[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic transplantation remains the standard of care for patients with Hurler syndrome. As enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has become available, controversy has emerged in regards to whether the use of enzyme in the peri-transplant period is appropriate. An analysis was performed on 74 patients with Hurler syndrome transplanted at the University of Minnesota between 1990 and 2003, before our use of ERT associated with transplant, with the intention of determining if patients at higher risk during the transplant can be identified based on evaluations and events before transplantation. Age, the presence of hydrocephalus, a history of cardiovascular issues or upper airway obstruction before transplant was not associated with significant differences in survival. In contrast, patients who had a history of lower airway disease, including reactive airway disease or bronchiolitis, or a history of pneumonia, had a significantly inferior outcome based on OS. The risk for serious respiratory complications was also assessed by evaluating the incidence of intubation. Overall, 31% of these patients were intubated. The risk of intubation was higher in older patients and in those with a history of lower airway disease. These findings have implications for the care of patients with high-risk features.
Bone marrow transplantation 11/2009; 45(7):1239-46. DOI:10.1038/bmt.2009.319 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with Hurler syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type IH (MPSIH)) have skeletal, joint and soft tissue abnormalities that may persist or progress after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report our single center experience with development of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in 43 children with MPSIH after HSCT. Twenty-three children (59%) developed CTS following HSCT; 19 of the 39 children with enzyme activity in the normal or heterozygous range developed CTS (49%), whereas all four children with low heterozygous or absent enzyme activity developed CTS after HSCT. Fourteen of 19 related donor marrow recipients, eight of 19 of those receiving an unrelated donor graft and one of five unrelated cord blood recipients developed CTS. The mean age at surgical release was 4.8 years. With each year increase in age at HSCT, there was a 55% increased risk. Age and enzyme activity after HSCT were significant factors in the development of CTS. Transplantation by 2 years of age reduced the risk of developing CTS by 46%; higher enzyme activity led to a 78% reduction in the risk of developing CTS. However, children transplanted for MPSIH remain at risk for the development of CTS, and should be monitored on an ongoing basis by nerve conduction velocity testing.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2007; 39(6):331-4. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1705586 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We prospectively evaluated the reconstitution of lymphocyte subpopulations in nine children with lysosomal diseases who underwent 11 allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplants (HCTs) following CD34(+) immunomagnetic enrichment, limited T-cell addback and in vivo B-cell depletion. Absolute lymphocyte count recovery was slow to cross the 5th percentile, occurring at a median of 10 months after HCT in patients with full chimaerism. Natural killer cells represented up to 90% of the total lymphoid population during the first 3 months. CD4(+) lymphocyte recovery occurred 9-18 months after HCT. In most patients, CD8(+) lymphocyte recovery was slow and comparable with that of CD4(+) lymphocytes. The CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio normalised by 3-7 months after HCT in 50% of the patients. CD8(+) lymphocyte recovery was enhanced in patients with viral reactivation. Reconstitution of B-lymphocytes was particularly delayed in patients treated with rituximab. Declining chimaerism, rejection and viral reactivation were the most common problems in our series. Because of the unique graft manipulation, the pace of lymphocyte reconstitution was particularly slow, suggesting that these patients are at a significantly increased risk of infections for up to 2 years after HCT.
British Journal of Haematology 08/2005; 130(2):249-55. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05585.x · 4.96 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The only effective treatment for selected metabolic diseases is a successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Best results with HCT are obtained when performed early in the course of the disease. Hence, timely identification and referral are critical. Also, early identification of affected patients during the newborn period via screening may be invaluable, particularly for the infantile onset rapidly progressive forms of diseases. Rapid availability of a donor graft is often crucial for these patients. Preliminary experience suggests that results after umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant may be comparable to those after marrow transplants. UCB grafts have certain benefits of rapid availability and even reduced risk of GvHD. Hence, UCB transplant represents an alternative to marrow HCT. Related haploidentical HCT, possibly with very high doses of CD34+ cells, may also represent an option. However, expertise has been developed in very few transplant centers and no large reports are available of its use for patients with inherited metabolic diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: I-cell disease or mucolipidosis type II, a rare inherited storage disorder of lysosomal enzyme localization, is characterized by dysostosis multiplex, progressive severe psychomotor retardation and death by 5-8 years from congestive heart failure and recurrent pulmonary infections. A 19-month old girl with I-cell disease received a bone marrow transplant (BMT) from an HLA-identical carrier brother. At the age of 7 years, 5 years after BMT, she has no history of respiratory infections. Her cardiac function remains normal with a shortening fraction of 47%, and she continues to gain neurodevelopmental milestones, albeit at a very slow rate. Musculoskeletal deformities have worsened despite BMT. This is the first report describing neurodevelopmental gains and prevention of cardiopulmonary complications in I-cell disease after BMT.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 12/2003; 32(9):957-60. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1704249 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: T-cell depletion is an essential step in reducing the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients with inherited metabolic storage diseases (IMSD) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This goal can be achieved either by selective removal of T cells or by positive selection of CD34+ cells. Large-scale preparations of purified CD34+ cells from bone marrow products have not been extensively described. We report our results with bone marrow CD34+ cell enrichment using the CliniMACS system in eight children with IMSD. The median recovery of positively selected CD34+ cells was 46.2% with a purity of 97.5%, and a residual T cell content of 0.04 x 10(6). A median of 5.5 x 10(6)/kg of CD34+ cells was infused. All patients engrafted at a median time of 12 days and none of the patients developed GVHD. This method is technically feasible and can be successfully used to transplant children with IMSD.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 06/2003; 31(10):857-60. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1704024 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the past two decades, hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been used as effective therapy for selected inherited metabolic diseases (IMD) including Hurler (MPS IH) and Maroteaux-Lamy (MPS VI) syndromes, childhood-onset cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), globoid-cell leukodystrophy (GLD), metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD), alpha-mannosidosis, osteopetrosis, and others. Careful pre-HCT evaluation is critical and coordinated, multidisciplinary follow-up is essential in this field of transplantation. The primary goals of HCT for these disorders have been to promote long-term survival with donor-derived engraftment and to optimize the quality of life. Guidelines for HCT and monitoring are provided; a brief overview of long-term results is also presented.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 03/2003; 31(4):229-39. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1703839 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hurler syndrome (HS) is an autosomal recessive, inherited metabolic storage disorder due to deficiency of lysosomal alpha-L-iduronidase (IDU) enzyme activity. Untreated patients develop progressive mental retardation and multisystem morbidity with a median life expectancy of 5 years. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can achieve stabilization and even improvement of intellect, with long-term survival. However, children with HS have an increased incidence of graft failure, usually with concomitant autologous marrow reconstitution. Between 1983 and 2000, 71 Hurler children underwent HCT at the University of Minnesota. Of these 71, 19 (27%) experienced graft failure. We report HCT outcomes in all 11 Hurler patients receiving a second HCT at the University of Minnesota. Median age at second HCT was 25 months (range, 16 to 45 months); median time from first HCT was 8 months (range, 4 to 18.5 months). The conditioning regimen consisted of cyclophosphamide/TBI/ATG (n = 8) or busulfan/cyclophosphamide/ATG (n = 3). The source of bone marrow was an unrelated donor in six, matched sibling in four, and mismatched related in one. Five of the 11 grafts were T cell depleted prior to infusion. Overall, 10 of 11 patients showed donor-derived engraftment, of whom three developed grade 3 to 4 acute GVHD. Five of 11 patients are surviving a median of 25 months (range, 2 months to 12 years) with an overall actuarial survival of 50% (95% CI, 27% to 93%) at 4 years. All five show sustained donor engraftment with normalization of IDU activity levels. Three of five evaluable patients demonstrated stabilization of neuropsychological function after second HCT. Currently, allogeneic donor-derived hematopoiesis provides the only chance for long-term survival and improved quality of life in Hurler patients. While graft failure in Hurler patients requires further investigation, a timely second HCT can be well-tolerated and beneficial.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2002; 29(6):491-6. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1703395 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the only treatment for selected inherited metabolic storage diseases (IMSD); a significant shortcoming is failure to achieve donor-derived engraftment. This study was undertaken to determine whether busulfan pharmacokinetics (BU PK) are altered in children with IMSD and whether BU concentrations are important in achieving engraftment. BU samples were obtained from 39 IMSD children, including 20 children with Hurler syndrome, undergoing HCT. Patients received oral BU (40 mg/m(2)/dose x 8 doses), cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg/day x 2 doses) and TBI (750 cGy in one fraction) as a preparative regimen. Median (range) oral clearance corrected for bioavailability (Cl/F in ml/min/kg), area under the curve (AUC in ng min/ml) and BU plasma concentration (Cp in ng/ml) with the fourth dose were 5.2 (2.1-11.4), 318 294 (112 893-640 995) and 950 (314-1780), respectively. Children < 3 years of age had lower AUC and Cp but higher Cl/F (P < or = 0.03). BU Cp (P = 0.06) or marrow cell dose (P = 0.32) was not different in Hurler syndrome compared to other IMSD. A median BU Cp of 959 and 831 ng/ml was achieved in children with full and failed early engraftment, respectively. There was no difference in early and late engraftment between children with Hurler and other IMSD. In conclusion, we found no significant association between engraftment, marrow cell dose and BU exposure when combined with CY and TBI in children with IMSD.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 05/2001; 27(8):855-61. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1703010 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wolman disease is characterized by severe diarrhea and malnutrition leading to death during infancy. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency is the cause of the symptoms and signs. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. All Wolman disease patients have adrenal gland calcification. Previous therapeutic attempts have failed to provide remission. We report successful long-term bone marrow engraftment in a patient with Wolman disease resulting in continued normalization of peripheral leukocyte lysosomal acid lipase enzyme activity. Diarrhea is no longer present. Now, at 4 years of age, this patient is gaining developmental milestones. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels are normal. Liver function is normal. This is the first long-term continued remission reported for Wolman disease.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 10/2000; 26(5):567-70. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1702557 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The childhood-onset cerebral form of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, leads to a vegetative state and death within 3-5 years once clinical symptoms are detectable. The hypothesis to be tested was whether bone-marrow transplantation can over an extended period of time halt the inexorable progressive demyelination and neurological deterioration.
12 patients with childhood onset of cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy have been followed for 5-10 years after bone-marrow transplantation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), neurological, neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and plasma very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) measurements were used to evaluate the effect of this treatment.
MRI showed complete reversal of abnormalities in two patients and improvement in one. One patient showed no change from baseline to last follow-up. All eight patients who showed an initial period of continued demyelination stabilised and remained unchanged thereafter. Motor function remained normal or improved after bone-marrow transplantation in ten patients. Verbal intelligence remained within the normal range for 11 patients. Performance (non-verbal) abilities were improved or were stable in seven patients. Decline in performance abilities followed by stability occurred in five patients. Plasma VLCFA concentrations decreased by 55% and remained slightly above the upper limits of normal.
5-10-year follow-up of 12 patients with childhood-onset cerebral X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy shows the long-term beneficial effect of bone marrow transplantation when the procedure is done at an early stage of the disease.
The Lancet 09/2000; 356(9231):713-8. DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02629-5 · 45.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Odontoid dysplasia is recognized as a major component of the constellation of dysostosis multiplex lesions associated with Hurler's syndrome (MPS 1H). Because of this abnormality, there is an increased risk of atlantoaxial subluxation with potential cervical spinal cord injury. A significant alteration of the natural history of the disease with respect to the visceral, cardiac, and skeletal systems has resulted in an increased life span for MPS 1H patients associated with engraftment from normal donors.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes of odontoid dysplasia in MPS 1H following engraftment from bone-marrow transplantation (BMT).
A retrospective review of sequential plain film or cervical spine MR was performed in patients with MPS 1H. Odontoid morphology was graded as aplasia, severe dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, mild dysplasia, or normal. Odontoid morphology was plotted against the time interval. Fully engrafted, nontransplanted, and partially engrafted patients had careful imaging evaluation of the odontoid process.
Ten patients were studied with a mean interval follow-up of 8.7 years post-BMT. Seven patients were totally engrafted. Two patients were nontransplanted, and one patient had only partial engraftment (20% enzyme activity). All totally engrafted patients had a progressive improvement in the grade of odontoid dysplasia following BMT. Patients with partial engraftment or without transplantation demonstrated static or increasing odontoid dysplasia. MR imaging showed abnormal dural soft-tissue masses at the level of C2 in all patients. Reduction in the grade of odontoid dysplasia was not associated with significant change in the appearance of the upper cervical soft-tissue masses.
For the first time, this report documents that patients with MPS 1H show a decrease in the degree of odontoid dysplasia on imaging after successful engraftment following BMT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Storage Disease Collaborative Study Group has evaluated the effectiveness of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) to halt the progressive neurologic deterioration, dementia, and early death of cerebral X-adrenoleukodystrophy (CXALD) in 126 patients (? donor: 3) from July 1982 to January 1999.HCT can achieve neurologic and neuropsychologic stabilization as well as preservation of life in boys with CXALD especially when performed early in the disease course. A centralized HCT CXALD database is needed so that clinical trials can be performed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hunter syndrome is an X-linked metabolic storage disorder arising from deficiency of iduronate sulfatase enzyme activity. Despite the successful use of hematopoietic cell transplantation for a variety of lysosomal and peroxisomal storage diseases, limited benefit occurs following transplantation in either the severe or mild forms of Hunter syndrome. A brief ethical commentary is provided on the case of a boy with mucopolysaccharidosis IIB (ie the mild form) who received an unrelated umbilical cord blood transplant to improve his future quality of life. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000).
Bone Marrow Transplantation 06/2000; 25(10):1097-9. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1702398 · 3.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has received increasing attention as a source of unrelated hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation. Lysosomal diseases have been effectively treated and normal enzymatic activity has occurred subsequent to engraftment using UCB. The use of donor cells with normal amounts of enzyme, rather than those from carriers whose level may be 50% or less, is an obvious goal. The frequency of such heterozygotes varies from 1:10 to 1:140 or lower depending upon the disease at issue. We assayed the levels of lysosomal enzymes in normal UCB in random samples as well as those used for transplantation. We measured the following enzymatic activities: alpha-l-iduronidase (Hurler), galactocerebrosidase (globoid cell leuko- dystrophy) and arylsulfatase A (metachromatic leukodystrophy). For the latter, levels of activity in UCB are comparable to those found in adult blood. In the case of arylsulfatase B (Maroteaux-Lamy) a level lower than adult level was found. An informed choice by the transplanting physician based on the activity of the relevant enzyme in the UCB donor will provide a better opportunity for an improved prognosis for more complete correction of the recipient's primary disease. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 541-544.
Bone Marrow Transplantation 04/2000; 25(5):541-4. DOI:10.1038/sj.bmt.1702185 · 3.47 Impact Factor