[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bisubstrate-type compound Lys-CoA has been shown to inhibit the p300 histone acetyl transferase activity efficiently and may constitute a lead compound for a novel class of anticancer therapeutics. Based on this strategy, we synthesized a series of CoA derivatives and evaluated these molecules for their activity as p300 histone acetyltransferases inhibitor. The best activity was obtained with compound 3 bearing a C-5 spacing linker that connects the CoA moiety to a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group. Based on docking simulations, this inhibitor exhibits favorable interactions with two binding areas, namely pockets P1 and P2, within the active site.
Chemical Biology & Drug Design 01/2011; 77(1):86-92. · 2.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In continuation of our study on medicinal plants of Cameroon, stem barks of Polyalthia suaveolens were phytochemically studied. This investigation yielded a new indolosesquiterpene alkaloid, named polysin (1) and four hitherto known alkaloids (2-5). Polysin (1) appeared as a competitive reversible inhibitor (K(i)=10 microM) of phosphofructo kinase (PFK) of Trypanosoma brucei with respect to fructose-6-phosphate (K(i)/K(M)=0.05) and could be used in the design of new trypanocidal drugs. The other isolated compounds (2-5) also exhibited interesting inhibitory effects on selected glycolytic enzymes (PFK, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and aldolase).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetyl group turnover on specific lysine epsilon-amino groups of the core chromosomal histones regulates DNA accessibility function, and the acetylating and deacetylating enzymes that govern the turnover provide important targets for the development of anti-cancer drugs. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been developed and evaluated extensively in clinical trials, while the development of inhibitors of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) has proceeded more slowly. Here we have examined the cellular effects of an S-substituted coenzyme A (CoA) inhibitor of histone acetylation, consisting of spermidine (Spd) linked to the S-terminus of CoA through a thioglycolic acid linkage (adduct abbreviated as Spd-CoA), as well as the effects of a truncated Spd-CoA derivative lacking the negatively charged portion of the CoA moiety. While exposure of cancer cells to Spd-CoA has little effect on cell viability, it causes a rapid inhibition of histone acetylation that correlates with a transient arrest of DNA synthesis, a transient delay in S-phase progression, and an inhibition of nucleotide excision repair and DNA double strand break repair. These effects correlate with increased cellular sensitivity to the DNA-targeted chemotherapeutic drugs, cisplatin (Platinol()) and 5-fluorouracil, to the DNA damaging drug, camptothecin, and to UV-C irradiation. The sensitization effects of Spd-CoA are not observed in normal cells due to a barrier to uptake. The truncated Spd-CoA derivative displays similar but enhanced chemosensitization effects, suggesting that further modifications of the Spd-CoA structure could further improve potency. The results demonstrate that Spd-CoA and its truncated version are efficiently and selectively internalized into cancer cells, and suggest that the resulting inhibition of acetylation-dependent DNA repair enhances cellular sensitivity to DNA damage. These and related inhibitors of histone acetylation could therefore constitute a novel class of potent therapy sensitizers applicable to a broad range of conventional cancer treatments.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate muscle aldolase is an essential glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes reversible carbon-carbon bond formation by cleaving fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to yield dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde phosphate. To elucidate the mechanistic role of conserved amino acid Asp-33, Asn-33 and Ser-33 mutants were examined by kinetic and structural analyses. The mutations significantly compromised enzymatic activity and carbanion oxidation in presence of DHAP. Detailed structural analysis demonstrated that, like native crystals, Asp-33 mutant crystals, soaked in DHAP solutions, trapped Schiff base-derived intermediates covalently attached to Lys-229. The mutant structures, however, exhibited an abridged conformational change with the helical region (34-65) flanking the active site as well as pK(a) reductions and increased side chain disorder by central lysine residues, Lys-107 and Lys-146. These changes directly affect their interaction with the C-terminal Tyr-363, consistent with the absence of active site binding by the C-terminal region in the presence of phosphate. Lys-146 pK(a) reduction and side chain disorder would further compromise charge stabilization during C-C bond cleavage and proton transfer during enamine formation. These mechanistic impediments explain diminished catalytic activity and a reduced level of carbanion oxidation and are consistent with rate-determining proton transfer observed in the Asn-33 mutant. Asp-33 reduces the entropic cost and augments the enthalpic gain during catalysis by rigidifying Lys-107 and Lys-146, stabilizing their protonated forms, and promoting a conformational change triggered by substrate or obligate product binding, which lower kinetic barriers in C-C bond cleavage and Schiff base-enamine interconversion.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In an attempt to establish the components responsible for the use of Enantia chlorantha against cutaneous leishmaniasis in local traditional medicine, a well-known palmatine has been isolated in substantial amounts from a methanolic bark extract of this plant species. Palmatine therein obtained exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on growth of both Trypanosoma cruzi (IC(50) 0.068 microM) and Leishmania infantum (IC(50) 0.79 microM).
Natural product research 02/2009; 23(12):1144-50. · 1.01 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preparation of a phosphorylated alpha-dicarbonyl compound designed to specifically react with arginine residues of enzymes accepting phosphorylated compounds as effectors is reported, and shown to inhibit rabbit muscle aldolase in a time-dependent and irreversible manner. This irreversible inhibition occured in a buffer devoid of borate ions, suggesting that the presence of the phosphate moiety contributes in the stabilization of the adduct formed with arginine residues. Under the same conditions, the metalloenzyme iron superoxide dismutase, in which an arginine is known to be critical for the catalytic function, is not significantly inhibited.
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 03/2008; 23(1):21-7. · 1.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A procedure for the introduction of two different alkyl chains (myristyl, oleyl and phytanyl) leading to heterodialkyl‐H‐phosphonates is reported, based on two successive transesterification reactions of commercially available diphenyl‐H‐phosphonate with the corresponding alcohols.
Synthetic Communications - SYN COMMUN. 01/2008; 38(11):1688-1693.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new route to functionalized iso(thio)chromans is described. The compounds are accessible easily in a one pot-reaction by using different benzaldehydes and phenylethanethiol or phenylethanol in presence of bismuth triflate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The preparation of a series of novel water soluble cationic lipid derivatives possessing phosphonate ester groups linked to the para-position of N-methyl pyridinium moieties and bearing either identical or different alkyl chains is reported. The obtained phospholipids were tested for transfection efficiency into three different mammalian cell lines alone and in conjunction with diphytanoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DiPPE) or dioleylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE), using an assay adapted for 96-well microplates based on the detection of a colorimetric change caused by the production of a chromogen induced by expressed secreted human placental alkaline phosphatase. In our conditions, the highest transfection activities of cells HEK293 and hard-to-transfect cell lines B16 and CHO were achieved with a 4-phosphonobutylpyridinium compound used at 1:5, 1:10 or 3:6 DNA/lipid ratio bearing two myristyl chains in the presence of the fusogenic helper lipid DiPPE.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 12/2007; 43(8):1758-66. · 3.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Enolase is a validated drug target in Trypanosoma brucei. To better characterize its properties and guide drug design efforts, we have determined six new crystal structures of the enzyme, in various ligation states and conformations, and have carried out complementary molecular dynamics simulations. The results show a striking structural diversity of loops near the catalytic site, for which variation can be interpreted as distinct modes of conformational variability that are explored during the molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that sulfate may, unexpectedly, induce full closure of catalytic site loops whereas, conversely, binding of inhibitor phosphonoacetohydroxamate may leave open a tunnel from the catalytic site to protein surface offering possibilities for drug development. We also present the first complex of enolase with a novel inhibitor 2-fluoro-2-phosphonoacetohydroxamate. The molecular dynamics results further encourage efforts to design irreversible species-specific inhibitors: they reveal that a parasite enzyme-specific lysine may approach the catalytic site more closely than crystal structures suggest and also cast light on the issue of accessibility of parasite enzyme-specific cysteines to chemically modifying reagents. One of the new sulfate structures contains a novel metal-binding site IV within the catalytic site cleft.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of four prodrugs directed against Trypanosoma brucei aldolase bearing various transient enzyme-labile phosphate protecting groups was developed. Herein, we describe the synthesis and evaluation of cell permeation of these prodrugs. The oxymethyl derivative was the most efficient prodrug with a good recovering of the free drug (IC(50)=20 microM) and without any measurable cytotoxicity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An irreversible competitive inhibitor hydroxynaphthaldehyde phosphate was synthesized that is highly selective against the glycolytic enzyme fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from Trypanosoma brucei (causative agent of sleeping sickness). Inhibition involves Schiff base formation by the inhibitor aldehyde with Lys116 followed by reaction of the resultant Schiff base with a second residue. Molecular simulations indicate significantly greater molecular geometries conducive for nucleophilic attack in T. brucei aldolase than the mammalian isozyme and suggest Ser48 as the Schiff base modifying residue.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 04/2006; 49(5):1499-502. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dihydroxyacetone-phosphate and phosphonate derivatives were synthesized bearing a N-sulfonyl hydroxamate moiety. The phosphate derivatives represent competitive inhibitors for the class II-FBP aldolase catalyzed reaction, while the phosphonate isosteres are comparatively weaker inhibitors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interactions of phosphate derivatives of 2,6-dihydroxynaphthalene (NA-P(2)) and 1,6-dihydroxy-2-naphthaldehyde (HNA-P, phosphate at position 6) with fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from rabbit muscle were analyzed by enzyme kinetics, difference spectroscopy, site-directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometry, and molecular dynamics. Enzyme activity was competitively inhibited by NA-P(2), whereas HNA-P exhibited slow-binding inhibition with an overall inhibition constant of approximately 24 nM. HNA-P inactivation was very slowly reversed with t(1/2) approximately 10 days. Mass spectrometry and spectrophotometric absorption indicated that HNA-P inactivation occurs by Schiff base formation. Rates of enzyme inactivation and Schiff base formation by HNA-P were identical and corresponded to approximately 4 HNA-P molecules bound par aldolase tetramer at maximal inhibition. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved active site lysine residues 107, 146, and 229 and Asp-33 indicated that Schiff base formation by HNA-P involved Lys-107 and was promoted by Lys-146. Titration of Lys-107 by pyridoxal 5-phosphate yielded a microscopic pK(a) approximately 8 for Lys-107, corroborating a role as nucleophile at pH 7.6. Site-directed mutagenesis of Ser-271, an active site residue that binds the C(1)-phosphate of dihydroxyacetone phosphate, diminished HNA-P binding and enabled modeling of HNA-P in the active site. Molecular dynamics showed persistent HNA-P phosphate interactions with the C(1)-phosphate binding site in the noncovalent adduct. The naphthaldehyde hydroxyl, ortho to the HNA-P aldehyde, was essential for promoting carbinolamine precursor formation by intramolecular catalysis. The simulations indicate a slow rate of enzyme inactivation due to competitive inhibition by the phenate form of HNA-P, infrequent nucleophilic attack in the phenol form, and significant conformational barrier to bond formation as well as electrostatic destabilization of protonated ketimine intermediates. Solvent accessibility by Lys-107 Nz was reduced in the covalent Schiff base complex, and in those instances where water molecules interacted with Lys-107 in the simulations, Schiff base hydrolysis was not mechanistically favorable. The findings at the molecular level corroborate the observed mechanism of slow-binding tight inhibition by HNA-P of muscle aldolase and should serve as a blueprint for future aldolase inhibitor design.