Christian P Braegger

University Children's Hospital Basel, Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland

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Publications (108)534.06 Total impact

  • Ted Jost · Christophe Lacroix · Christian Braegger · Christophe Chassard
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal gut microbiota establishment represents a crucial stage for gut maturation, metabolic and immunologic programming, and consequently short- and long-term health status. Human milk beneficially influences this process due to its dynamic profile of age-adapted nutrients and bioactive components and by providing commensal maternal bacteria to the neonatal gut. These include Lactobacillus spp., as well as obligate anaerobes such as Bifidobacterium spp., which may originate from the maternal gut via an enteromammary pathway as a novel form of mother-neonate communication. Additionally, human milk harbors a broad range of oligosaccharides that promote the growth and activity of specific bacterial populations, in particular, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides spp. This review focuses on the diversity and origin of human milk bacteria, as well as on milk oligosaccharides that influence neonatal gut microbiota establishment. This knowledge can be used to develop infant formulae that more closely mimic nature's model and sustain a healthy gut microbiota. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Nutrition Reviews 07/2015; 73(7). DOI:10.1093/nutrit/nuu016 · 5.54 Impact Factor
  • PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0129927. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129927. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday.
    PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0129927. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0129927 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 04/2015; 148(4):S-458-S-459. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(15)31546-8 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Gender differences in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently reported as a secondary outcome and the results are divergent. To assess gender differences by analysing data collected within the Swiss IBD cohort study database since 2008, related to children with IBD, using the Montreal classification for a systematic approach. Methods Data on gender, age, anthropometrics, disease location at diagnosis, disease behaviour, and therapy of 196 patients, 105 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 91 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) were retrieved and analysed. Results The crude gender ratio (male : female) of patients with CD diagnosed at <10 years of age was 2.57, the adjusted ratio was 2.42, and in patients with UC/IC it was 0.68 and 0.64 respectively. The non-adjusted gender ratio of patients diagnosed at ≥10 years was 1.58 for CD and 0.88 for UC/IC. Boys with UC/IC diagnosed <10 years of age had a longer diagnostic delay, and in girls diagnosed with UC/IC >10 years a more important use of azathioprine was observed. No other gender difference was found after analysis of age, disease location and behaviour at diagnosis, duration of disease, familial occurrence of IBD, prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations, complications, and requirement for surgery. Conclusion CD in children <10 years affects predominantly boys with a sex ratio of 2.57; the impact of sex-hormones on the development of CD in pre-pubertal male patients should be investigated.
    09/2014; 17(3):147-54. DOI:10.5223/pghn.2014.17.3.147
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Growth retardation is a frequent complication of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Only a few studies report the final height of these patients, with controversial results. We compared adult height of patients with paediatric IBD with that of patients with adult-onset disease. METHODS: Height data of 675 women 19-44 years of age and 454 men 23-44 years of age obtained at inclusion in the Swiss IBD cohort study registry were grouped according to the age at diagnosis: (a) prepubertal (men≤13, women≤11 years), (b) pubertal (men 13-22, women 11-18 years) and (c) adult (men>22, women>18 years of age), and compared with each other and with healthy controls. RESULTS: Male patients with prepubertal onset of Crohn's disease (CD) had significantly lower final height (mean 172±6 cm, range 161-182) compared with men with pubertal (179±6 cm, 161-192) or adult (178±7 cm, 162-200) age at onset and the general population (178±7 cm, 142-204). Height z-scores standardized against heights of the normal population were significantly lower in all patients with a prepubertal diagnosis of CD (-0.8±0.9) compared with the other patient groups (-0.1±0.8, P<0.001). Prepubertal onset of CD emerged as a risk factor for reduced final height in patients with prepubertal CD. No difference for final height was found between patients with ulcerative or unclassified IBD diagnosed at prepubertal, pubertal or adult age. CONCLUSION: Prepubertal onset of CD is a risk for lower final height, independent of the initial disease location and the necessity for surgical interventions.
    European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology 08/2014; 26(11). DOI:10.1097/MEG.0000000000000169 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimThis study assessed the mental health of parents of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), compared their mental health with age-matched and gender-matched references and examined parental and child predictors for mental health problems.MethodsA total of 125 mothers and 106 fathers of 125 children with active and inactive IBD from the Swiss IBD multicentre cohort study were included. Parental mental health was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 27 and child behaviour problems by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Child medical data were extracted from hospital records.ResultsWhile the mothers reported lower mental health, the fathers’ mental health was similar, or even better, than in age-matched and gender-matched community controls. In both parents, shorter time since the child's diagnosis was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, the presence of their own IBD diagnosis and child behaviour problems predicted maternal mental health problems.Conclusions Parents of children with IBD may need professional support when their child is diagnosed, in order to mitigate distress. This, in turn, may help the child to adjust better to IBD. Particular attention should be paid to mothers who have their own IBD diagnosis and whose children display behaviour problems.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Acta Paediatrica 08/2014; 104(1). DOI:10.1111/apa.12781 · 1.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict regulation should be enforced regarding arsenic content. Moreover, infants and young children should consume a balanced diet including a variety of grains as carbohydrate sources. While rice protein based infant formulas are an option for infants with cows' milk protein allergy, the inorganic arsenic content should be declared and the potential risks should be considered when using these products.
    Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 07/2014; DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000502 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children and adolescents with Crohn's disease (CD) present often with a more complicated disease course compared to adult patients. In addition, the potential impact of CD on growth, pubertal and emotional development of patients underlines the need for a specific management strategy of pediatric-onset CD. To develop the first evidenced based and consensus driven guidelines for pediatric-onset CD an expert panel of 33 IBD specialists was formed after an open call within the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation and the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterolog, Hepatology and Nutrition. The aim was to base on a thorough review of existing evidence a state of the art guidance on the medical treatment and long term management of children and adolescents with CD, with individualized treatment algorithms based on a benefit-risk analysis according to different clinical scenarios. In children and adolescents who did not have finished their growth, exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is the induction therapy of first choice due to its excellent safety profile, preferable over corticosteroids, which are equipotential to induce remission. The majority of patients with pediatric-onset CD require immunomodulator based maintenance therapy. The experts discuss several factors potentially predictive for poor disease outcome (such as severe perianal fistulizing disease, severe stricturing/penetrating disease, severe growth retardation, panenteric disease, persistent severe disease despite adequate induction therapy), which may incite to an anti-TNF-based top down approach. These guidelines are intended to give practical (whenever possible evidence-based) answers to (pediatric) gastroenterologists who take care of children and adolescents with CD; they are not meant to be a rule or legal standard, since many different clinical scenario exist requiring treatment strategies not covered by or different from these guidelines.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 06/2014; 8(10). DOI:10.1016/j.crohns.2014.04.005 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    Annina Zihler · Gwenaelle Le Blay · Christian P. Braegger · Christoph Lacroix
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious gastroenteritis caused by non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella is usually self-limiting but life-threatening complications may require appropriate antibiotic therapies. Probiotics have evolved as potential alternatives to antibiotics in response to an increasing prevalence of resistant strains, but there are no studies comparing the effectiveness of both treatment strategies on the same intestinal microbiota. We used an in vitro intestinal fermentation system with immobilized fecal microbiota to model enteric Salmonella infection in children. The effects of antibiotics, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid at two dosages, and a probiotic candidate, Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67, on Salmonella counts, intestinal microbiota composition, and metabolic activity were compared. Antibiotic therapy, in agreement with current clinical reports, produced only a transient decrease of Salmonella concentrations but strongly modified bacterial population profiles and metabolic activity, confirming the suitability of the model. B. thermophilum RBL67 grew in the intestinal environment and exerted a strong inhibition on Salmonella when added before or after infection and was able to rebalance the metabolic activity of gut microbiota after antibiotic treatments. Our study revealed a high potential of B. thermophilum RBL67 for prevention and treatment of Salmonella infection. The exact mechanism has to be further elucidated.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) starting during childhood has been assumed to impair quality of life (QoL) of affected children. As this aspect is crucial for further personality development, the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) was assessed in a Swiss nationwide cohort to obtain detailed information on the fields of impairment. Methods Data were prospectively acquired from pediatric patients included in the Swiss IBD Cohort Study. IBD activity was evaluated by PCDAI and PUCAI. The age adapted KIDSCREEN questionnaire was evaluated for 110 children with IBD (64 with Crohn's disease 46 with ulcerative colitis). Data were analyzed with respect to established reference values of healthy controls. Results In the KIDSCREEN index a moderate impairment was only found for physical wellbeing due to disease activity. In contrast, mental well-being and social support were even better as compared to control values. A subgroup analysis revealed that this observation was restricted to the children in the German speaking part of Switzerland, whereas there was no difference compared to controls in the French part of Switzerland. Furthermore, autonomy and school variables were significantly higher in the IBD patients as compared to controls. Conclusions The social support for children with IBD is excellent in this cohort. Only physical well-being was impaired due to disease activity, whereas all other KIDSCREEN parameters were better as compared to controls. This indicates that effective coping and support strategies may be able to compensate the burden of disease in pediatric IBD patients.
    Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 05/2014; 8(5):409–420. DOI:10.1016/j.crohns.2013.10.004 · 3.56 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Crohn s and Colitis 02/2014; 8:S336-S337. DOI:10.1016/S1873-9946(14)60759-5 · 3.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The combination of the severity of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes and the need for intense medical treatment may increase the risk of malignancy and mortality, but evidence regarding the extent of the problem is scarce. Therefore, the Porto Pediatric IBD working group of ESPGHAN conducted a multinational-based survey of cancer and mortality in pediatric IBD. A survey among pediatric gastroenterologists of 20 European countries and Israel on cancer and/or mortality in the pediatric patient population with IBD was undertaken. One representative from each country repeatedly contacted all pediatric gastroenterologists from each country for reporting retrospectively cancer and/or mortality of pediatric patients with IBD after IBD onset, during 2006-2011. We identified 18 cases of cancers and/or 31 deaths in 44 children (26 males) who were diagnosed with IBD (ulcerative colitis, n = 21) at a median age of 10.0 years (inter quartile range, 3.0-14.0). Causes of mortality were infectious (n = 14), cancer (n = 5), uncontrolled disease activity of IBD (n = 4), procedure-related (n = 3), other non-IBD related diseases (n = 3), and unknown (n = 2). The most common malignancies were hematopoietic tumors (n = 11), of which 3 were hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma and 3 Ebstein-Barr virus-associated lymphomas. Cancer and mortality in pediatric IBD are rare, but cumulative rates are not insignificant. Mortality is primarily related to infections, particularly in patients with 2 or more immunosuppressive agents, followed by cancer and uncontrolled disease. At least 6 lymphomas were likely treatment-associated by virtue of their phenotype.
    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 02/2014; 20(2):291-300. DOI:10.1097/01.MIB.0000439066.69340.3c · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group because their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of ID anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's-milk intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status, and immigrant status. The aim of this position paper was to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight. There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of ID. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy European infants and toddlers of normal birth weight. Formula-fed infants up to 6 months of age should receive iron-fortified infant formula, with an iron content of 4 to 8 mg/L (0.6-1.2 mg(-1) · kg(-1) · day(-1)). Marginally low-birth-weight infants (2000-2500 g) should receive iron supplements of 1-2 mg(-1) · kg(-1) · day(-1). Follow-on formulas should be iron-fortified; however, there is not enough evidence to determine the optimal iron concentration in follow-on formula. From the age of 6 months, all infants and toddlers should receive iron-rich (complementary) foods, including meat products and/or iron-fortified foods. Unmodified cow's milk should not be fed as the main milk drink to infants before the age of 12 months and intake should be limited to <500 mL/day in toddlers. It is important to ensure that this dietary advice reaches high-risk groups such as socioeconomically disadvantaged families and immigrant families.
    Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 01/2014; 58(1). DOI:10.5167/uzh-106040 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and low-grade systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced comorbidities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Increasing intake of dietary antioxidants might be beneficial, but there are few data in obese children. To examine the effect of antioxidant supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver function, we randomly assigned overweight or obese children and adolescents (n = 44; mean ± SD age: 12.7 ± 1.5 y) participating in a lifestyle modification program to a 4-mo intervention with daily antioxidants (vitamin E, 400 IU; vitamin C, 500 mg; selenium, 50 μg) or placebo. We measured anthropometrics, antioxidant status, oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, F2-isoprostane metabolites), inflammation, liver enzymes, fasting insulin and glucose, and lipid profile at baseline and endpoint. There was a significant treatment effect of antioxidant supplementation on antioxidant status [α-tocopherol, β = 23.2 (95% CI: 18.0, 28.4); ascorbic acid, β = 70.6 (95% CI: 51.7, 89.4); selenium, β = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.12)] and oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, β = -0.11 (95% CI: -0.19, -0.02)] but not on any of the inflammatory markers measured. There was a significant treatment effect on alanine aminotransferase [β = -0.13 (95% CI: -0.23, -0.03)], a trend toward a significant effect on aspartate aminotransferase [β = -0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.01)], and no significant effect on γ-glutamyltransferase [β = -0.03 (95% CI: -0.11, 0.06)]. In summary, antioxidant supplementation for 4 mo improved antioxidant-oxidant balance and modestly improved liver function tests; however, it did not reduce markers of systemic inflammation despite significant baseline correlations between oxidative stress and inflammation. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01316081.
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and low-grade systemic inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced comorbidities, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Increasing intake of dietary antioxidants might be beneficial, but there are few data in obese children. To examine the effect of antioxidant supplementation on biomarkers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and liver function, we randomly assigned overweight or obese children and adolescents (n = 44; mean ± SD age: 12.7 ± 1.5 y) participating in a lifestyle modification program to a 4-mo intervention with daily antioxidants (vitamin E, 400 IU; vitamin C, 500 mg; selenium, 50 μg) or placebo. We measured anthropometrics, antioxidant status, oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, F2-isoprostane metabolites), inflammation, liver enzymes, fasting insulin and glucose, and lipid profile at baseline and endpoint. There was a significant treatment effect of antioxidant supplementation on antioxidant status [α-tocopherol, β = 23.2 (95% CI: 18.0, 28.4); ascorbic acid, β = 70.6 (95% CI: 51.7, 89.4); selenium, β = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.12)] and oxidative stress [8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, β = -0.11 (95% CI: -0.19, -0.02)] but not on any of the inflammatory markers measured. There was a significant treatment effect on alanine aminotransferase [β = -0.13 (95% CI: -0.23, -0.03)], a trend toward a significant effect on aspartate aminotransferase [β = -0.04 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.01)], and no significant effect on γ-glutamyltransferase [β = -0.03 (95% CI: -0.11, 0.06)]. In summary, antioxidant supplementation for 4 mo improved antioxidant-oxidant balance and modestly improved liver function tests; however, it did not reduce markers of systemic inflammation despite significant baseline correlations between oxidative stress and inflammation. The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01316081.
    Journal of Nutrition 12/2013; 144(2). DOI:10.3945/jn.113.185561 · 4.23 Impact Factor
  • Ted Jost · Christophe Lacroix · Christian Braegger · Christophe Chassard
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    ABSTRACT: Scarce research has been performed to assess whether the human maternal gut microbiota undergoes changes during the perinatal period. Therefore, in the present study, gut microbiota composition of seven healthy mothers(to-be) was assessed at different time points during the perinatal period (i.e. weeks 3-7 prepartum and days 3-6, 9-14, and 25-30 postpartum) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, and was complemented by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and calprotectin quantification using high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. qPCR revealed the predominance of members of the Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Bifidobacterium without detectable changes over the perinatal period. Pyrosequencing supported these data in terms of microbiota stability for any population at any taxonomic level, although ratios of members of the Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes differed between the two methods. However, the number of operational taxonomic units observed by pyrosequencing was subjected to fluctuations and the relative abundance of Streptococcus decreased numerically postpartum (P = 0.11), which may indicate that aberrancies in subdominant populations occur perinatally. Furthermore, total fecal SCFA concentrations, particularly the branched-chain fatty acids isobutyrate and isovalerate, were higher than for non-pregnant subjects throughout the perinatal period. This suggests metabolic changes and increased energy extraction via proteolytic, in addition to saccharolytic fermentation, accompanied by low-grade inflammation based on fecal calprotectin levels. Our data show that the maternal gut microbiota remained stable over the perinatal period despite altered metabolic activity and low-grade inflammation; however, it remains to be confirmed whether changes preceded earlier during pregnancy and succeeded later postpartum.
    Current Microbiology 11/2013; 68. DOI:10.1007/s00284-013-0491-6 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide and young children are a special risk group since their rapid growth leads to high iron requirements. Risk factors associated with a higher prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) include low birth weight, high cow's milk intake, low intake of iron-rich complementary foods, low socioeconomic status and immigrant status.The aim of this position paper is to review the field and provide recommendations regarding iron requirements in infants and toddlers, including those of moderately or marginally low birth weight.There is no evidence that iron supplementation of pregnant women improves iron status in their offspring in a European setting. Delayed cord clamping reduces the risk of iron deficiency. There is insufficient evidence to support general iron supplementation of healthy, European infants and toddlers of normal birth weight. Formula-fed infants up to 6 months of age should receive iron fortified infant formula, with an iron content of 4-8 mg/L (0.6-1.2 mg/kg/d). Marginally low birth weight infants (2000-2500 g) should receive iron supplements of 1-2 mg/kg/d. Follow-on formulas should be iron-fortified. However, there is not enough evidence to determine the optimal iron concentration in follow-on formula. From the age of 6 months, all infants and toddlers should receive iron-rich (complementary) foods including meat products and/or iron fortified foods. Unmodified cow's milk should not be fed as the main milk drink to infants before the age of 12 months and intake should be limited to <500 mL daily in toddlers. It is important to ensure that this dietary advice reaches high risk groups such as socioeconomically disadvantaged families and immigrant families.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2013; DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000206 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Committee on Nutrition of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition aims to document the existing evidence of the benefits and common concerns deriving from the use of donor human milk (DHM) in preterm infants. The comment also outlines gaps in knowledge and gives recommendations for practice and suggestions for future research directions. Protection against necrotizing enterocolitis is the major clinical benefit deriving from the use of DHM when compared with formula. Limited data also suggest unfortified DHM to be associated with improved feeding tolerance and with reduced cardiovascular risk factors during adolescence. Presence of a human milk bank (HMB) does not decrease breast-feeding rates at discharge, but decreases the use of formula during the first weeks of life. This commentary emphasizes that fresh own mother's milk (OMM) is the first choice in preterm infant feeding and strong efforts should be made to promote lactation. When OMM is not available, DHM is the recommended alternative. When neither OMM nor DHM is available, preterm formula should be used. DHM should be provided from an established HMB, which follows specific safety guidelines. Storage and processing of human milk reduces some biological components, which may diminish its health benefits. From a nutritional point of view, DHM, like HM, does not meet the requirements of preterm infants, necessitating a specific fortification regimen to optimize growth. Future research should focus on the improvement of milk processing in HMB, particularly of heat treatment; on the optimization of HM fortification; and on further evaluation of the potential clinical benefits of processed and fortified DHM.
    Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition 10/2013; 57(4):535-542. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3182a3af0a · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Breast milk has recently been recognized as source of commensal and potential probiotic bacteria. The present study investigated whether viable strains of gut-associated obligate anaerobes are shared between the maternal and neonatal gut ecosystem via breastfeeding. Maternal faeces, breast milk and corresponding neonatal faeces collected from seven mothers-neonate pairs at three neonatal sampling points were analyzed by culture-independent (pyrosequencing) and culture-dependent methods (16S rRNA gene sequencing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, random amplified polymorphic DNA and repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction. Pyrosequencing allowed identifying gut-associated obligate anaerobic genera, like Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and members of the Clostridia (Blautia, Clostridium, Collinsella and Veillonella) shared between maternal faeces, breast milk and neonatal faeces. Using culture, a viable strain of Bifidobacterium breve was shown to be shared between all three ecosystems within one mother-neonate pair. Furthermore, pyrosequencing revealed that several butyrate-producing members of the Clostridia (Coprococcus, Faecalibacterium, Roseburia and Subdoligranulum) were shared between maternal faeces and breast milk. This study shows that (viable) obligate gut-associated anaerobes may be vertically transferred from mother to neonate via breastfeeding. Thus, our data support the recently suggested hypothesis of a novel way of mother-neonate communication, in which maternal gut bacteria reach breast milk via an entero-mammary pathway to influence neonatal gut colonization and maturation of the immune system.
    Environmental Microbiology 08/2013; 16(9). DOI:10.1111/1462-2920.12238 · 6.24 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
534.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1993–2014
    • University Children's Hospital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 1992–2014
    • University of Zurich
      • Department of Pediatric Orthopaedics
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2011
    • University of Groningen
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 2007
    • Psychiatrische Universitätsklinik Zürich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland
  • 2004
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2002
    • University of Iowa Children's Hospital
      Iowa City, Iowa, United States