Carolyn Westhoff

Columbia University, New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (161)617.26 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Although fertility drugs stimulate ovulation and raise estradiol levels, their effect on breast cancer risk remains unresolved. An extended follow-up was conducted among a cohort of 12,193 women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and 1988 at five U.S. sites. Follow-up through 2010 was achieved for 9,892 women (81.1% of the eligible population) via passive as well as active (questionnaires) means. Cox regression determined HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for fertility treatments adjusted for breast cancer risk factors and causes of infertility. During 30.0 median years of follow-up (285,332 person-years), 749 breast cancers were observed. Ever use of clomiphene citrate among 38.1% of patients was not associated with risk (HR = 1.05; 95% CI, 0.90-1.22 vs. never use). However, somewhat higher risks were seen for patients who received multiple cycles, with the risk for invasive cancers confirmed by medical records being significantly elevated (HR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.17-2.46). This risk remained relatively unchanged after adjustment for causes of infertility and multiple breast cancer predictors. Gonadotropins, used by 9.6% of patients, mainly in conjunction with clomiphene, showed inconsistent associations with risk, although a significant relationship of use with invasive cancers was seen among women who remained nulligravid (HR = 1.98; 95% CI, 1.04-3.60). Although the increased breast cancer risk among nulligravid women associated with gonadotropins most likely reflects an effect of underlying causes of infertility, reasons for the elevated risk associated with multiple clomiphene cycles are less clear. Given our focus on a relatively young population, additional evaluation of long-term fertility drug effects on breast cancer is warranted. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(4); 584-93. ©2014 AACR.
    Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers &amp Prevention 04/2014; 23(4):584-93. · 4.56 Impact Factor
  • Kelli Stidham Hall, Paula M Castaño, Carolyn L Westhoff
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Using a multidimensional approach, we assessed young women's knowledge of oral contraceptives (OC) and its influence on OC continuation rates. Methods: We used data from 659 women aged 13-25 years participating in a randomized controlled trial of an educational text message OC continuation intervention. Women received 6 months of daily text messages or routine care. At baseline and 6 months, we administered a comprehensive 41-item questionnaire measuring knowledge of OC's mechanism, effectiveness, use, side effects, risks, and benefits. We ascertained OC continuation status and reasons for discontinuation at 6 months. We analyzed relationships between OC knowledge and continuation with multivariable logistic regression. Results: Young women scored, on average, 22.8 out of 41 points on the OC knowledge assessment at baseline and 24.7 points at 6 months. The 6-month OC continuation rate was 59%. OC continuers had >2-points-higher OC knowledge scores at 6 months than discontinuers (p<0.001). Those who reported discontinuing their OCs for side effects and forgetfulness scored >2 points lower than women who discontinued for other reasons (p-values<0.001). In multivariable regression models, each correct response on the baseline and 6-month knowledge assessments was associated with a 4% and 6% increased odds of OC continuation, respectively. Six-month OC knowledge scores were negatively associated with OC discontinuation due to side effects (odds ratio [OR] 0.94) and forgetfulness (OR 0.88). Conclusions: OC knowledge, which was low among young women in our study, was associated with OC continuation and common reasons for discontinuation. Continued efforts to characterize relationships between OC knowledge and behavior and to test the effectiveness of different components of interventions aimed at increasing knowledge, addressing side effects, and improving use of OCs are warranted.
    Journal of Women s Health 02/2014; · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To compare a new low-dose levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol contraceptive patch (Patch) with a combination oral contraceptive (Pill; 100 micrograms levonorgestrel, 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol) regarding efficacy, safety, compliance, and unscheduled uterine bleeding. Women (17-40 years; body mass index 16-60) were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to one of two groups: Patch only (13 cycles) or Pill (six cycles) followed by Patch (seven cycles). Investigators evaluated adverse events during cycles 2, 4, 6, 9, and 13. Participants recorded drug administration and uterine bleeding on daily diary cards. Compliance was assessed by measuring levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol plasma levels. Pearl Index (pregnancies per 100 woman-years) was calculated to evaluate efficacy. Participants (N=1,504) were randomized to Patch (n=1,129) or Pill (n=375). Approximately 30% were obese, more than 40% were racial or ethnic minorities, and more than 55% were new users of hormonal contraceptives. Laboratory-verified noncompliance (undetectable plasma drug levels) was 11% of Patch and 12.6% of Pill users at cycle 6. Pearl Indices (95% confidence intervals) for the intention-to-treat population (cycles 1-6) were 4.45 (2.34-6.57) for Patch and 4.02 (0.50-7.53) for Pill; excluding laboratory-verified noncompliant participants, Pearl Indices were 2.82 (0.98-4.67) for Patch and 3.80 (0.08-7.52) for Pill (differences not statistically significant). Incidence of unscheduled bleeding and incidence and severity of adverse events were similar for both contraceptives (no statistically significant difference). Efficacy and safety of the new contraceptive Patch are comparable to those of a Pill. Laboratory-verified noncompliance and bleeding profile are similar between the two treatments. The Patch was well tolerated.,, NCT01181479. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: I.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2014; · 4.80 Impact Factor
  • Carolyn L Westhoff
    Contraception 01/2014; 89(1):1-2. · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Noa’a Shimoni, Anne Davis, Carolyn Westhoff
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Our randomized trial compared early and delayed IUD insertion following medical abortion. In this planned sub-study, we explore if endometrial thickness and initial IUD position were associated with IUD expulsion. We also describe IUD movement within the uterus during the six months after insertion. Study Design We recruited women undergoing medical abortion and choosing the copper IUD for contraception (n = 156). Participants were randomly assigned to early insertion one week after mifepristone or delayed insertion 4–6 weeks later. We measured endometrial thickness by transvaginal sonogram one week after abortion, and IUD distance from the fundal aspect of the endometrial cavity three times: at insertion, 6–8 weeks later, and at 6 months. Results We analyzed endometrial thickness in 113 women, baseline IUD position in 114 women, and IUD movement in 65 women. Women who expelled IUDs (n = 15) had slightly thicker endometria (p = .007) and slightly lower baseline IUD positions (p = .03) than those who retained IUDs, but no clear cutoffs emerged in the ROC analysis. Retained IUDs commonly moved up and down throughout the six months (from 14 mm towards the fundus to 32 mm towards the cervix ). Overall, retained IUDs moved a median of 2 mm towards the cervix between insertion and exit (p < .0001). Conclusions After medical abortion, the risk of IUD expulsion increases with thicker endometria and lower baseline position. Since no clear cutoffs emerged in the analysis and expulsion remained uncommon even with thicker endometria, we do not recommend restricting IUD insertion based on ultrasound data. Implication Copper T IUDs often move within the uterus without expelling. Expulsion is uncommon and we do not recommend restricting IUD insertion based on ultrasound data.
    Contraception 01/2014; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate feasibility, acceptability, continuation, and trough serum levels following self-administration of subcutaneous (SC) depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). Study Design Women presenting to a family planning clinic to initiate, restart, or continue DMPA were offered study entry. Participants were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to self or clinician administered SC DMPA 104mg. Those randomized to self-administration were taught to self-inject and were supervised in performing the initial injection; they received printed instructions and a supply of contraceptive injections for home use. Participants randomized to clinician administration received usual care. Continued DMPA use was assessed by self-report and trough MPA levels at six and twelve months. Results 250 women were invited to participate and 137 (55%) enrolled. Of these, 91 were allocated to self-administration, and 90/91 were able to correctly self-administer SC DMPA. Eighty-seven percent completed follow-up. DMPA use at one year was 71% for the self-administration group and 63% for the clinic group (p=0.47). Uninterrupted DMPA use was 47% and 48% for the self and clinic administration groups at one year (p = 0.70), respectively. Serum analyses confirmed similar mean DMPA levels in both groups and therapeutic trough levels in all participants. Conclusions Sixty-three percent of women approached were interested in trying self-administration of DMPA, even in the context of a randomized trial, and nearly all eligible for enrollment were successful at doing so. Self-administration and clinic administration resulted in similar continuation rates and similar DMPA serum levels. Self-administration of SC-DMPA is feasible, and may be an attractive alternative for many women. Implications Self-administration of SC DMPA is a feasible and attractive option for many women. Benefits include increased control over contraceptive measures and less time spent on contracepting behaviors. Globally, self-administration has the potential to revolutionize contraceptive uptake by increasing the number of women with access to DMPA.
    Contraception 01/2014; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We evaluated the impact of influenza vaccine text message reminders in a low-income obstetric population. Methods. We conducted a randomized controlled trial that enrolled 1187 obstetric patients from 5 community-based clinics in New York City. The intervention group received 5 weekly text messages regarding influenza vaccination starting mid-September 2011 and 2 text message appointment reminders. Both groups received standard automated telephone appointment reminders. The prespecified endpoints were receipt of either pre- or postpartum influenza vaccination calculated cumulatively at the end of each month (September-December 2011). Results. After adjusting for gestational age and number of clinic visits, women who received the intervention were 30% more likely to be vaccinated as of December 2011 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.003, 1.69 end of September: AOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.85; October: AOR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.05, 1.75; November: AOR = 1.27; 95% CI = 0.98, 1.65). The subgroup of women early in the third trimester at randomization showed the greatest intervention effect (December 31: 61.9% intervention vs 49.0% control; AOR = 1.88; 95% CI = 1.12, 3.15). Conclusions. In this low-income obstetric population, text messaging was associated with increased influenza vaccination, especially in those who received messages early in their third trimester. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print December 19, 2013: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301620).
    American Journal of Public Health 12/2013; · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Elizabeth R Mayeda, Anupama H Torgal, Carolyn L Westhoff
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Oral contraceptive (OC) use seems to have little effect on weight change in normal weight women. Most previous studies have excluded obese women, so the effect of OC use on weight change in obese women is unknown. Methods: This analysis evaluates weight and body composition change with OC use among obese (body mass index [BMI] 30.0-39.9) and normal weight (BMI 19.0-24.9) women who were randomly assigned to two OC doses: 20 μg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 100 μg levonorgestrel (LNG) OCs or 30 μg EE and 150 μg LNG OCs. Follow-up occurred after three to four OC cycles. Weight and body composition were measured at baseline and at follow-up using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Results: Among 150 women (54 obese and 96 normal weight) who used OCs for 3 to 4 months, there were no clinically or statistically significant weight or body composition changes in the overall group or by BMI or OC formulation group. Conclusions: These findings add to evidence that EE/LNG OCs are not associated with short term weight or body composition change for normal weight women and suggest that OCs are also are not associated with short term weight or body composition change in obese women.
    Journal of Women s Health 10/2013; · 1.42 Impact Factor
  • Paula M Castaño, Carolyn L Westhoff
    Contraception 10/2013; 88(4):475-6. · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Etonogestrel (ENG) is a progestin used in the contraceptive vaginal ring NuvaRing and the subdermal implant Implanon. A sensitive method for measuring ENG is useful for further investigating the progestin's pharmacokinetics with these alternative contraceptive formulations and generating important information about possible continued efficacy or potential failure to remove the subdermal implant. Standards and serum samples were spiked with D8-progesterone (internal standard) and subsequently extracted with dichloromethane, dried, and reconstituted in 25% methanol with formic acid. ENG was analyzed by positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode with a run time of 5.5 minutes using a C18 BEH column. The mobile phase was a gradient of water:acetonitrile, with 0.1% formic acid. The method was applied successfully to study the pharmacokinetics of ENG during vaginal ring use. The method was also used in routine patient care to assess ENG levels. The method is linear from 50 to 2000 pg/mL. The limits of detection and quantification are 25 and 50 pg/mL, respectively. There was no observed ionization suppression within the linear range of the assay, and the average recovery was 87%. Serum ENG levels of n = 3 subjects were all within the linear range of the assay for a total study period of 42 days after insertion of the ring. Of n = 20 patients with nonpalpable subdermal implants, n = 13 had ENG levels >25 pg/mL, whereas n = 7 had levels <25 pg/mL. We developed a rapid, sensitive, and robust ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of ENG in serum that is useful to study the progestin's pharmacokinetics and inform physicians about successful implantation or potential failure to remove a subdermal device.
    Therapeutic drug monitoring 09/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Providers often underestimate patient pain. This study investigated if providers accurately assess pain during intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial. Participants rated pain on a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Providers marked a similar VAS for maximum level and timing of participant pain. The mean patient maximum pain was 64.8 mm (SD, 27) compared to 35.3 mm (SD, 26) rated by the provider (p<.001). Patient and provider agreement on most painful time point of procedure was weak (kappa statistic, 0.16). Providers underestimate pain during IUD insertion. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to compare provider and patient perceptions of pain during IUD insertion. Understanding this relationship will help guide further research about IUD insertion pain and techniques and could improve patient counseling.
    Contraception 09/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • American journal of epidemiology 09/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An estimated 80% of sexually active young women in the United States use hormonal contraceptives during their reproductive years. Associations between hormonal contraceptive use and mood disturbances remain understudied, despite the hypothesis that estrogen and progesterone play a role in mood problems. In this study, we used data from 6,654 sexually active nonpregnant women across 4 waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-2008), focusing on women aged 25-34 years. Women were asked about hormonal contraceptive use in the context of a current sexual partnership; thus, contraceptive users were compared with other sexually active women who were using either nonhormonal contraception or no contraception. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. At ages 25-34 years, hormonal contraceptive users had lower mean levels of concurrent depressive symptoms (β = -1.04, 95% confidence interval: -1.73, -0.35) and were less likely to report a past-year suicide attempt (odds ratio = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.14, 0.95) than women using low-efficacy contraception or no contraception, in models adjusted for propensity scores for hormonal contraceptive use. Longitudinal analyses indicated that associations between hormonal contraception and depressive symptoms were stable. Hormonal contraception may reduce levels of depressive symptoms among young women. Systematic investigation of exogenous hormones as a potential preventive factor in psychiatric epidemiology is warranted.
    American journal of epidemiology 09/2013; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the relationship of ovulation-inducing drugs and ovarian cancer. Retrospective cohort study, with additional follow-up since initial report. Five large reproductive endocrinology practices. In a retrospective cohort of 9,825 women evaluated for infertility at five clinical sites in the United States between 1965 and 1988 with follow-up through 2010, we examined the relationship of ovulation-inducing drugs and ovarian cancer (n = 85). None. Hazard rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ovarian cancer. Among women evaluated for infertility, there was no association of ovarian cancer risk with ever use of clomiphene citrate (CC) (adjusted RR 1.34, 95% CI 0.86-2.07) or gonadotropins (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.48-2.08) and no evidence that any of several more detailed subgroups of usage were related to an increased risk with one exception: women who used CC and remained nulligravid did demonstrate much higher risks than those who successfully conceived compared with nonusers (respectively, RR 3.63, 95% CI 1.36-9.72 vs. RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.47-1.63). Our overall results were reassuring and consistent with other studies. A reason for an association between CC use and ovarian cancer among persistently nulligravid women remains to be determined. Given the large and increasing number of women treated with ovulation-inducing drugs, the increased risk of ovarian cancer among the subset of women who remained nulligravid should be further monitored.
    Fertility and sterility 09/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Do fertility drugs influence the subsequent risk of endometrial cancer in a manner that is independent of other risk predictors, such as parity? In this follow-up of a large cohort of women evaluated for infertility and for whom information was captured on fertility drugs, indications for usage and other risk factors that might influence cancer risk, we found no evidence for a substantial relationship between fertility drug use and endometrial cancer risk. Although the hormonal etiology of endometrial cancer has been well established, it remains unclear whether the use of fertility drugs has an influence on risk. Results regarding the effects of fertility drugs on endometrial cancer risk have been inconsistent, although several studies have shown some evidence for possible increases in risk. The relationship is of particular interest given that clomiphene, a commonly prescribed drug, is a selective estrogen receptor modulator, with chemical properties similar to tamoxifen, another drug linked to an increase in endometrial cancer risk. In a retrospective cohort of 12 193 women evaluated for infertility between 1965 and 1988 at five US sites, follow-up was pursued through 2010 via both passive as well as active (questionnaire) means. Among the 9832 subjects for whom follow-up was allowed and achieved, 259 346 at-risk person-years (i.e. prior to hysterectomy) were accrued, and 118 invasive endometrial cancers identified. Cox regression determined hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for fertility treatments adjusted for endometrial cancer risk factors and causes of infertility. Although we observed slight increases in endometrial cancer risk associated with clomiphene (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.96-2.01) and the less commonly prescribed gonadotrophins (1.34, 0.76-2.37), there were no convincing relationships of risk with either cycles of use or cumulative exposures for either drug. A statistically significant risk associated with the use of clomiphene among women who began use at younger ages (<30) (1.93, 1.24-3.00) may have reflected indications for drug usage rather than the effect of the drug itself. Women who received clomiphene followed by gonadotrophins were at a non-significantly elevated risk (1.77, 0.98-3.19). Like most studies of endometrial cancer, we were limited by sample sizes, particularly for evaluating subgroup associations. We were also unable to follow all women and were not able to obtain complete risk factor information (including hysterectomy status) for the entire cohort. Although we found no support for a relationship between fertility drugs and endometrial cancer risk, the association should continue to be monitored given that our study population was still young and had not yet reached the age of peak endometrial cancer incidence. This project was supported in part by funds from the intramural research program of the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any conflicting interests to declare.
    Human Reproduction 08/2013; · 4.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Prior data suggest that opportunities in family planning training may be limited during obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) residency training, particularly at faith-based institutions with moral and ethical constraints, although this aspect of the Ob-Gyn curriculum has not been formally studied to date. We compared Ob-Gyn residents' self-rated competency and intentions to provide family planning procedures at faith-based versus those of residents at non-faith-based programs. We surveyed residents at all 20 Ob-Gyn programs in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Wisconsin from 2008 to 2009. Residents were queried about current skills and future plans to perform family planning procedures. We examined associations based on program and residents' personal characteristics and performed multivariable logistic regression analysis. A total of 232 of 340 residents (68%) from 17 programs (85%) returned surveys. Seven programs were faith-based. Residents from non-faith-based programs were more likely to be completely satisfied with family planning training (odds ratio [OR] = 3.4, 95% confidence limit [CI], 1.9-6.2) and to report they "understand and can perform on own" most procedures. Most residents, regardless of program type, planned to provide all surveyed family planning services. Despite similar intentions to provide family planning procedures after graduation, residents at faith-based training programs were less satisfied with their family planning training and rate their ability to perform family planning services lower than residents at non-faith-based training programs.
    Journal of graduate medical education. 06/2013; 5(2):244-251.
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    ABSTRACT: High prevalence of chlamydia in the USA persists despite efforts to annually screen women under the age of 26. Tailoring sexually transmitted infection (STI) services to client preferences may strengthen existing programmes. We report women's preferences for STI services from a family planning clinic in New York City serving low-income women. Seventy-eight percent (995/1275) of eligible women participated, with a mean age of 26 (SD±7). Ninety-one percent self-identified as Latina. Nineteen percent reported a past STI. Women preferred self-collection (65%) for testing to a speculum exam (20%); 15% had no preference. Women with a previous STI were more likely to prefer a pelvic exam to women with no previous STI (50% versus 32%, P < 0.01). Nearly all women (94%) preferred informing a sex partner about a positive STI test themselves, but 88% were willing to bring expedited partner therapy to a partner. Women were more likely to prefer third party partner notification if their last partner was casual rather than a main partner (14% versus 3%, respectively, P < 0.01). Forty-four percent of participants worried about physical violence after partner notification. Self-collecting specimens for screening was widely acceptable. Partner notification strategies should be based on understanding partnership status, including fears of violence.
    International Journal of STD & AIDS 06/2013; 24(6):455-60. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.
    Journal of graduate medical education. 06/2013; 5(2):238-243.
  • Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 04/2013; · 2.10 Impact Factor
  • The European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care 04/2013; · 1.81 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
617.26 Total Impact Points


  • 2000–2014
    • Columbia University
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • College of Physicians and Surgeons
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
      New York, United States
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Princeton University
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
    • The University of Manchester
      • Manchester Medical School
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2013
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Urology
      New York City, New York, United States
    • University of Rochester
      • Department of Family Medicine
      Rochester, NY, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Miami, FL, United States
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Irvine, CA, United States
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • University of Colorado
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Denver, Colorado, United States
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
    • Devry College of New York, USA
      New York City, New York, United States
    • Sahlgrenska University Hospital
      Goeteborg, Västra Götaland, Sweden
  • 2011
    • Baystate Medical Center
      • Department of Obstetrics-Gynecology
      Springfield, Massachusetts, United States
    • West Georgia Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Georgetown, Georgia, United States
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Houston, TX, United States
    • University of California, San Francisco
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2010–2011
    • Medical University of South Carolina
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Charleston, SC, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Coral Gables, FL, United States
    • University of Cape Town
      • School of Public Health and Family Medicine
      Cape Town, Province of the Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2009
    • ZEG – Berlin Center for Epidemiology and Health Research
      Berlín, Berlin, Germany
    • University of Groningen
      • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
      Groningen, Province of Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2008
    • Mount Sinai Medical Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences
      Pittsburgh, PA, United States
  • 2001–2008
    • CUNY Graduate Center
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2005
    • Rutgers New Jersey Medical School
      • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      Newark, NJ, United States
    • University of Utah
      • College of Nursing
      Salt Lake City, UT, United States
  • 2004–2005
    • National Cancer Institute (USA)
      • • Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics
      • • Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2000–2001
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      Portland, Oregon, United States