[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The steroid hormone ecdysone and its receptor (EcR) play critical roles in orchestrating developmental transitions in arthropods. However, the mechanism by which EcR integrates nutritional and developmental cues to correctly activate transcription remains poorly understood. Here, we show that EcR-dependent transcription, and thus, developmental timing in Drosophila, is regulated by CDK8 and its regulatory partner Cyclin C (CycC), and the level of CDK8 is affected by nutrient availability. We observed that cdk8 and cycC mutants resemble EcR mutants and EcR-target genes are systematically down-regulated in both mutants. Indeed, the ability of the EcR-Ultraspiracle (USP) heterodimer to bind to polytene chromosomes and the promoters of EcR target genes is also diminished. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins that co-immunoprecipitate with EcR and USP identified multiple Mediator subunits, including CDK8 and CycC. Consistently, CDK8-CycC interacts with EcR-USP in vivo; in particular, CDK8 and Med14 can directly interact with the AF1 domain of EcR. These results suggest that CDK8-CycC may serve as transcriptional cofactors for EcR-dependent transcription. During the larval-pupal transition, the levels of CDK8 protein positively correlate with EcR and USP levels, but inversely correlate with the activity of sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the master regulator of intracellular lipid homeostasis. Likewise, starvation of early third instar larvae precociously increases the levels of CDK8, EcR and USP, yet down-regulates SREBP activity. Conversely, refeeding the starved larvae strongly reduces CDK8 levels but increases SREBP activity. Importantly, these changes correlate with the timing for the larval-pupal transition. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK8-CycC links nutrient intake to developmental transitions (EcR activity) and fat metabolism (SREBP activity) during the larval-pupal transition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcriptionally promotes production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) whereas AMPK senses and regulates cellular energy homeostasis. A histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity has been proven to be critical for HIF-1 activation but the underlying mechanism and its role in energy homesostasis remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that HIF-1 activation depends on a cytosolic, enzymatically active HDAC5. HDAC5 knockdown impairs hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and HIF-1 transactivation, whereas HDAC5 overexpression enhances HIF-1α stabilization and nuclear translocation. Mechanistically, we show that Hsp70 is a cytosolic substrate of HDAC5; and hyperacetylation renders Hsp70 higher affinity for HIF-1α binding, which correlates with accelerated degradation and attenuated nuclear accumulation of HIF-1α. Physiologically, AMPK-triggered cytosolic shuttling of HDAC5 is critical; inhibition of either AMPK or HDAC5 impairs HIF-1α nuclear accumulation under hypoxia or low glucose conditions. Finally, we show specifically suppress HDAC5 is sufficient to inhibit tumor cell proliferation under hypoxic conditions. Our data delineate a novel link between AMPK, the energy sensor, and HIF-1, the major driver of ATP production, indicating that specifically inhibiting HDAC5 may selectively suppress the survival and proliferation of hypoxic tumor cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-mediated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) production is being explored for tumor fluorescence imaging and photodynamic therapy (PDT). As a prodrug, ALA is converted in heme biosynthesis pathway to PpIX with fluorescent and photosensitizing properties. To better understand the role of heme biosynthesis enzymes in ALA-mediated PpIX fluorescence and PDT efficacy, we used lentiviral shRNA to silence the expression of porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS), porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and ferrochelatase (FECH) in SkBr3 human breast cancer cells. PBGS and PBGD are the first two cytosolic enzymes involved in PpIX biosynthesis, and FECH is the enzyme responsible for converting PpIX to heme. PpIX fluorescence was examined by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Cytotoxicity was assessed after ALA-mediated PDT. Silencing PBGS or PBGD significantly reduced ALA-stimulated PpIX fluorescence whereas silencing FECH elevated basal and ALA-stimulated PpIX fluorescence. However, compared with vector control cells, the ratio of ALA-stimulated fluorescence to basal fluorescence without ALA was significantly reduced in all knockdown cell lines. PBGS or PBGD knockdown cells exhibited significant resistance to ALA-PDT, while increased sensitivity to ALA-PDT was found in FECH knockdown cells. These results demonstrate the importance of PBGS, PBGD and FECH in ALA-mediated PpIX fluorescence and PDT efficacy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Photochemistry and Photobiology 03/2015; 91(4). DOI:10.1111/php.12454 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypogonadatropic hypogonadism (HH) can be acquired through energy restriction or may be inherited as congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) and its anosmia-associated form, Kallmann's Syndrome (KS). CHH is associated with mutations in a group of genes that impact FGF8 function. The Sirt1 gene encodes a NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase that links intracellular metabolic stress to gene expression. Herein, Sirt1(-/-) mice are shown to have HH due to failed GnRH neuronal migration. Sirt1 catalytic function induces GnRH neuronal migration via binding and deacetylating cortactin. Sirt1 co-localized with cortactin in GnRH neurons in vitro. Sirt1 co-localization with cortactin was regulated in an FGF8/FGFR1 dependent manner. The profound effect of Sirt1 on the hormonal status of Sirt1(-/-) mice, mediated via defective GnRH neuronal migration, links energy metabolism directly to the hypogonadal state. Sirt1-cortactin may serve as the distal transducer of neuronal migration mediated by the FGF8 synexpression group of genes that govern HH.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Castration resistance is a major obstacle to hormonal therapy for prostate cancer patients. Although androgen independence of prostate cancer growth is a known contributing factor to endocrine resistance, the mechanism of androgen receptor deregulation in endocrine resistance is still poorly understood. Herein, the CAMK2N1 was shown to contribute to the human prostate cancer cell growth and survival through AR-dependent signaling. Reduced expression of CAMK2N1 was correlated to recurrence-free survival of prostate cancer patients with high levels of AR expression in their tumor. CAMK2N1 and AR signaling form an auto-regulatory negative feedback loop: CAMK2N1 expression was down-regulated by AR activation; while CAMK2N1 inhibited AR expression and transactivation through CAMKII and AKT pathways. Knockdown of CAMK2N1 in prostate cancer cells alleviated Casodex inhibition of cell growth, while re-expression of CAMK2N1 in castration-resistant cells sensitized the cells to Casodex treatment. Taken together, our findings suggest that CAMK2N1 plays a tumor suppressive role and serves as a crucial determinant of the resistance of prostate cancer to endocrine therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In our prior publications we characterized a conserved acetylation motif (K(R)xxKK) of evolutionarily related nuclear receptors. Recent reports showed that peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) deacetylation by SIRT1 is involved in delaying cellular senescence and maintaining the brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. However, it still remains unknown whether lysyl residues 154 and 155 (K154/155) of the conserved acetylation motif (RIHKK) in Pparγ1 are acetylated. Herein, we demonstrate that Pparγ1 is acetylated and regulated by both endogenous TSA-sensitive and NAD-dependent deacetylases. Acetylation of lysine 154 was identified by mass spectrometry (MS) while deacetylation of lysine 155 by SIRT1 was confirmed by in vitro deacetylation assay. An in vivo labeling assay revealed K154/K155 as bona fide acetylation sites. The conserved acetylation sites of Pparγ1 and the catalytic domain of SIRT1 are both required for the interaction between Pparγ1 and SIRT1. Sirt1 and Pparγ1 converge to govern lipid metabolism in vivo. Acetylation-defective mutants of Pparγ1 were associated with reduced lipid synthesis in ErbB2 overexpressing breast cancer cells. Together, these results suggest that the conserved lysyl residues K154/K155 of Pparγ1 are acetylated and play an important role in lipid synthesis in ErbB2-positive breast cancer cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer at advanced stages including metastatic and castration-resistant cancer remains incurable due to the lack of effective therapies. The CAMK2N1 gene, cloned and characterized as an inhibitor of CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II), has been shown to affect tumorigenesis and tumor growth. However, it is still unknown whether CAMK2N1 plays a role in prostate cancer development. We first examined the protein and mRNA levels of CAMK2N1 and observed a significant decrease in human prostate cancers comparing to normal prostate tissues. Re-expression of CAMK2N1 in prostate cancer cells reduced cellular proliferation, arrested cells in G0/G1 phases, and induced apoptotic cell death accompanied by down-regulation of IGF-1, ErbB2, and VEGF downstream kinases PI3K/AKT, as well as the MEK/ERK-mediated signaling pathways. Conversely, knockdown of CAMK2N1 had a significant opposite effects on these phenotypes. Our analyses suggest that CAMK2N1 plays a tumor suppressive role in prostate cancer cells. Reduced CAMK2N1 expression correlates to human prostate cancer progression and predicts poor clinical outcome, indicating that CAMK2N1 may serve as a biomarker. The inhibition of tumor growth by expressing CAMK2N1 established a role of CAMK2N1 as a therapeutic target.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cyclin D1 gene encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenyzme that phosphorylates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and nuclear respiratory factor (NRF1) proteins. The abundance of cyclin D1 determines estrogen-dependent gene expression in the mammary gland of mice. Using estradiol (E2) and an E2-dendrimer conjugate which is excluded from the nucleus, we demonstrate E2 delays the DNA damage response (DDR) via an extranuclear mechanism. The E2-induced DDR required extranuclear cyclin D1 which bound ERa at the cytoplasmic membrane and augmented AKT phosphorylation (Ser473) and yH2AX foci formation. In the nucleus E2 inhibited, whereas cyclin D1 enhanced, homology directed DNA repair. Cyclin D1 was recruited to yH2AX foci by E2 and induced Rad51 expression. Cyclin D1 governs an essential role in the E2-dependent DNA-damage response via a novel extranuclear function. The dissociable cytoplasmic function to delay the E2 mediated-DDR together with the nuclear enhancement of DNA repair uncovers a novel extranuclear function of cyclin D1 that may contribute to the role of E2 in breast tumorigenesis.
Cancer Research 05/2014; 74(14). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3137 · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin D1 is an important molecular driver of human breast cancer but better understanding of its oncogenic mechanisms is needed, especially to enhance efforts in targeted therapeutics. Currently, pharmaceutical initiatives to inhibit cyclin D1 are focused on the catalytic component since the transforming capacity is thought to reside in the cyclin D1/CDK activity. We initiated the following study to directly test the oncogenic potential of catalytically inactive cyclin D1 in an in vivo mouse model that is relevant to breast cancer. Herein, transduction of cyclin D1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with the kinase dead KE mutant of cyclin D1 led to aneuploidy, abnormalities in mitotic spindle formation, autosome amplification, and chromosomal instability (CIN) by gene expression profiling. Acute transgenic expression of either cyclin D1WT or cyclin D1KE in the mammary gland was sufficient to induce a high CIN score within 7 days. Sustained expression of cyclin D1KE induced mammary adenocarcinoma with similar kinetics to that of the wild-type cyclin D1. ChIP-Seq studies demonstrated recruitment of cyclin D1WT and cyclin D1KE to the genes governing CIN. We conclude that the CDK-activating function of cyclin D1 is not necessary to induce either chromosomal instability or mammary tumorigenesis.
Cancer Research 03/2014; 73(24 Supplement):P5-07-06-P5-07-06. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.SABCS13-P5-07-06 · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serine threonine kinase Akt1 has been implicated in the control of cellular metabolism, survival and growth. Herein, disruption of the ubiquitously expressed member of the Akt family of genes, Akt1, in the mouse, demonstrates a requirement for Akt1 in miRNA-mediated cellular apoptosis. The miR-17/20 cluster is known to inhibit breast cancer cellular proliferation through G1/S cell cycle arrest via binding to the cyclin D1 3'UTR. Here we show that miR-17/20 overexpression sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by either Doxorubicin or UV irradiation in MCF-7 cells via Akt1. miR-17/20 mediates apoptosis via increased p53 expression which promotes Akt degradation. Akt1-/- mammary epithelial cells which express Akt2 and Akt3 demonstrated increased apoptosis to DNA damaging agents. Akt1 deficiency abolished the miR-17/20-mediated apoptosis. These results demonstrated a novel pathway through which miR17/20 regulate p53 and Akt controlling breast cancer cell apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CAPER is an estrogen receptor (ER) co-activator that was recently shown to be involved in human breast cancer pathogenesis. Indeed, we reported increased expression of CAPER in human breast cancer specimens. We demonstrated that CAPER was undetectable or expressed at relatively low levels in normal breast tissue and assumed a cytoplasmic distribution. In contrast, CAPER was expressed at higher levels in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) specimens, where it assumed a predominantly nuclear distribution. However, the functional role of CAPER in human breast cancer initiation and progression remained unknown. Here, we used a lentiviral-mediated gene silencing approach to reduce the expression of CAPER in the ER-positive human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The proliferation and tumorigenicity of MCF-7 cells stably expressing control or human CAPER shRNAs was then determined via both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Knockdown of CAPER expression significantly reduced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro. Importantly, nude mice injected with MCF-7 cells harboring CAPER shRNAs developed smaller tumors than mice injected with MCF-7 cells harboring control shRNAs. Mechanistically, tumors derived from mice injected with MCF-7 cells harboring CAPER shRNAs displayed reduced expression of the cell cycle regulators PCNA, MCM7, and cyclin D1, and the protein synthesis marker 4EBP1. In conclusion, knockdown of CAPER expression markedly reduced human breast cancer cell proliferation in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Mechanistically, knockdown of CAPER abrogated the activity of proliferative and protein synthesis pathways.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances cellular invasiveness and confers tumor cells with cancer stem cell like characteristics, through transcriptional and translational mechanisms. The mechanisms maintaining transcriptional and translational repression of EMT and cellular invasion are poorly understood. Herein, the cell fate-determination factor Dachshund (DACH1), suppressed EMT via repression of cytoplasmic translational induction of Snail by inactivating the Y box-binding protein (YB-1). In the nucleus, DACH1 antagonized YB-1-mediated oncogenic transcriptional modules governing cell invasion. DACH1 blocked YB-1-induced mammary tumor growth and EMT in mice. In basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) the reduced expression of DACH1 and increased YB-1, correlated with poor metastasis free survival. The loss of DACH1 suppression of both cytoplasmic translational and nuclear transcriptional events governing EMT and tumor invasion may contribute to poor prognosis in basal-like forms of breast cancer, a relatively aggressive disease subtype.
Cancer Research 12/2013; 74(3). DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-2466 · 9.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclin D1 encodes the regulatory subunit of a holoenzyme that phosphorylates the pRB protein and promotes G1/S cell-cycle progression and oncogenesis. Dicer is a central regulator of miRNA maturation, encoding an enzyme that cleaves double-stranded RNA or stem-loop-stem RNA into 20-25 nucleotide long small RNA, governing sequence-specific gene silencing and heterochromatin methylation. The mechanism by which the cell cycle directly controls the non-coding genome is poorly understood. Here we show that cyclin D1(-/-) cells are defective in pre-miRNA processing which is restored by cyclin D1a rescue. Cyclin D1 induces Dicer expression in vitro and in vivo. Dicer is transcriptionally targeted by cyclin D1, via a cdk-independent mechanism. Cyclin D1 and Dicer expression significantly correlates in luminal A and basal-like subtypes of human breast cancer. Cyclin D1 and Dicer maintain heterochromatic histone modification (Tri-m-H3K9). Cyclin D1-mediated cellular proliferation and migration is Dicer-dependent. We conclude that cyclin D1 induction of Dicer coordinates microRNA biogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancers that are estrogen receptor (ER) negative or are ER negative with ErbB2/HER-2 overexpression have a poor prognosis, which emphasizes the importance of developing compounds for preventing breast cancer. Nexrutine, an herbal extract from the plant Phellodendron amurense, has been used for centuries in Asian medicine to treat inflammation, gastroenteritis, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In this study we investigated the anticancer effects of Nexrutine on ER negative breast cancer cell lines that are positive or negative for HER-2. Nexrutine decreased the activities of 2 potential targets of breast cancer, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and peroxisome proliferators activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The antiinflammatory effects of Nexrutine were evident with decreased prostaglandin (PG)E2 production, protein expression of microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES), and PPARγ. Nexrutine decreased cell survival and induced a G1 cell cycle arrest in SkBr3 and MDA-MB 231 cells, which were associated with reduced protein expression of Cyclin D1 and cdk2 along with increased protein expression of p21 and p27. The growth-inhibitory effect of Nexrutine was associated with apoptosis in SkBr3 cells and autophagy in MDA-MB231 cells. Based on these findings, we propose that Nexrutine may provide a novel approach for protection against breast cancer.
Nutrition and Cancer 11/2013; 66(3). DOI:10.1080/01635581.2013.780627 · 2.47 Impact Factor