ABSTRACT: Small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) regulate diverse cellular processes through their covalent attachment to target proteins. Vertebrates express three SUMO paralogs: SUMO-1, SUMO-2, and SUMO-3 (SUMO-2 and SUMO-3 are approximately 96% identical and referred to as SUMO-2/3). SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 are conjugated, at least in part, to unique subsets of proteins and thus regulate distinct cellular pathways. However, how different proteins are selectively modified by SUMO-1 and SUMO-2/3 is unknown. We demonstrate that BLM, the RecQ DNA helicase mutated in Bloom syndrome, is preferentially modified by SUMO-2/3 both in vitro and in vivo. Our findings indicate that non-covalent interactions between SUMO and BLM are required for modification at non-consensus sites and that preferential SUMO-2/3 modification is determined by preferential SUMO-2/3 binding. We also present evidence that sumoylation of a C-terminal fragment of HIPK2 is dependent on SUMO binding, indicating that non-covalent interactions between SUMO and target proteins provide a general mechanism for SUMO substrate selection and possible paralog-selective modification.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2008; 283(43):29405-15. · 4.77 Impact Factor