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ABSTRACT: In a cross-sectional study design we test the hypothesis of whether obesity in adolescence is associated with periodontal risk indicators or disease.
Obese adolescents (n=52) and normal weight subjects (n=52) with a mean age of 14.5 years were clinically examined with respect to dental plaque, gingival inflammation, periodontal pockets and incipient alveolar bone loss. The subjects answered a questionnaire concerning medical conditions, oral hygiene habits, smoking habits and sociodemographic background. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and adjusted for age and gender (BMI-SDS). Samples of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were analyzed for the levels of adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), interleukin-1β (IL-β), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α).
Obese subjects exhibited more gingival inflammation (P<0.001) and more pathological periodontal pockets (>4 mm) (P<0.001) but not incipient alveolar bone loss compared with the normal weight subjects. Higher levels of IL-1β (P<0.001) and IL-8 (P=0.002) were measured in GCF from obese subjects compared with the controls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, adjusted BMI-SDS (P=0.03; Odds Ratio [OR]=1.87) was significantly associated with the occurrence of pathological periodontal pockets.
The study demonstrates an association between obesity and periodontal risk indicators in adolescents that in the long term may lead to oral morbidity. This result further strengthens obesity's negative effect on teenagers' periodontal health and highlights the importance of a close collaboration between dentists and pediatricians in the prevention and treatment of obesity.
International journal of pediatric obesity: IJPO: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 06/2011; 6(2-2):e264-70. · 2.00 Impact Factor