Chen Jiang

Fudan University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (43)251.14 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to complication factors such as blood-brain barrier (BBB), integrating high efficiency of brain target ability with specific cargo releasing into one nanocarrier seems more important. A brain targeting nanoscale system is developed using dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as targeting moiety. DHA has high affinity with GLUT1 on BBB. More importantly, the GLUT1 transportation of DHA represents a “one-way” accumulative priority from blood into brain. The artificial micelles are fabricated by a disulfide linkage, forming a bio-responsive inner barrier, which can maintain micelles highly stable in circulation and shield the leakage of entrapped drug before reaching the targeting cells. The designed micelles can cross BBB and be further internalized by brain cells. Once within the cells, the drug release can be triggered by high intracellular level of glutathione (GSH). Itraconazole (ITZ) is selected as the model drug because of its poor brain permeability and low stability in blood. It demonstrates that the functionalized nanoscale micelles can achieve highly effective direct drug delivery to targeting site. Based on the markedly increased stability in blood circulation and improved brain delivery efficiency of ITZ, DHA-modified micelles show highly effective in anti-intracranial infection. Therefore, this smart nanodevice shows a promising application for the treatment of brain diseases.
    Advanced Healthcare Materials 08/2014;
  • Molecular Pharmaceutics 06/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amphotericin B (AMB) has been a mainstay therapy for fungal infections of the central nervous system, but limited by its poor penetration into the brain, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study we aimed to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in AMB crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The uptake of AMB by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro was significantly enhanced after inhibition of P-gp by verapamil. The impact of two model P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and itraconazole on brain/plasma ratios of AMB was examined in both uninfected CD-1 mice and those intracerebrally infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. In uninfected mice, the brain/plasma ratios of AMB were increased 15 min (3.5 vs. 2.0, P < 0.05) and 30 min (5.2 vs. 2.8, P < 0.05) after administration of verapamil, or 45 min (6.0 vs. 3.9, P < 0.05) and 60 min (5.4 vs. 3.8, P < 0.05) after itraconazole administration. The increase in brain/plasma ratios were also observed in infected mice treated with AMB and P-gp inhibitors. The brain tissue fungal CFUs in infected mice were significantly lower in AMB plus itraconazole or verapamil groups, compared with the untreated group (P < 0.005), but none of the treatments protected the mice from succumbing to the infection. In conclusion, we demonstrated that P-gp inhibitors can enhance the uptake of AMB through the BBB, suggesting that AMB may be a P-gp substrate.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 05/2014; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Malignant glioma, a highly aggressive tumor, is one of the deadliest types of cancer associated with dismal outcome despite of optimal chemotherapeutic regimens. One explanation for this is the failure of most chemotherapeutics accumulation into tumors, additionally causing serious side effects in periphery. To solve these problems, we sought to develop a smart therapeutic nano-device with cooperative dual characteristics of high tumor-targeting ability and selectively controlling drug deposition in tumor cells. This nano-device was fabricated with a cross-linker, containing disulfide linkage to form an inner cellular-microenvironment responsive "-S-S-" barrier, which could shield the entrapped drug leaking in blood circulation. In addition, dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), a novel small molecular tumor-specific vector, was decorated on the nano-device for tumor-specific recognization via GLUT1, a glucose transporter highly expressed on tumor cells. The drug-loaded nano-device was supposed to maintain high integrity in the bloodstream and increasingly to specifically bind with tumor cells through the association of DHA with GLUT1. Once within the tumor cells, the drug release was triggered by high level of intracellular glutathione (GSH). Combination of these two features, the smart nano-device could markedly improve the drug tumor-targeting delivery efficiency, meanwhile decreasing systemic toxicity. Herein, this smart nano-device showed the promising potential as a powerful platform for highly effective anti-glioma treatment.
    ACS Nano 01/2014; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Minimizing the background signal is crucial for developing tumor-imaging techniques with sufficient specificity and sensitivity. Here we use pH difference between healthy tissues and tumor and tumor targeting delivery to achieve this goal. We synthesize fluorophore-dopamine conjugate as pH-dependent electron donor-acceptor fluorescence system. Fluorophores are highly sensitive to electron-transfer processes, which can alter their optical properties. The intrinsic redox properties of dopamine are oxidation of hydroquinone to quinone at basic pH and reduction of quinone to hydroquinone at acidic pH. Quinone can accept electron then quench fluorescence. We design tumor cell membrane-targeting carrier for delivery. We demonstrate quenched fluorophore-quinone can be specially transferred to tumor extracellular environment and tumor-accumulated fluorophore can be activated by acidic pH. These tumor-targeting pH-dependent electron donor-acceptor fluorescence systems may offer new opportunity for developing tumor-imaging techniques.
    Biomaterials 01/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    Xi He, Jianfeng Li, Sai An, Chen Jiang
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    ABSTRACT: Drug-delivery system responses to stimuli have been well investigated recently. As pH decrease is observed in most solid tumors, drug-delivery systems responsive to the slightly acidic extracellular pH environment of solid tumors have been developed as a general strategy for tumor targeting. Drug vehicles that are sensitive to acidic endosome/lysosome pH have been constructed for efficient drug release in tumor cells. This review explains the mechanisms of acidic pH in the tumor microenvironment and endocytic-related organelles, endosomes and lysosomes. Nanoparticle responses to acidic extracellular pH are discussed, along with approaches for improving tumor-specific therapy. Endosome/lysosome pH-triggered vehicles are reviewed, which achieve rapid drug release in tumor cells and overcome multidrug resistance.
    Therapeutic delivery 12/2013; 4(12):1499-510.
  • Yang Liu, Chen Jiang
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    ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) exerts its central nervous system (CNS) protective function as it hinders the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain. With the development of nanotechnology during the last thirty years, the nanocarriers for delivering drugs make it possible to transport drugs across the BBB. The brain-targeted drug delivery system usually consists of two parts: nanocarriers and brain-targeted strategies. In this review, several kinds of nanocarriers are introduced for brain-targeted drug delivery. We focus on several possible strategies for brain-targeting and comment on their advantages and disadvantages in application.
    Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica 10/2013; 48(10):1532-43.
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    ABSTRACT: The activation of caspase-3 is an important hallmark in Parkinson's disease. It could induce neuron death by apoptosis and microglia activation by inflammation. As a result, inhibition the activation of caspase-3 would exert synergistic dual effect in brain in order to prevent the progress of Parkinson's disease. Silencing caspase-3 genes by RNA interference could inhibit the activation of caspase-3. We developed a brain-targeted gene delivery system based on non-viral gene vector, dendrigraft poly-L-lysines. A rabies virus glycoprotein peptide with 29 amino-acid linked to dendrigraft poly-L-lysines could render gene vectors the ability to get across the blood brain barrier by specific receptor mediated transcytosis. The resultant brain-targeted vector was complexed with caspase-3 short hairpin RNA coding plasmid DNA, yielding nanoparticles. In vivo imaging analysis indicated the targeted nanoparticles could accumulate in brain more efficiently than non-targeted ones. A multiple dosing regimen by weekly intravenous administration of the nanoparticles could reduce activated casapse-3 levels, significantly improve locomotor activity and rescue dopaminergic neuronal loss and in Parkinson's disease rats' brain. These results indicated the rabies virus glycoprotein peptide modified brain-targeted nanoparticles were promising gene delivery system for RNA interference to achieve anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammation synergistic therapeutic effects by down-regulation the expression and activation of caspase-3.
    PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(5):e62905. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combination of gene therapy and chemotherapy is a promising approach for glioma therapy. In this study, a co-delivery system of plasmid encoding human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (pORF-hTRAIL, Trail) and doxorubicin (DOX) has been simply constructed in two steps. Firstly, DOX was intercalated into Trail to form a stable complex. Secondly, DOX-Trail complex was condensed by Dendrigraft poly-l-lysine (DGL) to form a nanoscaled co-delivery system. Choline transporters are both expressed on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and glioma, Herein, a choline derivate with high choline transporter affinity was chosen as BBB and glioma dual targeting ligand. Choline-derivate modified co-delivery system showed higher cellular uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity than unmodified co-delivery system in U87 MG cells. In comparison with single medication or unmodified delivery system, Choline-derivate modified co-delivery system induced more apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy on U87 MG bearing xenografts further confirmed the predominance of this dual targeting and co-delivery system.
    Biomaterials 08/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles (NPs) with modification of brain-targeting molecules have been extensively exploited for therapeutic gene delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). As one of the effective RNA interference (RNAi) approaches, short hairpin RNA (shRNA) has been proved to be promising in the field of gene therapy. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (Ask1) has been reported to be an important target for gene therapy against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury. In this study, dendrigraft poly-l-lysine (DGL) was decorated by dermorphin (a μ-opiate receptor agonist) through PEG for efficient brain-targeting, then complexed with anti-Ask1 shRNA plasmid DNA, yielding the DGL-PEG-dermorphin/shRNA NPs. The DGL-PEG-dermorphin/shRNA NPs were characterized and estimated the brain-targeting ability. In vitro, increased cellular uptake and transfection efficiency were explored; in vivo, preferable accumulation and gene transfection in brain were showed in images. The DGL-PEG-dermorphin/shRNA NPs also revealed high efficiency of neuroprotection. As a result of RNAi, corresponding mRNA was distinctly degraded, expression of Ask1 protein was obviously suppressed, apoptotic cell death was apparently decreased and cerebral infarct area was significantly reduced. Above all, DGL-PEG-dermorphin/shRNA NPs were proved to be efficient and safe for brain-targeting RNAi neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury.
    Biomaterials 08/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among all the malignant brain tumors, glioma is the deadliest and most common form with poor prognosis. Gene therapy is regarded as a promising way to halt the progress of the disease or even cure the tumor and RNA interference (RNAi) stands out. However, the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood tumor barrier (BTB) limits the delivery of these therapeutic genes. In this work, the delivery system targeting to the transferrin (Tf) receptor highly expressed on both BBB and glioma was successfully synthesized and would not compete with endogenous Tf. U87 cells stably express luciferase were employed here to simulate tumor and the RNAi experiments in vitro and in vivo validated that the gene silencing activity was 2.17-fold higher with the targeting ligand modification. The dual-targeting gene delivery system exhibits a series of advantages, such as high efficiency, low toxicity, stability and high transaction efficiency, which may provide new opportunities in RNAi therapeutics and nanomedicine of brain tumors.
    International Journal of Pharmaceutics 07/2013; · 3.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To prepare an angiopep-conjugated dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL)-based gene delivery system and evaluate the neuroprotective effects in the rotenone-induced chronic model of Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: Angiopep was applied as a ligand specifically binding to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) which is overexpressed on blood-brain barrier (BBB), and conjugated to biodegradable DGL via hydrophilic polyethyleneglycol (PEG), yielding DGL-PEG-angiopep (DPA). In vitro characterization was carried out. The neuroprotective effects were evaluated in a chronic parkinsonian model induced by rotenone using a regimen of multiple dosing intravenous administrations. RESULTS: The successful synthesis of DPA was demonstrated via (1)H-NMR. After encapsulating the therapeutic gene encoding human glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (hGDNF), DPA/hGDNF NPs showed a sphere-like shape with the size of 119 ± 12 nm and zeta potential of 8.2 ± 0.7 mV. Angiopep-conjugated NPs exhibited higher cellular uptake and gene expression in brain cells compared to unmodified counterpart. The pharmacodynamic results showed that rats in the group with five injections of DPA/hGDNF NPs obtained best improved locomotor activity and apparent recovery of dopaminergic neurons compared to those in other groups. CONCLUSION: This work provides a practical non-viral gene vector for long-term gene therapy of chronic neurodegenerative disorders.
    Pharmaceutical Research 05/2013; · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeting therapy of tumors in their early stages is crucial to increase the survival rate of cancer patients. Currently most drug-delivery systems target the neoplasia through the tumor-associated receptors overexpressed on the cancer cell membrane. However, the expression of these receptors on normal cells and tissues is inevitable, which leads to unwanted accumulation and side effects. Characteristics of the tumor microenvironment, such as acidosis, are pervasive in almost all solid tumors and can be easily accessed. It is shown that the different extracellular pH value can be used to activate/inactivate the receptor-mediated endocytosis on tumor/normal cells. This idea is implemented by conjugating a shielding molecule at the terminus of a receptor-specific ligand via a pH-sensitive hydrazone bond. The acid-activated detachment of the shielding molecule and enhanced tumor/background accumulation ratio are demonstrated. These results suggest that acid active receptor-specific peptide ligand-modified tumor-targeting delivery systems have potential use in the treatment of tumors.
    Small 05/2013; · 7.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gadolinium (Gd) chelate contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a preferred method of glioma detection and preoperative localisation because it offers high spatial resolution and non-invasive deep tissue penetration. Gd-based contrast agents, such as Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA-Gd, Magnevist), are widely used clinically for tumor diagnosis. However, the Gd-based MRI approach is limited for patients with glioma who have an uncompromised blood-brain barrier (BBB). Moreover, the rapid renal clearance and non-specificity of such contrast agents further hinders their prevalence. We present a choline derivate (CD)-modified nanoprobe with BBB permeability, glioma specificity and a long blood half-life. Specific accumulation of the nanoprobe in gliomas and subsequent MRI contrast enhancement are demonstrated in vitro in U87 MG cells and in vivo in a xenograft nude model. BBB and glioma dual targeting by this nanoprobe may facilitate precise detection of gliomas with an uncompromised BBB and may offer better preoperative and intraoperative tumor localization.
    Scientific Reports 04/2013; 3:1623. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nanoparticles target tumor cells by pH-controlled means: Nanoparticles carry three synergistic delivery functions: 1) tumor tissue targeting by the EPR effect; 2) tumor cell targeting by pHLIP-mediated membrane-localization; and 3) tumor cell uptake by adsorptive-mediated endocytosis.
    Advanced healthcare materials. 04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: A tumor targeting nanoparticle system has been successfully developed to response to the lowered tumor extracellular pH (pHe) and upregulated matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) in the tumor microenvironment. The nanoparticles are modified with activatable cell-penetrating peptide (designated as dtACPP) that's dual-triggered by the lowered pHe and MMP2. In dtACPP, the internalization function of cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) is quenched by a pH-sensitive masking peptide, linking by a MMP2 substrate. The masking peptide is negatively charged to quench the cationic CPP well after systemic administration. Hence, dtACPP-modified nanoparticles possesses passive tumor targetability via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Once reaching the tumor microenvironment, the pre-existing attraction would be eliminated due to the lowered pHe, accompanying the linker cleaved by MMP2, dtACPP would be activated to expose CPP to drive the nanoparticles' internalization into the intratumoral cells. The studies of plasmid DNA loading, toxicity assessment, cellular uptake, tumor targeting delivery, and gene transfection demonstrate that dtACPP-modified nanoparticle system is a potential candidate for tumor targeting gene delivery.
    Biomaterials 04/2013; · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor microenvironment, such as the lowered tumor extracellular pH (pHe) and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), has been extensively explored, which promotes the development of microenvironment responsive drug delivery system. Utilizing these unique features, an activatable cell penetrating peptide (designated as dtACPP) that's dual-triggered by the lowered pHe and MMP2 has been constructed. And, a smart nanoparticle system decorating with dtACPP has been successfully developed, which could dual-load gene drug and chemotherapeutics simultaneously. After systemic administration, dtACPP-modified nanoparticles possess passive tumor targetability via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Then dtACPP would be activated to expose cell penetrating peptide (CPP) to drive the nanoparticles internalization into the cells within tumor. As angiogenesis and tumor cells might be mutually improved in tumor growth, so combining anti-angiogenesis and apoptosis is meaningful for oncotherapy. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is significant in angiogenesis, and anti-VEGF therapy could decrease blood vessel density and delay tumor growth obviously. Chemotherapy using doxorubicin (DOX) could kill off tumor cells efficiently. Here, utilizing dtACPP-modified nanoparticles to co-deliver plasmid expressing interfering RNA targeting VEGF (shVEGF) and DOX (designated as dtACPPD/shVEGF-DOX) results in effective shutdown of blood vessels and cell apoptosis within tumor. On the premise of effective drug delivery, dtACPPD/shVEGF-DOX has demonstrated good tumor targetability, little side effects after systemic administration, and ideal anti-tumor efficacy.
    ACS Nano 03/2013; · 12.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The activation of caspase-3 mediated neuron death is a common process in neurodegenerative diseases. Efficient activated caspase-3 imaging in brain would be helpful to monitor the potential lesion and intervene promptly. However, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is the major obstacle that hinders the delivery of diagnostic agents into the brain. Herein, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was successfully applied to detect in vivo activated caspase-3 in apoptotic neuron with a brain-targeted nano-device, which was based on dendrigraft poly-l-lysines (DGLs) and linked with a brain-targeted peptide RVG29 as well as the caspase-3 cleavable peptide linker (DEVD). This nano-device could detect the level of caspase-3 activation in accordance with the degree of apoptosis in rat brain; meanwhile normal rat showed no fluorescence signal. The location of fluorescence signal was confirmed to accumulate more in caspase-3 activated neurons. Taken together, our nano-device would help to image activated caspase-3 in vivo and hold great promise in early diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Controlled Release 09/2012; 163(2):203-10. · 7.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the most common life-threatening infections in immunosuppressive patients, like AIDs patients, is cryptococcal meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Current therapeutic options are mostly ineffective and mortality rates remain high. Hydrophobic antifungal drug Amphotericin B (AmB), has become a golden standard in severe systemic fungal infection therapy. However, most AmB commercial formulations, including deoxycholate AmB and lipid formulations of AmB, show poor penetration into the CNS and difficulty to reach the therapeutic levels. To improve the CNS permeability of AmB, we have successfully developed an effective brain-targeting polymeric micellar system with angiopep-2 modified, named Angiopep-PEG-PE/AmB polymeric micelles. An immunosuppressive murine model with Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis (CNME) was established to evaluate the CNS penetration efficiency and antifungal treatment efficacy of the AmB-incorporated brain-vectored polymeric micellar formulation, compared with the AmB commercial formulations. After three consecutive days of i.v. administration, the results showed that the group treated with Angiopep-PEG-PE/AmB achieved the greatest treatment efficacy, which reached the highest AmB level in brain, reduced the brain fungal burden significantly, decreased histopathological severity and prolonged the median survival time. The increased treatment efficacy could be attributed to the brain-targeting delivery system promoted AmB crossing the BBB and penetrating into the brain to reach the therapeutic concentration. The underlying mechanism was also explored in this work. Therefore, the brain-targeting delivery system could have potential and promising implications for treatment of intracerebral fungal infection.
    Biomaterials 07/2012; 33(28):6898-907. · 8.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of gene therapy and chemotherapy is a promising treatment strategy for brain gliomas. In this paper, we designed a co-delivery system (DGDPT/pORF-hTRAIL) loading chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin and gene agent pORF-hTRAIL, and with functions of pH-trigger and cancer targeting. Peptide HAIYPRH (T7), a transferrin receptor-specific peptide, was chosen as the ligand to target the co-delivery system to the tumor cells expressing transferrin receptors. T7-modified co-delivery system showed higher efficiency in cellular uptake and gene expression than unmodified co-delivery system in U87 MG cells, and accumulated in tumor more efficiently in vivo. DOX was covalently conjugated to carrier though pH-trigged hydrazone bond. In vitro incubation of the conjugates in buffers led to a fast DOX release at pH 5.0 (intracellular environment) while at pH 7.4 (blood) the conjugates are relatively stable. The combination treatment resulted in a synergistic growth inhibition (combination index, CI < 1) in U87 MG cells. The synergism effect of DGDPT/pORF-hTRAIL was verified in vitro and in vivo. In vivo anti-glioma efficacy study confirmed that DGDPT/pORF-hTRAIL displayed anti-glioma activity but was less toxic.
    Biomaterials 04/2012; 33(19):4907-16. · 8.31 Impact Factor