalytic reactions generally start slowly and then accelerate as the reactant is consumed and the autocatalyst is produced. Consequently, an autocatalytic reaction may require special design considerations to avoid certain upset conditions, such as runaway exothermic reactions.
    Thermochimica Acta 04/2015; 605. DOI:10.1016/j.tca.2015.02.008 · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Wei-Chun Chen · Jian-De Li · Chi-Min Shu · Yih-Wen Wang ·
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    ABSTRACT: The lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is an important power storage system with efficient energy densities and long life cycle characteristics. However, potential safety issues still need to be further discussed. This study used an adiabatic calorimeter and vent sizing package 2 to appraise the thermal runaway behaviour of 18650 lithium-ion battery on various charging levels. The batteries were tested for states of charge at 30, 50, 80, and 100 %. By calorimetric experimental trials, we could determine the thermal hazard features, such as apparent exothermic initial temperature (T 0), maximum temperature (T max), pressure, temperature, maximum pressure (P max), self-heating rate (dT dt −1), pressure rise rate (dP dt −1), and runaway patterns. During the thermal runaway, T max and P max under full chargeable Li-ion battery were 774.9 K and 1519.6 kPa, respectively. These experimental results could assist in estimating uncontrolled behaviours and thermokinetic parameters for various charged states of the 18650 Li-ion battery. They could be used in proactive design, and ultimately, they could provide the process safety parameters to forestall commercial batteries from thermal damage.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 04/2015; 121(1). DOI:10.1007/s10973-015-4672-3 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Yih-Wen Wang · Min-Siou Liao · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: Peracetic acid (PAA) is a widely used green antimicrobial agent of the environmental protection chemicals, whose registered applications have expanded to include in sanitation at food processing and pasteurizers in beverage plants, agricultural premises, wineries and breweries, as well as the disinfection of medical supplies, to prevent biofilm formation in pulp industries, and as a water purifier and disinfectant. The thermal reactivity and hazard characteristics were evaluated for PAA solutions by calorimetry analysis methodology, where the thermal reaction and kinetic data were programmed by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermal stability screening test was able to determine the self-decomposition of PAA solutions, and to observe the initial exothermic temperature (T i) and heat of decomposition (ΔH d). The thermokinetic parameters of PAA were also calculated according to the experimental data by temperature programming and thermal analysis model with Arrhenius equation. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the self-heating exothermic excursions associated with the various PAA solutions via C++ programming language. Understanding the thermal decomposition hazard of PAA was beneficial to proactive safety protocol for the industrial process, storage, as well as transportation.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 03/2015; 119(3):2257-2267. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-4369-z · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    Hung-Cheng Chou · Chi-Tang Yeh · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated a 2010 fire and explosion that occurred at a polypropylene (PP) and copper-clad laminate high-tech plant in Taiwan. Liquid acetone leakage caused the fire and explosion. One person was killed and five were injured; property damage was estimated at US$20 million. In contrast to conventional plants, high-tech plants have sophisticated instrumentation, highly complex pipelines, and confined spaces. In addition, the floor area in a high-tech plant is large and frequently contains a channel through the ground floor to the second or third floor. This channel design enables the fire compartment to be destroyed. Therefore, the system cannot confine the fire to a specific area, thus hindering fire-relief operations. In this study, the original fire outbreak occurred in the PP processing area on the ground floor. The acetone storage tank was located on the third floor. The investigation conducted at the fire site of the situations of the burning (bursting) loss determined that the acetone liquid leaked and dripped from floor cracks and tunnel oven to the PP processing area. Because the PP manufacturing process rapidly generates static electricity, the flammable liquids made contact with the source of ignition, which caused the explosion and fire. Various procedures, such as those involving the operating environment of production, packaging, and processing in a high-tech plant, are likely to produce static electricity in a workplace. Improved electrostatic management can prevent the loss of property and lives, liquid acetone leakage, and loss of equipment caused by static electricity fire.
    Process Safety and Environmental Protection 02/2015; 25. DOI:10.1016/j.psep.2015.02.007 · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to polypropylene, acrylonitrile, and carbonyl alcohol, propylene oxide is the fourth major derivative among propylene derivatives and one of the important basic organic chemicals. A thermal stability test of catalyst, methanol, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was conducted via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Propylene epoxidation with H2O2 over catalyst, methanol, and propylene evenly mixed by specific pressure was carried out, and then the runaway reaction under adiabatic conditions was further simulated by the vent sizing package 2 (VSP2) to measure temperature and pressure data with respect to time of the runaway excursion. Finally, the apparent activation energy of H2O2 and propylene oxide reaction was obtained via temperature variation equation to evaluate the degree of potential hazard in industry.
    Chemical Engineering & Technology 02/2015; 38(3):n/a-n/a. DOI:10.1002/ceat.201400117 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the adsorptive removal of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) from aqueous solutions by electrochemically generated iron hydroxides was investigated in batch mode. Four electrode pairs were used to characterize the performance of electro-coagulation (EC) for the DMP removal efficiency. Experimental results indicated that a Fe/Al electrode pair was the optimum choice out of four different electrode pair combinations. In addition, the effects of varying current density and solution temperature on DMP adsorption characteristics were evaluated. The findings indicated that complete DMP removal could be achieved within reasonable removal efficiency and with relatively low electrical energy consumption. The optimum current density and temperature were found to be 20 mA/cm2 and 298 K, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy, indicated that the DMP adsorption of aqueous solutions on metal hydroxides was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 288–318 K. The experimental data were fitted with several adsorption isotherm models to describe the EC process. The adsorption of DMP preferably fitting the Langmuir adsorption isotherm suggests monolayer coverage of adsorbed molecules.
    Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers 01/2015; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.jtice.2014.12.028 · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    Kai-Yu Huang · Chih-Ta Wang · Wei-Lung Chou · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the performance of an innovative paired photoelectrochemical oxidative system fabricated in our laboratory to determine the removal efficiency of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in aqueous solutions. An innovative paired photoelectrochemical oxidative system employed metal redox mediators with high redox potential for anodic oxidation (MEO process) and UV assisted photoelectrochemical oxidation (PEO process) for cathodic oxidation in a divided electrochemical cell. Several parameters were investigated to characterize the removal efficiency of PVA, such as the current density, initial Ce(III) concentration, nitric acid concentration, oxygen flow rate, and UV irradiation intensity. The effects of these parameters on the specific energy consumption were also investigated. Additionally, the conversion yield of Ce(IV) concentration and the electrogeneration of H 2 O 2 were calculated in this study. The optimum current density, initial Ce(III) concentration, nitric acid concentration, oxygen flow rate, and UV irradiation intensity were found to be 3 mA cm −2 , 0.01 M, 0.3 M, 500 cm 3 min −1 , and 1.2 mW cm −2 , respectively. The synergistic effect of combination process of MEO and PEO would be as a promising alternative for the removal efficiency of PVA.
    International Journal of Photoenergy 01/2015; 2015(6):1-9. DOI:10.1155/2015/623492 · 1.56 Impact Factor
  • Kuang-Hua Hsueh · Wei-Chun Chen · Shang-Hao Liu · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: Having two active peroxide groups, 1,1-bis(tert-butylperoxy)cyclohexane (BTBPC) has a certain degree of thermal instability. It is usually used as an initiator in a chemical process, and therefore, careless operation could result in severe accidents. This study emphasized the runaway reactions of BTBPC 70 mass% (4.5–5.2 mg), the relevant thermokinetic parameters, and the thermal safety parameters. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to evaluate the above-mentioned thermokinetic parameters, using four low heating rates (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 °C min−1) combined with kinetic simulation method. The results indicated that apparent exothermic onset temperature (T o), apparent activation energy (E a), and heat of decomposition (ΔH d) were ca. 118 °C, 156 kJ mol−1, and 1,080 kJ kg−1, respectively. In view of process loss prevention, at the low heating rates of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 °C min−1, storing BTBPC 70 mass% below 27.27 °C is a more reassuring approach.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 12/2014; 118(3):1675-1683. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-4045-3 · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Shang-Hao Liu · Chi-Min Shu · Hung-Yi Hou ·
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    ABSTRACT: In 2011, a large petrochemical complex in Taiwan incurred several fire and explosion accidents, which had considerable negative impact for the industry on both environmental and safety issues. Reactive substances are widely used in many chemical industrial fields as an initiator, hardeners, or cross-linking agents of radical polymerization process with unsaturated monomer. However, the unpredictable factors during the process having risk to runaway reaction, thermal explosion, fire, and exposure to harmful toxic chemicals release due to the huge heat and gas products by thermal decomposition could not be removed from the process. This study used differential technology of thermal analysis to characterize the inherent hazard behaviors of azo compounds and organic peroxides in the process, to seek the elimination of the source of the harmful effects and achieve the best process safety practices with zero disaster and sound business continuity plan.
    Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 11/2014; 33. DOI:10.1016/j.jlp.2014.11.007 · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • Kai-Yu Huang · Wei-Lung Chou · Chih-Ta Wang · Chi-Min Shu ·
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the electrogeneration of Ce(IV) and its application on the destruction of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in an undivided electrochemical cell. The effects of electric current, concentration of nitric acid, and temperature on PVA destruction efficiency were investigated and the corresponding specific energy consumptions (SEC) were also evaluated. The experimental results indicate that the PVA destruction increased with increasing the applied current, the concentration of nitric acid, and decreasing the temperature. When considering the PVA destruction efficiency and the corresponding SEC simultaneously, the best operating condition was found by 92% at the optimal applied current 0.1 A, concentration of nitric acid 0.5 M, and temperature 323 K, respectively. A pseudo-first-order kinetic model provided a good fit to the experimental results at various temperatures. The activation energy was calculated to be 78.27 kJ mol−1, based on pseudo-first-order rate constants from the Arrhenius equation.
    Desalination and water treatment 11/2014; DOI:10.1080/19443994.2014.980328 · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid development of the petrochemical industry of Taiwan over the past four decades has resulted in a booming economy in Taiwan that drives derived industries to develop progressively. However, it has also caused many runaway reaction accidents, such as toxic gas release, fire, and explosion. It is crucial to eliminate those potential hazard factors which can induce consequent runaway reaction accidents during the life span of the manufacturing process. In response to this crucial issue, we performed a thermokinetic parameter analysis for 1,1-bis-(tert-butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane at isothermal conditions to conduct a thermal safety assessment of chemical materials. The five isothermal temperatures, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 °C, measured by DSC, were adopted in this study to calculate process safety parameters, including TMRad, T NR, and SADT, which can be employed in process safety parameters for the manufacturing process. A novel, green kinetic approach accompanied with non-isothermal DSC results is used to derive thermokinetic parameters in safety protocol in this study.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 11/2014; 118(2):1085-1094. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3744-0 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1,1-bis(tert-Butylperoxy)-3,3,5-trimethylcyclohexane (TMCH) is commonly used as a crosslinking agent or an initiator of the heat-curing agent for polybutadiene rubber. Metal ions that remain in the pipelines or containers of manufacturing processes may affect the thermal stability of the organic peroxides. Moreover, pipelines or metal containers may contain some metal ions because of inner corrosive chemicals or surface deterioration, which may induce a chemical reaction, while TMCH is mixed with them. To avoid these unexpected chemical reactions, we focused on the thermal hazard analysis of TMCH mixed with metal ions, such as nickel(II) bromide or copper(II) bromide. The experiments can determine thermokinetic parameters, including exothermic onset temperature (T (0)), maximum temperature (T (max)), and heat of decomposition (Delta H (d)), under non-isothermal conditions by differential scanning calorimetry. Non-isothermal experimental results combined with isoconversional kinetic analysis can acquire further safety parameters, such as apparent activation energy (E (a)) and time to maximum heating rate. The results of this study could be used as a proactive case for the storage of TMCH mixed with metal ions.
    Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 11/2014; 118(2):1003-1010. DOI:10.1007/s10973-014-3813-4 · 2.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
275.72 Total Impact Points


  • 2010-2015
    • R.D. University
      Jubbulpore, Madhya Pradesh, India
  • 2000-2015
    • National Yunlin University of Science and Technology
      • Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering
      Tou-liu, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2014
    • Western Kentucky University
      • Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology
      Боулинг-Грин, Kentucky, United States
    • Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Taiwan
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2002
    • Jen-Teh Junior College Of Medicine, Nursing And Management
      Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan