[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE) is an emerging infectious enteric disease caused by the obligate intracellular gram-negative bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis. EPE was tentatively diagnosed in six weanling foals, aged between 5 and 7 months. Clinical signs included depression, anorexia, ventral oedema, and weight loss. Plasma biochemistry consistently revealed severe hypoproteinaemia. The ante-mortem diagnosis of EPE was based on clinical signs, hypoproteinaemia (6/6), the detection of moderate-to-high titres of L. intracellularis antibody (6/6), and severe thickening of the small intestinal wall on ultrasonography (2/2), or L. intracellularis detected in faeces by PCR (I/2). The first foal died despite treatment and at post-mortem examination the tentative diagnosis was EPE. Three foals from the same farm, which showed similar clinical symptoms were treated with azithromycin and rifampicin; two survived. Post-mortem examination of the foal that died confirmed the tentative clinical diagnosis of EPE on the basis of the lesions found and the detection of L. intracellularis--DNA in the ileum and jejunum. The fifth foal died despite intensive treatment and the post-mortem examination revealed lymphohistiocytic enteritis, typhlitis, and widespread thrombosis in several organs. The sixth foal recovered completely after treatment. This report confirms the presence of clinical L. intracellularis infection in weanling foals in the Netherlands and shows the difficulty in reaching a definitive ante-mortem diagnosis.
Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 08/2011; 136(8):565-70. · 0.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EQUINE granulocytic anaplasmosis is a tickborne disease
caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Anaplasma
phagocytophilum (previously Ehrlichia equi), which can elicit
febrile disease in animals and human beings (Dumler and
others 2001). The disease has previously been referred to as
equine granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and is transmitted in Europe
by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Ticks of the I ricinus complex also act
as vectors in the spread of Borrelia burgdorferi from one animal
to another, and co-infections of A phagocytophilum and
B burgdorferi have been confirmed in horses (Chang and others
2000a, Magnarelli and others 2000).
The Veterinary record 03/2008; 162(7):216-7. · 1.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imidocarb treatment of horses infected with Babesia caballi is supposed to eliminate the infection, but data on the efficacy of this treatment is scarce. The study presented here concerns four Paso Fino horses, which were imported into the island of Curacao on the basis of a piroplasmosis negative complement fixation test (CFT). Upon re-testing with an indirect fluorescent antibody test immediately after arrival in Curacao, two horses appeared to have antibodies to B. caballi and all horses had antibodies to Theileria equi. Subsequent testing with polymerase chain reaction combined with a reverse line blot yielded positive results for both agents in all four horses. Treatment with five consecutive doses of imidocarb dipropionate (4.7 mg/kg BW im q 72 h), temporarily resulted in negative results, but B. caballi and T. equi were detected again in the samples taken at 6 and 18 weeks after completion of the treatment. These results confirm that the CFT is not a suitable test for pre-import testing and that even high dose treatment with imidocarb may not be capable of eliminating B. caballi and T. equi infections from healthy carriers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the last ten years a fatal syndrome associated with immunodeficiency and severe anaemia has been reported in young Fell pony foals in the UK. Affected foals are usually normal at birth but from the age of 2-4 weeks they progressively lose condition and become severely anaemic. Signs of immunodeficiency become apparent at around 3-4 weeks of age. Morbidity is low but mortality is 100% despite intensive treatment. Affected foals die or are euthanized usually before they reach the age of 3 months. A single autosomal recessive gene is suggested to be on the basis of the syndrome. Recently, affected Fell pony foals have been identified in the Netherlands and between June 2003 and August 2005, six affected Fell pony foals were referred to the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine for investigation.
Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 03/2006; 131(4):114-8. · 0.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review discusses the literature on B. burgdorferi infections in view of the rising incidence of this infection in general and the increasing concerns of horse owners and equine practitioners. Lyme disease, the clinical expression of Borrelia infections in man is an important health problem. The geographic distribution of B. burgdorferi infections in equidae should resemble that of human cases because the vector tick involved, Ixodes ricinus, feeds on both species and, indeed, the infection has been established many times in horses. However, a definite diagnosis of the disease "Lyme borreliosis" in human beings as well as in horses and other animals is often difficult to accomplish. Although a broad spectrum of clinical signs has been attributed to B. burgdorferi infections in horses, indisputable cases of equine Lyme borreliosis are extremely rare so far, if they exist at all.
The Veterinary quarterly 01/2006; 27(4):146-56. · 0.85 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Piroplasmosis, a disease endemic to most tropical and subtropical areas, appears to be spreading to more temperate zones. This article gives a review of equine piroplasmosis and describes an acute case of infection with Babesia caballi in a Dutch Standard bred foal after a short stay at a stud in Normandy (France). A 3-month-old stallion foal was presented with lethargy, fever of 41 degrees C, and pale mucosal membranes. Haematology revealed a low packed cell volume (14 l/l) leucytosis (25 G/l) and a high blood urea nitrogen concentration (20.1mmol/l). Infection with B. caballi was diagnosed on the basis of Giemsa staining blood smears and was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction in combination with RLB. Treatment with imidocarb dipropionate and a blood transfusion resolved the haemolytic crisis.
Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 01/2006; 130(23):726-31. · 0.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umbilical hernias are common in foals. This article provides a review of the literature and presents a case of an 1.5-year-old Friesian mare with an incarcerated umbilical hernia. After reposition of the incarcerated intestine (with a lot of effort), the practising veterinarian referred the mare to the Department of Equine Sciences. Preperforative peritonitis was diagnosed, presumed to be caused by necrotic bowel. After laparotomy, this tentative diagnosis was confirmed. The necrotic part of the small intestine was resected and intensive medical treatment was started. Initially, the mare recovered well, but seven days after surgery her general condition deteriorated and she had to be euthanized. At necropsy, impaction of the stomach and rupture of the stomach wall were found. The impaction was probably a result of the generalized peritonitis.
Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde 04/2004; 129(5):142-9. · 0.13 Impact Factor