ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) per se in the reversibility of diabetes.
Insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity using the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were assessed in 18 obese type 2 diabetic patients and in 10 nondiabetic obese patients before and 3 days after SG, before any food intake and any weight change occurrence. At the same time, ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY levels were determined.
In diabetic patients who had the disease less than 10.5 years, the first phase of insulin secretion promptly improved after SG. The early insulin area under the curve (AUC) significantly increased at the postoperative IVGTT, indicating an increased glucose-induced insulin secretion. The second phase of insulin secretion (late AUC) significantly decreased after SG in all groups, indicating an improved insulin peripheral sensitivity. In all groups, pre- and postoperatively, intravenous glucose stimulation determined a decrease in ghrelin values and an increase in GLP-1 and PYY values. However, in the group of patients with disease duration >10.5 years, the differences were not significant except for the late insulin AUC. Postoperative basal and intravenous glucose-stimulated ghrelin levels were lower than preoperative levels in all groups of patients. Basal and intravenous stimulated GLP-1 and PYY postoperative values were higher than preoperative levels in all groups.
Restoration of the first phase of insulin secretion and improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic obese patients immediately after SG, before any food passage through the gastrointestinal tract and before any weight loss, seem to be related to ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY hormonal changes of possible gastric origin and was neither meal- nor weight-change-related. Duration of the disease up to 10.5 years seems to be a major cut off in the pathophysiological changes induced by SG. A "gastric" hypothesis may be put forward to explain the antidiabetes effect of SG.
Surgical Endoscopy 06/2011; 25(11):3540-50. · 4.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) was originally used as a bridge to definitive surgery in high-risk patients. Recently it has been considered as a stand-alone procedure due to its effectiveness on weight loss and comorbidities resolution. This study was designed to evaluate the results of SG on complications, body mass index (BMI), and comorbidities resolution in 300 consecutive obese patients and to analyze the lesson learned from this experience.
From October 2002 to November 2009, 300 patients underwent SG. In the first 100 cases (group 1: mean BMI, 54.4±9.3), SG was intended as a first stage of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch in high risk super-obese patients. In the last 200 cases (group 2: mean BMI, 45.5±7.3), SG was intended as a definitive procedure. No routine reinforcement was performed in group 1. In group 2, oversewn reinforcement was performed routinely. SG was redo surgery in 21 patients (7%).
Mean operative time was 119±48.6 min in group 1 and 72±33.8 in group 2. Conversion rate was 0.6% (massive hepatomegaly). Mortality was 0.6%. Major postoperative complications were registered in 15 patients in group 1 and 11 in group 2. In 3 cases, a reoperation was needed. The mean BMI in group 1 was 46, 43, 39, and 31 at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. In group 2, the mean BMI was 32.9, 30.6, and 31.7 at 6, 12, and 18 months. At 12 months, the diabetes, hypertension, and OSAS were cured on 69%, 62%, and 50% in group 1 and 88%, 57%, and 58% in group 2. In group 2, no patient required second stage.
SG is a safe and effective treatment for morbid obesity at mid-term follow-up. SG is effective for comorbidities resolution, especially for the treatment of diabetes. Suture line reinforcement allows a significant reduction of bleeding.
Surgical Endoscopy 02/2011; 25(2):444-9. · 4.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Among the electrocardiographic alterations used for stratifying the cardiovascular risk of life threatening arrhythmias (LFA) and sudden death (SD) there is the increment of the corrected QT(QTc). This increment is usually observable in obese patients (OP). Therefore, a study has been planned to investigate the possibility to predict QTc values in OP simply by detecting the best fitting regression method that represents the relationship between QTc and Body Mass Index (BMI).
The study has been carried on 144 individuals classified as a function of their BMI in normoponderal subjects (NPS, No. 24; F/M=15/9; BMI=21.8± 1.7 kg/m(2)), Class I OP (No. 24; F/M=17/7; BMI=32.5± 1.1 kg/m(2)); Class II OP (No. 24; F/M=17/7; BMI=37.7± 1.5 kg/m(2)). Class IIIa (No. 24, F/M=15/9; BMI=44.4± 27 kg/m(2)), Class IIIb (No. 24; F/M=14/10; BMI 54.3± 2.7 kg/m(2)); Class IIIc (No. 24; F/M=14/10; BMI=63.3± 4.5 kg/m(2)). Both linear and non-linear fitting modes have been tested.
While the BMI progressively increases in classified OP, the QTc shows an intergroup difference that is not only not constant but also declining in Class IIIc obesity. The optimal regressive model was found to be the following fourth order degree polynomial: QTc=317,15+(7,47xBMI)+(-0,28*BMI(2))+(0,005xBMI(3))+ (-0,00003xBMI(4)).
By entering the BMI of a given OP into the above-cited formula, the QTc can be easily predicted and compared to that of NPS. Importantly, to have the possibility for a pre-electrocardiographic estimation of QTc allows all the medical and paramedical personnel, involved in the multidisciplinary treatment of obesity, to immediately establish the cardiovascular risk in the OP under observation.
La Clinica terapeutica 01/2011; 162(6):e155-9. · 0.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The PNPLA3 I148M variant (rs738409) is robustly associated with hepatic steatosis. Intriguingly, initial findings in cohorts with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg m(-2) also suggested that it is associated with elevated liver enzymes but not with insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia.
To determine whether the PNPLA3 variant alters the susceptibility of morbidly obese subjects to develop liver injury and metabolic sequelae.
The study was carried out in 678 obese Italians (mean BMI = 41 kg m(-2)) who were genotyped for the I148M variant. All participants provided fasting blood samples and then underwent oral glucose tolerance tests.
Indices of liver injury (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST)), glucose tolerance and insulin resistance were measured.
Markers of hepatic injury such as ALT and AST were significantly higher in carriers of the 148M allele (P = 2.2 x 10(-5) and 0.001, respectively). In all, 50% of 148M risk allele homozygotes had pathological levels of ALT (>40 U l(-1)) compared with 25% of 148I allele homozygotes (P = 0.005). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were similar in all three genotypes.
Obese Southern Europeans carrying the 148M allele have increased indices of liver damage uncoupled from proxy measures of insulin resistance.
International journal of obesity (2005) 10/2009; 34(1):190-4. · 4.34 Impact Factor