[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. The objective was to compare the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses to nutrition bars containing either cross-linked RS type 4 (RS4(XL)) or standard wheat starch in normoglycemic adults (n = 13; age = 27 +/- 5 years; BMI = 25 +/- 3 kg/m(2)). Methods. Volunteers completed three trials during which they consumed a glucose beverage (GLU), a puffed wheat control bar (PWB), and a bar containing cross-linked RS4 (RS4(XL)) matched for available carbohydrate content. Serial blood samples were collected over two hours and glucose and insulin concentrations were determined and the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was calculated. Results. The RS4(XL) peak glucose and insulin concentrations were lower than the GLU and PWB (P < .05). The iAUC for glucose and insulin were lower following ingestion of RS4 compared with the GLU and PWB trials. Conclusions. These data illustrate, for the first time, that directly substituting standard starch with RS4(XL), while matched for available carbohydrates, attenuated postprandial glucose and insulin levels in humans. It remains to be determined whether this response was due to the dietary fiber and/or resistant starch aspects of the RS4(XL) bar.
Journal of nutrition and metabolism 01/2010; 2010. DOI:10.1155/2010/651063
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alterations of skeletal muscle redox state via antioxidant supplementation have the potential to impact contractile function and vascular smooth muscle tone. The effects of antioxidants on the regulation of muscle O(2) delivery-O(2) utilization (Q(O(2)m/V(O(2)m)) matching (which sets the microvascular partial pressure of O(2); P(O(2)mv)) in young healthy muscle are not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on rat spinotrapezius muscle force production, blood flow, V(O(2)m) and P(O(2)mv) (phosphorescence quenching). Anaesthetized male Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats (6-8 months old) had their right spinotrapezius muscles either exposed for measurement of blood flow and (n = 13) or exteriorized for measurement of muscle force production (n = 6). Electrically stimulated 1 Hz twitch contractions (approximately 7-9 V) were elicited for 180 s, and measurements were made before and after acute intra-arterial antioxidant supplementation (76 mg kg(-1) ascorbic acid, 52 mg kg(-1) tempol) dissolved in saline and infused over 30 min. The principal effects of antioxidants were a approximately 25% decrease (P < 0.05) in contracting spinotrapezius muscle force production concurrent with reductions in muscle blood flow and V(O(2)m) at rest and during contractions (P < 0.05 for both). Antioxidant supplementation reduced the resting baseline P(O(2)mv) (before, 29.9 +/- 1.2 mmHg; after, 25.6 +/- 1.3 mmHg; P < 0.05), and this magnitude of depression was sustained throughout the rest-to-exercise transition (steady-state value before, 16.4 +/- 0.7 mmHg; after, 13.6 +/- 0.9 mmHg; P < 0.05). In addition, the time constant of the P(O(2)mv) decrease was reduced after antioxidant supplementation (before, 23.4 +/- 4.3 s; after, 15.6 +/- 2.7 s; P < 0.05). These results demonstrate that antioxidant supplementation significantly impacts the control of (Q(O(2)m/V(O(2)m)) in young rats at rest and during contractions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aged rats exhibit a decreased muscle microvascular O(2) partial pressure (Pmv(O(2))) at rest and during contractions compared with young rats. Age-related reductions in nitric oxide bioavailability due, in part, to elevated reactive O(2) species, constrain muscle blood flow (Qm). Antioxidants may restore nitric oxide bioavailability, Qm, and ameliorate the reduced Pmv(O(2)). We tested the hypothesis that antioxidants would elevate Qm and, therefore, Pmv(O(2)) in aged rats. Spinotrapezius muscle Pmv(O(2)) and Qm were measured, and oxygen consumption (Vm(O(2))) was estimated in anesthetized male Fisher 344 x Brown Norway hybrid rats at rest and during 1-Hz contractions, before and after antioxidant intravenous infusion (76 mg/kg vitamin C and 52 mg/kg tempol). Before infusion, contractions evoked a biphasic Pmv(O(2)) that fell from 30.6 +/- 0.9 Torr to a nadir of 16.8 +/- 1.2 Torr with an "undershoot" of 2.8 +/- 0.7 Torr below the subsequent steady-state (19.7 +/- 1.2 Torr). The principal effect of antioxidants was to elevate baseline Pmv(O(2)) from 30.6 +/- 0.9 to 35.7 +/- 0.8 Torr (P < 0.05) and reduce or abolish the undershoot (P < 0.05). Antioxidants reduced Qm and Vm(O(2)) during contractions (P < 0.05), while decreasing force production 16.5% (P < 0.05) and elevating the force production-to-Vm(O(2)) ratio (0.92 +/- 0.03 to 1.06 +/- 0.6, P < 0.05). Thus antioxidants increased Pmv(O(2)) by altering the balance between muscle O(2) delivery and Vm(O(2)) at rest and during contractions. It is likely that this effect arose from antioxidants reducing myocyte redox below the level optimal for contractile performance and directly (decreased tension) or indirectly (altered balance of vasoactive mediators) influencing O(2) delivery and Vm(O(2)).