[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although reduction in leukocyte counts following hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease (SCD) predicts fetal hemoglobin (HbF) response, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. We previously reported that leukocyte counts are regulated by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in SCD patients. Here we examined the roles of GM-CSF in the regulation of HbF expression in SCD. Upon the analysis of retrospective data in 372 patients, HbF levels were inversely correlated with leukocyte counts and GM-CSF levels in SCD patients without hydroxyurea therapy, while HbF increments after hydroxyurea therapy correlated with a reduction in leukocyte counts, suggesting a negative effect of GM-CSF on HbF expression. Consistently, in vitro studies using primary erythroblasts showed that the addition of GM-CSF to erythroid cells decreased HbF expression. We next examined the intracellular signaling pathway through which GM-CSF reduced HbF expression. Treatment of erythroid cells with GM-CSF resulted in the reduction of intracellular cAMP levels and abrogated phosphorylation of cAMP response-element-binding-protein, suggesting attenuation of the cAMP-dependent pathway, while the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases were not affected. This is compatible with our studies showing a role for the cAMP-dependent pathway in HbF expression. Together, these results demonstrate that GM-CSF plays a role in regulating both leukocyte count and HbF expression in SCD. Reduction in GM-CSF levels upon hydroxyurea therapy may be critical for efficient HbF induction. The results showing the involvement of GM-CSF in HbF expression may suggest possible mechanisms for hydroxyurea resistance in SCD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously demonstrated that inhaling nitric oxide (NO) increases the oxygen affinity of sickle red blood cells (RBCs) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Our recent studies found that NO lowered the P(50) values of sickle hemoglobin (HbS) hemolysates but did not increase methemoglobin (metHb) levels, supporting the role of NO, but not metHb, in the oxygen affinity of HbS. Here we examine the mechanism by which NO increases HbS oxygen affinity. Because anti-sickling agents increase sickle RBC oxygen affinity, we first determined whether NO exhibits anti-sickling properties. The viscosity of HbS hemolysates, measured by falling ball assays, increased upon deoxygenation; NO treatment reduced the increment. Multiphoton microscopic analyses showed smaller HbS polymers in deoxygenated sickle RBCs and HbS hemolysates exposed to NO. These results suggest that NO inhibits HbS polymer formation and has anti-sickling properties. Furthermore, we found that HbS treated with NO exhibits an isoelectric point similar to that of HbA, suggesting that NO alters the electric charge of HbS. NO-HbS adducts had the same elution time as HbA upon high performance liquid chromatography analysis. This study demonstrates that NO may disrupt HbS polymers by abolishing the excess positive charge of HbS, resulting in increased oxygen affinity.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 03/2011; 510(1):53-61. · 3.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Because of disparate taxonomic arrays for classification, the American Academy of Pain Medicine has proposed categorizing pain on a neurobiologic basis as eudynia (nociceptive pain), Greek for "good pain," or maldynia (maladaptive pain), Greek for "bad pain." The latter has been viewed as maladaptive because it may occur in the absence of ongoing noxious stimuli and does not promote healing and repair.
To address recent findings on the pathogenesis of pain following neural injury and consider whether the development of maladaptive pain justifies its classification as a disease and to briefly discuss the scope of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches employed in patients with such pain.
English language reports on studies using human subjects were selected from a PubMed search of the literature from 1995 to August 2010 and from the Cochrane Library. Further information was obtained from Internet sites of medical specialty and other societies devoted to pain management.
Neural damage to either the peripheral or central nervous system provokes multiple processes including peripheral and central sensitization, ectopic activity, neuronal cell death, disinhibition, altered gene expression, and abnormal sprouting and cellular connectivity. A series of neuro-immune interactions underlie many of these mechanisms. Imaging studies have shown that such damage is characterized by functional, structural, and chemical changes in the brain. Such pain is maladaptive in the sense that it occurs in the absence of ongoing noxious stimuli and does not promote healing and repair.
As defined, maldynia is a multidimensional process that may warrant consideration as a chronic disease not only affecting sensory and emotional processing but also producing an altered brain state based on both functional imaging and macroscopic measurements. However, the absolute clinical value of this definition is not established.
Pain Medicine 11/2010; 11(11):1635-53. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pain from vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC) is the major cause of hospitalization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). The beneficial therapeutic effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the pathophysiology of SCD have been reported. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to determine whether NO breathing reduces acute VOC pain in adult patients and to study the safety of inhaled NO. Twenty-three patients experiencing acute VOC were enrolled. After randomization but before treatment, five were found to not meet final eligibility criteria. Nine patients were assigned to inhaled NO (80 ppm) and nine to placebo (21% O2). Primary outcome was the mean change in pain scores after 4 hr of inhalation, measured on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). Both groups had similar baseline VAS pain scores but inhaled NO significantly reduced pain scores compared with placebo (P 5 0.02) at the end of NO inhalation. Secondary outcome was parenteral morphine use at baseline, 4, and 6 hr. Parenteral morphine use was lower in the inhaled NO group, but the difference was not statistically significant.Safety assessments included systolic blood pressure measurements,pulse oximetry readings, concentration of delivered nitrogen dioxide, and concentration of methemoglobin (metHb). None of these NO toxicities was observed.
American Journal of Hematology 10/2010; 85(10):800-2. · 4.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesive interactions between circulating sickle red blood cells (RBCs), leukocytes, and endothelial cells are major pathophysiologic events in sickle cell disease (SCD). To develop new therapeutics that efficiently inhibit adhesive interactions, we generated an anti-P-selectin aptamer and examined its effects on cell adhesion using knockout-transgenic SCD model mice. Aptamers, single-stranded oligonucleotides that bind molecular targets with high affinity and specificity, are emerging as new therapeutics for cardiovascular and hematologic disorders. In vitro studies found that the anti-P-selectin aptamer exhibits high specificity to mouse P-selectin but not other selectins. SCD mice were injected with the anti-P-selectin aptamer, and cell adhesion was observed under hypoxia. The anti-P-selectin aptamer inhibited the adhesion of sickle RBCs and leukocytes to endothelial cells by 90% and 80%, respectively. The anti-P-selectin aptamer also increased microvascular flow velocities and reduced the leukocyte rolling flux. SCD mice treated with the anti-P-selectin aptamer demonstrated a reduced mortality rate associated with the experimental procedures compared with control mice. These results demonstrate that anti-P-selectin aptamer efficiently inhibits the adhesion of both sickle RBCs and leukocytes to endothelial cells in SCD model mice, suggesting a critical role for P-selectin in cell adhesion. Anti-P-selectin aptamer may be useful as a novel therapeutic agent for SCD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Partial liquid ventilation (PLV) with high-specific-weight perfluorocarbon liquids has been shown to improve oxygenation in acute lung injury, possibly by redistributing perfusion from dependent, injured regions to nondependent, less injured regions of the lung. Our hypothesis was that during PLV in normal lungs, a shift in perfusion away from dependent lung zones might, in part, be due to vasoconstriction that could be reversed by infusing sodium nitroprusside (NTP). In addition, delivering inhaled NO during PLV should improve gas exchange by further redistributing blood flow to well-ventilated lung regions. To examine this, we used a single transverse-slice positron emission tomography camera to image regional ventilation and perfusion at the level of the heart apex in six supine mechanically ventilated sheep during five conditions: control, PLV, PLV + NTP, and PLV + NO at 10 and 80 ppm. We found that PLV shifted perfusion from dependent to middle regions, and the dependent region demonstrated marked hypoventilation. The vertical distribution of perfusion changed little when high-dose intravenous NTP was added during PLV, and inhaled NO tended to shift perfusion toward better ventilated middle regions. We conclude that PLV shifts perfusion to the middle regions of the lung because of the high specific weight of perflubron rather than vasoconstriction.
Journal of Applied Physiology 02/2002; 92(1):297-312. · 3.48 Impact Factor