C Webber

Huntingdon Life Sciences, Huntingdon, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (4)7.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The diffusion from the site of intramuscular injection of 900 kDa botulinum neurotoxin-hemagglutinin complex (BoNT/A-complex) and 150 kDa free-botulinum neurotoxin (free-BoNT/A) was compared. Radioiodinated compounds were injected into the gastrocnemius muscle of rats (70Units (U) 125I-BoNT/A-complex, 67 or 344 U free-125I-BoNT/A, or free-125I-iodide) and the eyelids of rabbits (24 U 125I-BoNT/A-complex or 108 U free-125I-BoNT/A), and measured in various tissues at different time points. There were no detectable systemic effects or generalized botulinum neurotoxin toxicity in either rats or rabbits, indicating that most of the toxin, whether as 125I-BoNT/A-complex or free-125I-BoNT/A, remained at the injection site. In rats, 125I-BoNT/A-complex and free-125I-BoNT/A diffused in a pattern that was grossly similar. Almost no radioactivity was recovered from the brain. Radioactivity recovered from distant tissues (thyroid, skin, and contralateral muscle) was primarily attributable to either low molecular weight 125I-containing peptides or 125I-iodide. After injection into rabbit eyelids, neither 125I-BoNT/A-complex nor free-125I-BoNT/A spread to distant structures, including the eye. The results indicate that most of the neurotoxin does not diffuse from the injection site, whether in free or complexed form, and this may reduce the potential for systemic effects.
    Toxicon 11/2003; 42(5):461-9. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Mean concentrations of total (14)C and of dexloxiglumide at the end of single 20-min infusion doses of (14)C-dexloxiglumide (200 mg) to four healthy male subjects were 18.5 microg eq x ml(-1) and 19.5 microg ml(-1) respectively. The mean plasma clearance (0.22 l h(-1) x kg(-1)) and mean volume of distribution (V(ss) = 0.18 l kg(-1)) were low. 2. Single oral doses of a solid formulation of (14)C-dexloxiglumide (200 mg) to the same subjects appeared to be rapidly and well absorbed. Mean peak plasma concentrations (C(max)) of total (14)C (2.8 microg eq x ml(-1)) and of dexloxiglumide (2.2 microg x ml(-1)) occurred at about 1.5 h. Systemic availabilities of the oral dose based on total (14)C and dexloxiglumide were 70 and 48%, respectively. Thus, a proportion of an oral dose was subjected to presystemic elimination and the absorbed dose mainly eliminated by metabolism. Binding of dexloxiglumide to plasma proteins was extensive (96.6-99.2%). 3. Total (14)C was excreted mainly in the faeces. Mass balance of (14)C excretion was almost complete within 7 days when a mean of > 93% of the dose had been recovered. After the intravenous (i.v.) dose, mean totals of 23.7 and 69.8% of the dose were excreted in urine and faeces, respectively, during 7 days, and 19.5 and 73.7% of the dose, respectively, after the oral dose. The data were consistent with biliary excretion and perhaps some enterohepatic circulation of conjugates of dexloxiglumide and at least one of its metabolites. 4. LC-MS/MS of urine extracts showed that dexloxiglumide was metabolized by oxidation and conjugation. The former included at least two metabolites formed by monohydroxylation in the N-(3-methoxypropyl) pentyl side chain, and O-demethylation of this side chain followed by subsequent oxidation of the resultant alcohol to the dicarboxylic acid. At least one glucuronide was also present in urine. The main components in faeces appeared to be dexloxiglumide and a dicarboxylic metabolite formed by O-demethylation followed by oxidation of the N-(3-methoxypropyl) side chain. Both compounds were identified as their corresponding methyl esters formed because acid and methanol were used in the extraction procedure. Dexloxiglumide and the dicarboxylic acid were presumably excreted in bile as the glucuronic acid conjugates.
    Xenobiotica 07/2003; 33(6):625-41. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single oral doses of 14C-dexloxiglumide were rapidly and extensively absorbed in rats, and eliminated more slowly by females than by males. The respective half-lives were about 4.9 and 2.1 h. Following single intravenous doses, dexloxiglumide was characterised as a drug having a low clearance (6.01 and about 1.96 ml/min/kg in males and females respectively), a moderate volume of distribution (Vss, 0.98 and about 1.1 L/kg in males and females respectively) and a high systemic availability. It was extensively bound to plasma proteins (97%). Dexloxiglumide is mainly cleared by the liver. Its renal clearance was minor. In only the liver and gastrointestinal tract, were concentrations of 14C generally greater than those in plasma. Peak 14C concentrations generally occurred at 1-2 h in males and at 2-4 h in females. Tissue 14C concentrations then declined by severalfold during 24 h although still present in most tissues at 24 h but only in a few tissues (such as the liver and gastrointestinal tract) at 168 h. Decline of 14C was less rapid in the tissues of females than in those of males. Single intravenous or oral doses were mainly excreted in the faeces (87-92%), mostly during 24 h and more slowly from females than from males. Urines contained less than 11% dose. Mean recoveries during 7 days when 14C was not detectable in the carcass except in one female rat ranged between 93-101%. Biliary excretion of 14C was prominent (84-91% dose during 24 h) in the disposition of 14C which was also subjected to facile enterohepatic circulation (74% dose). Metabolite profiles in plasma and selected tissues differed. In the former, unchanged dexloxiglumide was the major component whereas in the latter, a polar component was dominant. Urine, bile and faeces contained several 14C-components amongst which unchanged dexloxiglumide was the most important (eg. up to 63% dose in bile). LC-MS/MS showed that dexloxiglumide was metabolised mainly by hydroxylation in the N-(3-methoxypropyl)pentyl sidechain and by O-demethylation followed by subsequent oxidation of the resulting alcohol to a carboxylic acid.
    European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 01/2003; 28(3):201-12. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Single oral doses of 14C-dexloxiglumide were rapidly and extensively absorbed in dogs and also eliminated rapidly with a short half-life. Following single intravenous doses, dexloxiglumide was characterised as a drug having a high clearance (30.7 and 27.0 ml/min/kg in males and females respectively), a low volume of distribution (Vss, 0.34 and 0.27 L/kg in males and females respectively) and a moderate systemic availability (about 33%). It was extensively bound to plasma proteins (89%). Dexloxiglumide is mainly cleared by the liver. Its renal clearance was minor. In only the kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract, were concentrations of 14C generally greater than those in plasma. 14C concentrations generally peaked at 0.25h and declined rapidly during 24h being present only in a few tissues (such as the kidney, liver and gastrointestinal tract) at 24h. Single intravenous or oral doses were mainly excreted in the faeces (77-89%), mostly during 24h. Urine contained up to 7.5% dose. Mean recoveries during 7 days ranged between 93-97%. Biliary excretion of 14C was prominent (64% dose during 24h) in the disposition of 14C which was probably also subjected to some limited enterohepatic circulation. Unchanged dexloxiglumide was the major component in plasma. Urine and faeces contained several 14C-components amongst which unchanged dexloxiglumide was the most important (eg. about 55% dose in faeces). LC-MS/MS of urine and bile extracts showed that dexloxiglumide was metabolised mainly by O-demethylation and by conjugation with glucuronic acid.
    European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 29(1):15-23. · 1.31 Impact Factor