C. M. Gutierrez

Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain

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Publications (72)237.1 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The QUIJOTE (Q-U-I JOint Tenerife) CMB Experiment is designed to observe the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background and other Galactic and extragalactic signals at medium and large angular scales in the frequency range of 10-40 GHz. The first of the two QUIJOTE telescopes and the multi-frequency (10-20 GHz) instrument have been in operation since November 2012. In 2014 a second telescope and a new instrument at 30GHz will be ready for commissioning, and an additional instrument at 40 GHz is in its final design stages. After three years of effective observations, the data obtained by these telescopes and instruments will have the required sensitivity to detect a primordial gravitational-wave component if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is larger than r = 0.05. At the moment, we have completed half of the wide Galactic survey with the multi-frequency instrument covering 18 000 square degrees of the Northern hemisphere. When we finish this survey in early 2014, we shall have reached approximately 14{\mu}K per one degree beam at 11, 13, 17 and 19 GHz, in both Q and U.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Anomalous microwave emission (AME) has been proved to be an important component of the Galactic diffuse emission in the range from 20 to 60 GHz. To discriminate between different models of AME low frequency microwave data from 10 to 20 GHz are needed. We present here a re-analysis of published and un-published Tenerife data from 10 to 33 GHz at large angular scales (from 5 to 15 degrees). We cross-correlate the Tenerife data to templates of the main Galactic diffuse emissions: synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust. We find evidence of dust correlated emission in the Tenerife data that could be explained as spinning dust grain emission.
    Advances in Astronomy 01/2013; 2013.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the spatial and redshift distributions of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies towards the position of CrB-H, a very deep and extended decrement in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), located within the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). It was found in a survey with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer at 33 GHz, with a peak negative brightness temperature of −230μK, and deviates 4.4σ from the Gaussian CMB (Génova-Santos et al.). Observations with the Millimeter and Infrared Testa Grigia Observatory (MITO) suggested that 25+21−18 per cent of this decrement may be caused by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect (Battistelli et al.). Here, we investigate whether the galaxy distribution could be tracing either a previously unnoticed galaxy cluster or a warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) filament that could build up this tSZ effect. We find that the projected density of galaxies outside Abell clusters and with redshifts 0.05 < z < 0.12 at the position of CrB-H is the highest in the area encompassed by the CrB-SC. Most of these galaxies are located around redshifts z= 0.07 and 0.11, but no clear connection in the form of a filamentary structure is appreciable in between. While the galaxy distribution at z= 0.07 is sparse, we find evidence at z= 0.11 of a galaxy group or a low-mass galaxy cluster. We estimate that this structure could produce a thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect of ≈−18μK. The remaining VSA signal of ≈−212μK is still a significant 4.1σ deviation from the Gaussian CMB. However, the MITO error bar allows for a larger tSZ effect, which could be produced by galaxy clusters or superclusters beyond the sensitivity of the SDSS. Contributions from other possible secondary anisotropies associated with these structures are also discussed.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 04/2010; 403(3):1531 - 1540. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a 24deg2 survey for baryonic matter at 33GHz in the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC) of galaxies (z=0.07), with the Very Small Array (VSA) interferometer (Génova-Santos et al. 2005, MNRAS 363, 79; 2008, arXiv: 0804.0199), we found a very strong temperature decrement in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It has an amplitude of−230±23μK and is located near the center of the supercluster, in a position with no known galaxy clusters, and without a significant X-ray emission in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Monte-Carlo simulations discard the primordial CMB Gaussian field as a possible explanation for this decrement at a level of 99.6%. We therefore concluded that this could be indicative of a Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ) effect produced either by a warm/hot gas distribution in the intercluster medium or by a farther unknown galaxy cluster. Here we present an optical study of the galaxy distribution in this region, aiming at elucidating whether it traces a possible warm/hot gas filamentary distribution or a galaxy cluster. First, we have studied the galaxy population down to r≤20 magnitudes in the SDSS. This reveals an overdensity by a factor of 2 with respect to nearby control fields, but lower than in the galaxy clusters member of the CrB–SC. This indicates that the associated gas could at least be partially responsible for the observed CMB decrement. Second, we obtained spectroscopic redshifts, with the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), for a sample of galaxies in the region of the cold spot, and found evidence of a substructure with redshifts extending from 0.07 to 0.10. This suggests the existence of a dense filamentary structure with a length of several tens of Mpc. Finally, we investigated the presence of at least one farther cluster in the same line-of-sight, at z≈0.11.
    12/2009: pages 329-329;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the spatial distribution and colours of galaxies within the region covered by the cold spot in the cosmic microwave background recently detected by the Very Small Array interpherometer (VSA) towards the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). The spot is in the northern part of a region with a radius ∼1° (∼5 Mpc at the redshift of CrB-SC) enclosing the clusters Abell 2056, 2065, 2059 and 2073, and where the density of galaxies, excluding the contribution from those clusters, is approximately two times higher than the mean value in typical intercluster regions of the CrB-SC. Two of such clusters (Abell 2056 and 2065) are members of the CrB-SC, while the other two are in the background. This high-density intercluster region is quite inhomogeneous, being the most remarkable feature a large concentration of galaxies in a narrow filament running from Abell 2065 with a length of ∼35 arcmin (∼3 Mpc at the redshift of CrB-SC) in the SW–NE direction. This intercluster population of galaxies probably results from the interaction of clusters Abell 2065 and 2056. The area subtended by the VSA cold spot shows an excess of faint (21 < r < 22) and red (1.1 < r−i < 1.3) galaxies as compared with typical values within the CrB-SC intercluster regions. This overdensity of galaxies shows a radial dependence and extends out to ∼15 arcmin. This could be the signature of a previously unnoted cluster in the background.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 06/2009; 396(1):53 - 60. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent survey at 33 GHz for baryonic matter at large scales in the Corona Borealis Supercluster (CrB-SC) of galaxies (z = 0.07) using the Very Small Array interferometer (VSA), covering 24^2, two strongs decrements in temperature (CrB-B and CrB-H) near the centre of the supercluster were detected. The amplitudes are -157+/-27 and -230+/-23muK for decrements CrB-B and CrB-H respectively. There are no known clusters of galaxies coincident with the position of either of these decrements. Monte-Carlo simulations show that only CrB-B can be produced by primary anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. To explain the origen of CrB-H, a combination of both CMB perturbations and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) is required. We explore the possibility that this SZE could be produced by warm/hot gas on superclusters scales. ROSAT images do not show X-ray emission in these regions. We study the distribution of galaxies down to r
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the spatial distribution and colours of galaxies within the region covered by the cold spot in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) recently detected by the Very Small Array (VSA; Genova-Santos et al. 2005, 2008) towards the Corona Borealis supercluster (CrB-SC). The spot is in the northern part of a region with a radius ~1 degree (~5 Mpc at the redshift of CrB-SC) enclosing the clusters Abell 2056, 2065, 2059 and 2073, and where the density of galaxies, excluding the contribution from those clusters, is ~2 times higher than the mean value in typical intercluster regions of the CrB-SC. Two of such clusters (Abell 2056 and 2065) are members of the CrB-SC, while the other two are in the background. This high density intercluster region is quite inhomogeneous, being the most remarkable feature a large concentration of galaxies in a narrow filament running from Abell 2065 with a length of ~35 arcmin (~3 Mpc at the redshift of CrB-SC) in the SW-NE direction. This intercluster population of galaxies probably results from the interaction of clusters Abell 2065 and 2056. The area subtended by the VSA cold spot shows an excess of faint (21<r<22) and red (1.1<r-i<1.3) galaxies as compared with typical values within the CrB-SC intercluster regions. This overdensity of galaxies shows a radial dependence and extends out to ~15 arcmin. This could be signature of a previously unnoticed cluster in the background.
    05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The results of the Tenerife cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are presented. These observations cover 5000 and 6500 deg2 on the sky at 10 and 15 GHz, respectively, centered on decl. ~ +35°. The experiments are sensitive to multipoles l = 10-30 that correspond to the Sachs-Wolfe plateau of the CMB power spectra. The sensitivity values of the data are ~31 and ~12 μK at 10 and 15 GHz, respectively, in a beam-size region (5° × 5°). The data at 15 GHz show clear detection of structure at high Galactic latitude; the results at 10 GHz are compatible with these, but at lower significance. A likelihood analysis of the 10 and 15 GHz data at high Galactic latitude, assuming a flat CMB band power spectrum, gives a signal ΔTℓ = 30 μK (68% C.L.). Including the possible contaminating effect due to the diffuse Galactic component, the CMB signal is ΔTℓ = 30 μK. These values are stable against the Galactic cut chosen. Assuming a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum for the primordial fluctuations, the above values imply an expected quadrupole Qrms-ps = 20 μK, which agrees with previous results from these experiments, and which are compatible with the COBE DMR data in the case of the standard inflationary cold dark matter models.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 529(1):47. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this article we demonstrate that PKS J1037–2705 has a weak accretion flow luminosity, well below the Seyfert 1/QSO dividing line, weak broad emission lines (BELs), and moderately powerful FR II extended radio emission. It is one of the few documented examples of a broad-line object in which the time-averaged jet kinetic luminosity, , is larger than the total thermal luminosity (IR to X-ray) of the accretion flow, Lbol. The blazar nucleus dominates the optical and near-ultraviolet emission and is a strong source of hard X-rays. The strong blazar emission indicates that the relativistic radio jet is presently active. The implication is that even weakly accreting AGNs can create powerful jets. Kinetically dominated () broad-line objects provide important constraints on the relationship between the accretion flow and the jet production mechanism.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 687(1):162. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a new high-sensitivity experiment for observing cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. The instrument is a two-element interferometer operating at 33 GHz with a ∼3 GHz bandwidth. It is installed on the high and dry Teide Observatory site on Tenerife where successful beam-switching observations have been made at this frequency. Two realizations of the interferometer have been tested with element separations of 11.9λ and 16.7λ. The resulting angular resolution of ∼2° was chosen to explore the amplitude of CMB structure on the large angular scale side of the Doppler (acoustic) peak. It is found that observations are unaffected by water vapour for more than 70 per cent of the time when the sensitivity is limited by the receiver noise alone. Observations over several months are expected to give an rms noise level of ∼10--20 2 μK covering ∼100 resolution elements. Preliminary results show stable operation of the interferometer with the detection of discrete radio sources as well as the Galactic plane at Dec. =+41° and −29°.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2008; 305(2):399 - 408. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this article, we demonstrate that PKSJ 1037-2705 has a weak accretion flow luminosity, well below the Seyfert1/QSO dividing line, weak broad emission lines (BELs) and moderately powerful FRII extended radio emission. It is one of the few documented examples of a broad-line object in which the time averaged jet kinetic luminosity, $\bar{Q}$, is larger than the total thermal luminosity (IR to X-ray) of the accretion flow, $L_{bol}$. The blazar nucleus dominates the optical and near ultraviolet emission and is a strong source of hard X-rays. The strong blazar emission indicates that the relativistic radio jet is presently active. The implication is that even weakly accreting AGN can create powerful jets. Kinetically dominated ($\bar{Q}>L_{bol}$) broad-line objects provide important constraints on the relationship between the accretion flow and the jet production mechanism. Comment: To appear in ApJ November 1, 2008, v687n1 issue
    07/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations with the new 11-GHz radiometer of the COSMOSOMAS experiment at the Teide Observatory (Tenerife). The sky region between 0° <= RA <= 360° and 26° <= Dec. <= 49° (ca. 6500 deg2) was observed with an angular resolution of . Two orthogonal independent channels in the receiving system measured total power signals from linear polarizations with a 2-GHz bandwidth. Maps with an average sensitivity of 50 μK per beam have been obtained for each channel. At high Galactic latitude (|b| > 30°) the 11-GHz data are found to contain the expected cosmic microwave background (CMB) as well as extragalactic radiosources, galactic synchrotron and free-free emission, and a dust-correlated component which is likely of Galactic origin. At the angular scales allowed by the window function of the experiment, the 100-240 μm dust-correlated component presents an amplitude ΔT ~ 9-13 μK while the CMB signal is of the order of 27 μK. The spectral behaviour of the dust-correlated signal is examined in the light of previous COSMOSOMAS data at 13-17 GHz and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data at 22-94 GHz in the same sky region. We detect a flattening in the spectral index of this signal below 20 GHz which rules out synchrotron radiation as being responsible for the emission. This anomalous dust emission can be described by a combination of free-free emission and spinning dust models with a flux density peaking around 20 GHz.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2007; 382(2):594-608. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Carlos M. Gutiérrez, Rafael Rebolo
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    ABSTRACT: The Tenerife Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiment is mapping a region of 5000 square degrees on the sky. Several beam-switching radiometers at frequencies 10, 15 and 33 GHz have been operating in the Teide Observatory (Tenerife) for more than ten years. Our experiment discovered the first features in the CMB in a strip at Dec.=+40°. The region analyzed was free of strong radio sources and the spectral properties of the features ruled out the possibility of a Galactic origin. The most probably origin of the singal detected was cosmological, representing the first direct observation of intrinsic CMB structure. For the case of fluctuations described by a Gaussian auto-correlation function, a likelihood analysis of our combined results at 15 and 33 GHz implies an intrinsic rms fluctuation level of 48 −15 +21 μK on a coherence scale of 4°; the equivalent analysis for a Harrison-Zel'dovich model gives a power spectrum normalisation of Q rms-ps =22 −6 +10 μK. A comparison with the COBE DMR two-year data at Dec.=+40° shows the compatibility of the signal detected by both experiments and the presence of individual features common to both data sets. Several new instruments recently installed in Tenerife extending the angular scales and spectral range covered by our radiometers are briefly described.
    01/2007: pages 199-206;
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 759(1):672 - 675. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors describe their new observations on scales of 5° - 12° and comment on their significance for various scenarios of galaxy formation.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 12/2006; 647(1):679 - 686. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: (Abridged) We have used the Rayner & Best (1989) smooth tests of goodness-of-fit to study the Gaussianity of the Very Small Array (VSA) data. Out of the 41 published VSA individual pointings dedicated to cosmological observations, 37 are found to be consistent with Gaussianity, whereas four pointings show deviations from Gaussianity. In two of them, these deviations can be explained as residual systematic effects of a few visibility points which, when corrected, have a negligible impact on the angular power spectrum. The non-Gaussianity found in the other two (adjacent) pointings seems to be associated to a local deviation of the power spectrum of these fields with respect to the common power spectrum of the complete data set, at angular scales of the third acoustic peak (l = 700-900). No evidence of residual systematics is found in this case, and unsubstracted point sources are not a plausible explanation either. If those visibilities are removed, a cosmological analysis based on this new VSA power spectrum alone shows no differences in the parameter constraints with respect to our published results, except for the physical baryon density, which decreases by 10 percent. Finally, the method has been also used to analyse the VSA observations in the Corona Borealis supercluster region (Genova-Santos et al. 2005), which show a strong decrement which cannot be explained as primordial CMB. Our method finds a clear deviation (99.82%) with respect to Gaussianity in the second-order moment of the distribution, and which can not be explained as systematic effects. A detailed study shows that the non-Gaussianity is produced in scales of l~500, and that this deviation is intrinsic to the data (in the sense that can not be explained in terms of a Gaussian field with a different power spectrum).
    05/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: The anomalous microwave emission detected in the Perseus molecular complex by Watson \ea has been observed at 11 GHz through dual orthogonal polarizations with the COSMOSOMAS experiment. Stokes U and Q maps were obtained at a resolution of \sim 0.9deg. for a 30deg. X 30deg. region including the Perseus molecular complex. A faint polarized emission has been measured; we find Q=-0.2 % \pm1.0%, while U=-3.4^{+1.8}_{-1.4}% both at the 95% confidence level with a systematic uncertainty estimated to be lower than 1% determined from tests of the instrumental performance using unpolarized sources in our map as null hypothesis. The resulting total polarization level is \Pi = 3.4^{+1.5}_{-1.9}%. These are the first constraints on the polarization properties of an anomalous microwave emission source. The low level of polarization seems to indicate that the particles responsible for this emission in the Perseus molecular complex are not significantly aligned in a common direction over the whole region, as a consequence of either a high structural symmetry in the emitting particle or a low-intensity magnetic field. Our weak detection is fully consistent with predictions from electric dipole emission and resonance relaxation at this frequency. Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, accepted ApJL. A better control of systematics allows a clear polarization detection. Details on the COSMOSOMAS experiment can be found at http://www.iac.es/project/cmb/cosmosomas
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2006; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the analysis of the first 18 months of data obtained with the COSMOSOMAS (COSMOlogical Structures On Medium Angular Scales) experiment at the Teide Observatory (Tenerife). Three maps have been obtained at 12.7, 14.7 and 16.3GHz covering 9000deg2 each with a resolution of ~1° and with sensitivities 49, 59 and 115muKbeam-1, respectively. These data in conjunction with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) first year maps have revealed that the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the dominant astronomical signal at high galactic latitude (|b| > 40°) in the three COSMOSOMAS channels with an average amplitude of 29.7 +/- 1.0muK (68 per cent c.l. not including calibration errors). This value is in agreement with the predicted CMB signal in the COSMOSOMAS maps using the best-fitting Lambda-CDM model to the WMAP power spectrum. Cross-correlation analysis of the 408-MHz map and the COSMOSOMAS data at high galactic latitudes give values in the range 17.0-14.4muK from 12.7 to 16.3GHz. Removing detected point sources in this template, reduces the amplitude of the correlated signal to 8-9muK. The mean spectral index of the correlated signal between the 408MHz desourced and the COSMOSOMAS maps is between -3.20 and -2.94 at |b| > 40° which indicates that this signal is due to synchrotron emission. Cross-correlation of COSMOSOMAS data with the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) map at 100mum shows the existence of a common signal with amplitude 7.4 +/- 1.1, 7.5 +/- 1.1 and 6.5 +/- 2.3muK in the 12.7, 14.7 and 16.3GHz COSMOSOMAS maps at |b| > 30°. Using the WMAP data, we find this DIRBE correlated signal rises from high to low frequencies flattening below ~20GHz. At higher galactic latitudes the average amplitude of the correlated signal with the DIRBE maps decreases slightly. The frequency behaviour of the COSMOSOMAS/WMAP correlated signal with DIRBE is not compatible with the expected tendency for thermal dust. A study of the Halpha emission maps do not support free-free as a major contributor to that signal. Our results provide new evidence of a Galactic foreground with properties compatible with predictions by spinning dust models.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 01/2006; 370:15-24. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present interferometric imaging at 33 GHz of the Corona Borealis supercluster, using the extended configuration of the Very Small Array. A total area of 24 deg2 has been imaged, with an angular resolution of 11 arcmin and a sensitivity of 12 mJy beam−1. The aim of these observations is to search for Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) detections from known clusters of galaxies in this supercluster and for a possible extended SZ decrement due to diffuse warm/hot gas in the intercluster medium. Hydrodynamical simulations suggest that a significant part of the missing baryons in the Local Universe may be located in superclusters.The maps constructed from these observations have a significant contribution from primordial fluctuations. We measure negative flux values in the positions of the 10 richest clusters in the region. Collectively, this implies a 3.0σ detection of the SZ effect. For two of these clusters, A2061 and A2065, we find decrements of approximately 2σ each.Our main result is the detection of two strong and resolved negative features at −70 ± 12 mJy beam−1 (−157 ± 27 μK) and −103 ± 10 mJy beam−1 (−230 ± 23 μK), respectively, located in a region with no known clusters, near the centre of the supercluster. We discuss their possible origins in terms of primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies and/or SZ signals related either to unknown clusters or to a diffuse extended warm/hot gas distribution. Our analyses have revealed that a primordial CMB fluctuation is a plausible explanation for the weaker feature (probability of 37.82 per cent). For the stronger one, neither primordial CMB (probability of 0.38 per cent) nor SZ can account alone for its size and total intensity. The most reasonable explanation, then, is a combination of both primordial CMB and SZ signal. Finally, we explore what characteristics would be required for a filamentary structure consisting of warm/hot diffuse gas in order to produce a significant contribution to such a spot taking into account the constraints set by X-ray data.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2005; 363(1):79 - 92. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present direct evidence for anomalous microwave emission in the Perseus molecular cloud, which shows a clear rising spectrum from 11 to 17 GHz in the data of the COSMOSOMAS experiment. By extending the frequency coverage using WMAP maps convolved with the COSMOSOMAS scanning pattern we reveal a peak flux density of 42 (+/-) 4 Jy at 22 GHz integrated over an extended area of 1.65 x 1.0 deg centered on RA = 55.4 (+/-) 0.1 deg and Dec = 31.8 (+/-) 0.1 deg (J2000). The flux density that we measure at this frequency is nearly an order of magnitude higher than can be explained in terms of normal galactic emission processes (synchrotron, free-free and thermal dust). An extended IRAS dust feature G159.6-18.5 is found near this position and no bright unresolved source which could be an ultracompact HII region or gigahertz peaked source could be found. An adequate fit for the spectral density distribution can be achieved from 10 to 50 GHz by including a very significant contribution from electric dipole emission from small spinning dust grains. Comment: 5 pages, 2 postscript figures, accepted ApJ Lett
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2005; · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
237.10 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997–2010
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 1996–2006
    • The University of Manchester
      • Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • University of Porto
      Oporto, Porto, Portugal
  • 2002–2004
    • Spanish National Research Council
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain