C M Fleming

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (8)20.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The dapsone recovery ratio (DPRR), which is determined after single oral dose administration of dapsone by measuring the parent drug and hydroxylated metabolite, provides an in vivo measure of the efficiency of the drug metabolizing enzymes responsible for this metabolic route, putatively CYP3A4. This affords the potential to evaluate the hypothesis that this drug metabolizing enzyme system is involved in the pathogenesis of human bladder cancer. The present study is a matched case-control comparison of DPRR in patients with nonaggressive bladder cancer (grades I and II or Ta, T1 and T2, n = 43), patients with aggressive bladder cancer without invasion (grade III or Ta, T1 and T2, n = 32), patients with aggressive bladder cancer and invasion (grade III or T3 and T4, n = 32), and age- and gender-matched subjects with no urologic tumor on cystoscopy from an urban U.K. community (n = 85). Demographic variables associated with aggressive bladder cancer (Gill or T3, T4, Tis) included pack-years of smoking, alcohol intake, and occupational exposure; for nonaggressive bladder cancer variables included smoking and occupational exposure. DPRR exhibited an unimodal distribution in all subjects: activity was significantly reduced in both noninvasive and invasive aggressive bladder cancer, and was a significant risk factor for cancer after adjustment for other significant risk factors. Combining the two aggressive groups, the lowest tertile of DPRR activity was associated with a sixfold increase in risk (p < 0.02) compared with the upper tertile. We conclude that a low dapsone recovery ratio is an independent risk factor for aggressive bladder cancer irrespective of its stage of invasion and suggest that the enzymes involved in its metabolism are detoxifying enzymes for unknown environmental factors to which an urban community is exposed.
    Urologic Oncology 01/1997; 3(1):18-26. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer provides the most definitive example for an association between environmental agents and cancer. However, in the absence of industrial occupational exposure, the primary carcinogen is rarely identified, and the mechanisms involved in cancer formation are poorly understood. The environmental procarcinogen hypothesis of tumour pathogenesis proposes that many carcinogens require metabolic activation by drug metabolizing enzymes to form the proximate carcinogen. A balance of exposure to the carcinogen, the activity of the enzymes involved in either formation of proximate carcinogen, or production of non-toxic metabolites, will determine tumour risk. We have used mephenytoin, debrisoquine and dapsone as selective probes for the phenotypic measures of activity of CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4, respectively. Within subject reproducibility of phenotypic measures, and the lack of cross-inhibition when the three drugs are given in a concurrent cocktail, have been confirmed. We have applied the cocktail drug approach in two, non-overlapping series of cases with bladder cancer and matched controls. In both series, patients with aggressive bladder cancer (GIII histopathology) had a history of excess alcohol intake, an under-representation of poor metabolizers of debrisoquine, a significant mean reduction in dapsone recovery ratio, but no difference in mephenytoin phenotype. Collectively, these observations involving multiple routes of drug metabolism support the procarcinogen environmental hypothesis for bladder cancer and suggest that measurement of activity of selected individual drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the pathogenesis of this tumour can be used to identify subjects at high risk of developing bladder cancer.
    Pharmacogenetics 02/1995; 5 Spec No:S97-102.
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    ABSTRACT: Debrisoquine hydroxylase activity has been attributed to CYP2D6 and poor metabolizers of debrisoquine have a reduced relative risk of developing aggressive bladder cancer. Production of a proximate carcinogen could occur in liver or bladder mucosa. However, it is not known if CYP2D6 is expressed in human bladder mucosa. In vivo whole body debrisoquine hydroxylase activity was measured as the debrisoquine recovery ratio (DBRR) following single dose oral administration of debrisoquine (10 mg) in 10 normal subjects and 20 patients with bladder cancer prior to diagnostic cystoscopy. Semi-quantitative PCR was used to measure mRNA for CYP2D6 in bladder tissue obtained at cystoscopy. Of the 30 subjects, three were phenotypically and genotypically poor metabolizers. Among the extensive metabolizers, there were extensive intersubject variations in DBRR. A 10-fold variation in CYP2D6 mRNA levels was observed in bladder tissue. There was a highly significant association between DBRR and CYP2D6 mRNA expression (r2 = 0.702, P < 0.001). These results demonstrate the presence of CYP2D6 mRNA in bladder mucosa. Furthermore, they are consistent with debrisoquine hydroxylation being mediated by CYP2D6 and suggest that differences in mRNA concentration are rate limiting for enzyme activity and that bladder mucosal regulation reflects total body regulation for this enzyme. The expression of CYP2D6 in bladder mucosa suggests that this enzyme could be involved in the local production of a proximate carcinogen in this tissue and contribute to the pathogenesis of bladder cancer in man.
    Carcinogenesis 10/1994; 15(9):1955-61. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-arylamines involved in the pathogenesis of bladder cancer, require metabolic activation via N-hydroxylation. The efficiency of in vivo N-hydroxylation of dapsone, a non-carcinogenic arylamine, may, therefore, provide a host susceptibility measure of risk of developing bladder cancer. To investigate this possibility, the dapsone recovery ratio, a phenotypic measure of the efficiency of dapsone hydroxylation, has been measured in a case control study in an urban UK population, comparing patients with aggressive bladder cancer (n = 33), non-aggressive bladder cancer (n = 60) and controls (n = 108). Dapsone recovery ratio in controls exhibited a unimodal distribution. Patients with aggressive bladder cancer had a similar distribution but significantly lower mean value (p < 0.005). Logistic regression analysis, controlling for sex, age, smoking habit and alcohol consumption confirmed a significant (p < 0.05) association between the dapsone recovery ratio and aggressive bladder cancer. Subjects in the lowest tertile of dapsone recovery ratio had a relative risk to 5.4-fold greater than subjects in the upper tertile (p < 0.009), and a trends test was significant (p < 0.001). There was no significant association between dapsone recovery ratio and non-aggressive bladder cancer. These results do not support the hypothesis that the drug metabolizing enzymes involved in dapsone N-hydroxylation are involved in causing bladder cancer. Instead, they suggest the opposite, the observation that low enzyme activity was associated with increased risk is consistent with this enzyme providing a detoxification mechanism for environmental procarcinogens.
    Pharmacogenetics 08/1994; 4(4):199-207.
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    ABSTRACT: Acetylation and N-hydroxylation of dapsone were evaluated in drug-free, non-smoking, normal subjects and subjects with cirrhosis (n = 7 for each group) after oral administration of 100 mg dapsone. Acetylation was not correlated with oral dapsone clearance or reduced in cirrhosis (0.37 +/- 0.43 versus 0.52 +/- 0.32). Fractional metabolic clearance of dapsone to its hydroxylamine was associated with dapsone oral clearance (r = 0.96, p less than 0.001, n = 14). In patients with cirrhosis, liver disease was associated with a trend to reduction in oral clearance (22%) and metabolic clearance of dapsone (48%). Protein binding was minimally reduced by cirrhosis (73% +/- 1% versus 69% +/- 3% in patients with cirrhosis (p less than 0.02). The dapsone recovery ratio was validated as a phenotypic index of the metabolic clearance of dapsone (r = 0.74, p less than 0.05). In an extended comparison of 14 patients with cirrhosis to 70 control subjects, cirrhosis was associated with reductions of 28% in dapsone recovery ratio (p less than 0.001), and 37% in acetylation ratio (p less than 0.01). Neither dapsone recovery ratio nor acetylation ratio correlated with Pugh Score, conventional liver function tests, indocyanine green clearance, or phenotypic measures of S-mephenytoin hydroxylase or debrisoquin hydroxylase activity. We conclude that cirrhosis is associated with minor changes in dapsone disposition and that dosage modification is not required. In addition, there is evidence that cirrhosis has a selective influence on activity of individual isozymes of cytochrome P450.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 07/1992; 51(6):689-700. · 6.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the major routes of elimination of dapsone (4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone) is by N-oxidation, to produce a hydroxylamine metabolite. The specific form of cytochrome P-450 (P-450) involved in this oxidation reaction was examined in human liver microsomal preparations previously characterized with respect to their content of several known P-450 enzymes. Among five preparations, the rank order of activity for dapsone hydroxylamine formation was most well correlated with the immunochemically determined level of P-4503A4 (r = 0.94, p less than 0.03). Moreover, inhibition of microsomal oxidation was observed with antibodies specific to P-4503A, with a maximum reduction of greater than 90%, but was not produced by antibodies specific to P-4501A2, P-4502CMP, or P-4502E1. Prior incubation of microsomes with gestodene (100 microM) or troleandomycin (20 microM), known selective mechanism-based inhibitors of P-4503A enzymes (in the presence of NADPH), led to 75% and 40% reductions in catalytic activity, respectively. In contrast, preincubation with increasing concentrations of alpha-naphthoflavone, a known activator of P-4503A4, increased dapsone N-hydroxylation in a concentration-dependent manner, with 5-fold activation being observed at 50 microM alpha-naphthoflavone. Finally, P-4503A4 isolated from human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed P-4503A4 (in yeast) were both able to catalyze dapsone N-hydroxylation, with the latter preparation exhibiting a 3-fold activation in the presence of 100 microM alpha-naphthoflavone. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that N-oxidation of dapsone in human liver is predominantly mediated by P-4503A4, and they suggest that quantitative measurement of this metabolic pathway in vivo might serve as an index of the activity of this enzyme.
    Molecular Pharmacology 06/1992; 41(5):975-80. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes is often involved in the activation of environmental procarcinogens. Debrisoquine, mephenytoin, and dapsone were used as in vivo probes for the activities of P4502D6, 2CMP, and 3A4, respectively, as well as dapsone for N-acetyltransferase, in order to assess the relationship between such activities and the relative risk of recurrence of bladder cancer. Urinary recovery ratios of debrisoquine and dapsone and the R/S ratio of mephenytoin were measured in an 0-8 h urine sample after simultaneous administration of debrisoquine (10 mg) and racemic mephenytoin (100 mg), and the administration of dapsone (100 mg) one week later, to patients undergoing local surgical resection of transitional cell bladder cancer of G-I, G-II, or G-III histopathology. In addition, plasma levels of dapsone and mono-acetyldapsone were determined in an 8 h plasma sample to determine the N-acetylation phenotype. Patients were followed for 3 years, to the time of tumour recurrence, or death. Three patients were lost to follow-up; of the remaining 95 patients, 55 had tumour recurrence. The debrisoquine recovery ratio was significantly greater in patients with recurrence than in individuals who remained disease-free. Among the 65 patients with non-aggressive (G-I and G-II) histopathology, two patients were lost to follow-up and 32 had tumour recurrence. In this subgroup, the debrisoquine recovery ratio was again found to be significantly greater in those individuals with tumour recurrence (p < 0.003).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Pharmacogenetics 06/1992; 2(3):128-34.
  • Progress in clinical and biological research 02/1992; 378:19-27.

Publication Stats

111 Citations
20.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1997
    • University of Bristol
      Bristol, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • University of Pittsburgh
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1992–1994
    • Vanderbilt University
      • • Department of Pharmacology
      • • Division of Clinical Pharmacology
      Nashville, MI, United States