Charles O Brown

University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States

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Publications (7)25.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the role of scavenger receptor class A member 3 (SCARA3) in multiple myeloma (MM). SCARA3 expression was induced upon treatment with oxidative stressors (ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs). An epigenetic inactivation of SCARA3 was noted in MM.1S myeloma cells. Myeloma cell killing by dexamethasone and bortezomib was inhibited by up-regulation of SCARA3 while SCARA3 knockdown sensitized myeloma cells to the drugs. Clinical samples showed an inverse correlation between SCARA3 gene expression, myeloma progression, and favorable clinical prognosis. In MM, SCARA3 protects against oxidative stress-induced cell killing and can serve as predictor of MM progression and therapeutic response.
    Leukemia research 03/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The NF-κB signaling pathway is critical in myeloma cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and emergence of therapy resistance. The chemotherapeutic drugs, dexamethasone (Dex) and bortezomib (BTZ), are widely used in clinical protocols for multiple myeloma (MM) and inhibit the NF-κB signaling pathway by distinct mechanisms. This study evaluates the efficacy of combination therapy with Dex and BTZ and investigates the mechanistic underpinning of endogenous and therapy-induced NF-κB activation in MM. Human myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were used in monocultures and co-cultures to determine the cytotoxic effects of Dex and/or BTZ. Our results show that combined treatment of Dex with BTZ enhanced direct apoptosis of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant myeloma cells. In the presence of BMSCs, Dex plus BTZ combination inhibited ionizing radiation (IR)-induced interleukin (IL)-6 secretion from BMSCs and induced myeloma cytotoxicity. Mechanistically, Dex treatment increased IκBα protein and mRNA expression and compensated for BTZ-induced IκBα degradation. Dex plus BTZ combination inhibited basal and therapy-induced NF-κB activity with cytotoxicity in myeloma cells resistant to BTZ. Furthermore, combination therapy down-regulated the NF-κB targeted gene expression of IL-6 and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), which can induce chemo- and radio-resistance in MM. This study provides mechanistic rationale for combining the NF-κB-targeting drugs Dex and BTZ in myeloma therapy and supports potential combinations of these drugs with radiotherapy and additional chemotherapeutic drugs, for clinical benefit in MM.
    Experimental hematology 10/2012; · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IL (interleukin)-6, an established growth factor for multiple myeloma cells, induces myeloma therapy resistance, but the resistance mechanisms remain unclear. The present study determines the role of IL-6 in re-establishing intracellular redox homoeostasis in the context of myeloma therapy. IL-6 treatment increased myeloma cell resistance to agents that induce oxidative stress, including IR (ionizing radiation) and Dex (dexamethasone). Relative to IR alone, myeloma cells treated with IL-6 plus IR demonstrated reduced annexin/propidium iodide staining, caspase 3 activation, PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage and mitochondrial membrane depolarization with increased clonogenic survival. IL-6 combined with IR or Dex increased early intracellular pro-oxidant levels that were causally related to activation of NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) as determined by the ability of N-acetylcysteine to suppress both pro-oxidant levels and NF-κB activation. In myeloma cells, upon combination with hydrogen peroxide treatment, relative to TNF (tumour necrosis factor)-α, IL-6 induced an early perturbation in reduced glutathione level and increased NF-κB-dependent MnSOD (manganese superoxide dismutase) expression. Furthermore, knockdown of MnSOD suppressed the IL-6-induced myeloma cell resistance to radiation. MitoSOX Red staining showed that IL-6 treatment attenuated late mitochondrial oxidant production in irradiated myeloma cells. The present study provides evidence that increases in MnSOD expression mediate IL-6-induced resistance to Dex and radiation in myeloma cells. The results of the present study indicate that inhibition of antioxidant pathways could enhance myeloma cell responses to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.
    Biochemical Journal 06/2012; 444:515-527. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The α5β1 integrin heterodimer regulates many processes that contribute to embryonic development and angiogenesis, in both physiological and pathological contexts. As one of the major adhesion complexes on endothelial cells, it plays a vital role in adhesion and migration along the extracellular matrix. We recently showed that angiogenesis is modulated by syntaxin 6, a Golgi- and endosome-localized t-SNARE, and that it does so by regulating the post-Golgi trafficking of VEGFR2. Here we show that syntaxin 6 is also required for α5β1 integrin-mediated adhesion of endothelial cells to, and migration along, fibronectin. We demonstrate that syntaxin 6 and α5β1 integrin colocalize in EEA1-containing early endosomes, and that functional inhibition of syntaxin 6 leads to misrouting of β1 integrin to the degradation pathway (late endosomes and lysosomes) rather transport along recycling pathway from early endosomes; an increase in the pool of ubiquitinylated α5 integrin and its lysosome-dependent degradation; reduced cell spreading on fibronectin; decreased Rac1 activation; and altered Rac1 localization. Collectively, our data show that functional syntaxin 6 is required for the regulation of α5β1-mediated endothelial cell movement on fibronectin. These syntaxin 6-regulated membrane trafficking events control outside-in signaling via haptotactic and chemotactic mechanisms.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(42):36749-61. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine - FREE RADICAL BIOL MED. 01/2011; 51.
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    ABSTRACT: Werner's syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes premature aging due to loss-of-function mutations in a gene encoding a member of the RecQ helicase family. Both Werner's syndrome and cigarette smoking accelerate aging. No studies have examined the effect of cigarette smoke on Werner's syndrome protein. To investigate the role of Werner's syndrome protein in cigarette smoke-induced cellular senescence. Cellular senescence and amounts of Werner's syndrome protein were measured in fibroblasts isolated from patients with emphysema and compared with age-matched nonsmokers. The in vitro effects of cigarette smoke on amounts of Werner's syndrome protein, function, and senescence were also evaluated in primary human lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Cultured lung fibroblasts isolated from patients with emphysema exhibited a senescent phenotype accompanied by a decrease in Werner's syndrome protein. Cigarette smoke extract decreased Werner's syndrome protein in cultured fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Werner's syndrome protein-deficient fibroblasts were more susceptible to cigarette smoke-induced cellular senescence and cell migration impairment. In contrast, exogenous overexpression of Werner's syndrome protein attenuated the cigarette smoke effects. Cigarette smoke induces cellular senescence and cell migration impairment via Werner's syndrome protein down-regulation. Rescue of Werner's syndrome protein down-regulation may represent a potential therapeutic target for smoking-related diseases.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 12/2008; 179(4):279-87. · 11.04 Impact Factor
  • Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 53:S43.