[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxygen activation during oxidation of the lignin-derived hydroquinones 2-methoxy-1,4-benzohydroquinone (MBQH(2)) and 2, 6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzohydroquinone (DBQH(2)) by laccase from Pleurotus eryngii was examined. Laccase oxidized DBQH(2) more efficiently than it oxidized MBQH(2); both the affinity and maximal velocity of oxidation were higher for DBQH(2) than for MBQH(2). Autoxidation of the semiquinones produced by laccase led to the activation of oxygen, producing superoxide anion radicals (Q(*-) + O(2) <--> Q + O(2)(*-)). As this reaction is reversible, its existence was first noted in studies of the effect of systems consuming and producing O(2)(*-) on quinone formation rates. Then, the production of H(2)O(2) in laccase reactions, as a consequence of O(2)(*-) dismutation, confirmed that semiquinones autoxidized. The highest H(2)O(2) levels were obtained with DBQH(2), indicating that DBQ(*-) autoxidized to a greater extent than did MBQ(*-). Besides undergoing autoxidation, semiquinones were found to be transformed into quinones via dismutation and laccase oxidation. Two ways of favoring semiquinone autoxidation over dismutation and laccase oxidation were increasing the rate of O(2)(*-) consumption with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and recycling of quinones with diaphorase (a reductase catalyzing the divalent reduction of quinones). These two strategies made the laccase reaction conditions more natural, since O(2)(*-), besides undergoing dismutation, reacts with Mn(2+), Fe(3+), and aromatic radicals. In addition, quinones are continuously reduced by the mycelium of white-rot fungi. The presence of SOD in laccase reactions increased the extent of autoxidation of 100 microM concentrations of MBQ(*-) and DBQ(*-) from 4.5 to 30.6% and from 19.6 to 40.0%, respectively. With diaphorase, the extent of MBQ(*-) autoxidation rose to 13.8% and that of DBQ(*-) increased to 39.9%.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 01/2000; 66(1):170-5. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two laccase isoenzymes produced by Pleurotus eryngii were purified to electrophoretic homogeneity (42- and 43-fold) with an overall yield of 56.3%. Laccases I and II from this fungus are monomeric glycoproteins with 7 and 1% carbohydrate content, molecular masses (by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of 65 and 61 kDa, and pIs of 4.1 and 4.2, respectively. The highest rate of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) oxidation for laccase I was reached at 65 degrees C and pH 4, and that for laccase II was reached at 55 degrees C and pH 3.5. Both isoenzymes are stable at high pH, retaining 60 to 70% activity after 24 h from pH 8 to 12. Their amino acid compositions and N-terminal sequences were determined, the latter strongly differing from those of laccases of other basidiomycetes. Antibodies against laccase I reacted with laccase II, as well as with laccases from Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus pulmonarius, and Pleurotus floridanus. Different hydroxy- and methoxy-substituted phenols and aromatic amines were oxidized by the two laccase isoenzymes from P. eryngii, and the influence of the nature, number, and disposition of aromatic-ring substituents on kinetic constants is discussed. Although both isoenzymes presented similar substrate affinities, the maximum rates of reactions catalyzed by laccase I were higher than those of laccase II. In reactions with hydroquinones, semiquinones produced by laccase isoenzymes were in part converted into quinones via autoxidation. The superoxide anion radical produced in the latter reaction dismutated, producing hydrogen peroxide. In the presence of manganous ion, the superoxide union was reduced to hydrogen peroxide with the concomitant production of manganic ion. These results confirmed that laccase in the presence of hydroquinones can participate in the production of both reduced oxygen species and manganic ions.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 07/1997; 63(6):2166-74. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quinone redox cycling is generally known as an intracellular process that implies the reduction of quinones (Q) into semiquinones (Q-.) or hydroquinones (QH2), which autoxidize reducing oxygen to superoxide anion radical (O-.2). We demonstrate here for the first time the existence of quinone redox cycling in a ligninolytic fungus, Pleurotus eryngii, showing two particularities: extracellular production of O-.2 and involvement of ligninolytic enzymes. Experiments were performed with P. eryngii cultures, showing laccase activity, and four quinones: 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), 2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (MeBQ), 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone (duroquinone, DQ), and 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione, MD). The overall process consisted of cell-bound divalent reduction of quinones, followed by extracellular laccase-mediated oxidation of hydroquinones into semiquinones, which autoxidized to a certain extent producing O-.2 (at the pH values of natural degradation of lignin, some autoxidation of hydroquinones was observed only with DQH2 and MDH2). The existence of a redox cyclic system involving quinones was evidenced by determining the chemical state of quinones along incubation under several conditions (either different O2 concentrations and pH values or laccase amounts). Thus, QH2/Q ratios at system equilibrium decreased as either pH values and oxygen concentration (allowing hydroquinones autoxidation) or the amount of laccase increased. Once the cyclic nature of the system was demonstrated, special attention was paid to the production of O-.2 during hydroquinone oxidation. Except in the case of BQH2, production of O-.2 was found in samples containing hydroquinones and laccase. By the use of agents promoting the autoxidation of semiquinones (superoxide dismutase and Mn2+), production of O-.2 during oxidation of BQH2 could finally be demonstrated.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 04/1997; 339(1):190-9. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two protein bands with laccase activity were found after PAGE of culture liquid or mycelium extract of Pleurotus eryngii, grown on glucose–ammonium tartrate–yeast extract medium with and without inducers. A major and a minor laccase band were
observed in the basal medium. The intensity of the major band (laccase I) did not change after the addition of inducers. However,
the minor band (laccase II), characterized by higher electrophoretic mobility, was strongly induced by wheat–straw alkalilignin
and vanillic and veratric acids. Laccase activity in the basal medium had an optimum pH of 4.5 and was stable from pH 3 to
10 during 24 h at room temperature. This enzyme had wide substrate specificity on hydroquinones, methoxy-substituted monophenols,
and aromatic amines. In general, laccase activity was found only with compounds having a redox potential lower than 0.5 mV.
The highest activity was obtained with methoxy- and methyl-substituted p-hydroquinones and aromatic diamines. Some activity also occurred with the aliphatic compound 3,5-cyclohexadiene-1,2-diol.
Current Microbiology 12/1996; 34(1):1-5. · 1.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Homoveratric acid (HVA) degradation was observed in cultures of Pleurotus eryngii lacking lignin peroxidase (LiP) activity. Extracellular enzymes seemed responsible for this transformation, and the lack of activity after ultrafiltration of the culture liquid suggests that the presence of some low-molecular-size compounds is required. This hypothesis is supported by rapid HVA transformation after addition of the synthetic laccase substrate 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) to the ultrafiltered liquid. HVA transformation by the extracellular enzymes from P. eryngii takes place via C-C breakdown and formation of veratryl alcohol, which is further transformed into veratraldehyde. The same major compounds were found during HVA transformation by LiP from Phanerochaete chrysosporium, but this reaction was not stimulated by ABTS. Although the involvement of other enzymes cannot be ruled out, purified laccase from Pleurotus eryngii caused the same HVA transformation pattern in presence of ABTS. Moreover, veratryl alcohol oxidation by P. eryngii laccase was demonstrated in the presence of ABTS. These results suggest that enzymatic systems lacking LiP could be responsible for natural degradation of lignin.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/1994; 41(5):500-504. · 3.69 Impact Factor