[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Presented here are initial structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on a series of novel heteroaryl fused tetracyclic indole-based inhibitors of the hepatitis C viral polymerase, NS5B. The introduction of alternative heterocyclic moieties into the indolo-fused inhibitor class significantly expands the reported SAR and resulted in the identification of pyridino analogs, typified by compounds 44 and 45 that displayed excellent potency against the NS5B polymerase of both HCV 1a and HCV 1b genotypes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent development of a Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infectious virus cell culture model system has facilitated the development of whole-virus screening assays which can be used to interrogate the entire virus life cycle. Here, we describe the development of an HCV growth assay capable of identifying inhibitors against all stages of the virus life cycle with assay throughput suitable for rapid screening of large-scale chemical libraries. Novel features include, 1) the use of an efficiently-spreading, full-length, intergenotypic chimeric reporter virus with genotype 1 structural proteins, 2) a homogenous assay format compatible with miniaturization and automated liquid-handling, and 3) flexible assay end-points using either chemiluminescence (high-throughput screening) or Cellomics ArrayScan™ technology (high-content screening). The assay was validated using known HCV antivirals and through a large-scale, high-throughput screening campaign that identified novel and selective entry, replication and late-stage inhibitors. Selection and characterization of resistant viruses provided information regarding inhibitor target and mechanism. Leveraging results from this robust whole-virus assay represents a critical first step towards identifying inhibitors of novel targets to broaden the spectrum of antivirals for the treatment of HCV.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(8):e42609. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) catalyze the dephosphorylation of tyrosine residues, a process that involves a conserved tryptophan-proline-aspartate (WPD) loop in catalysis. In previously determined structures of PTPs, the WPD-loop has been observed in either an "open" conformation or a "closed" conformation. In the current work, X-ray structures of the catalytic domain of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase γ (RPTPγ) revealed a ligand-induced "superopen" conformation not previously reported for PTPs. In the superopen conformation, the ligand acts as an apparent competitive inhibitor and binds in a small hydrophobic pocket adjacent to, but distinct from, the active site. In the open and closed WPD-loop conformations of RPTPγ, the side chain of Trp1026 partially occupies this pocket. In the superopen conformation, Trp1026 is displaced allowing a 3,4-dichlorobenzyl substituent to occupy this site. The bound ligand prevents closure of the WPD-loop over the active site and disrupts the catalytic cycle of the enzyme.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 09/2011; 54(19):6548-62. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein, we present initial SAR studies on a series of bridged 2-arylindole-based NS5B inhibitors. The introduction of bridging elements between the indole N1 and the ortho-position of the 2-aryl moiety resulted in conformationally constrained heterocycles that possess multiple additional vectors for further exploration. The binding mode and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of select examples, including: 13-cyclohexyl-6-oxo-6,7-dihydro-5H-indolo[2,1-d][1,4]benzodiazepine-10-carboxylic acid (7) (IC(50)=0.07 μM, %F=18), are reported.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein we report the identification and evaluation of a novel series of (E)-3-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-methylacrylic acid derivatives identified from a deannulation study performed on the reported benzimidazole NS5B inhibitor, 1. This resulted in the identification of (E)-3-(2-(4-((4'-cyano-4-(4-hydroxypiperidine-1-carbonyl)biphenyl-2-yl)methoxy)phenyl)-1-cyclohexyl-1H-imidazol-4-yl)-2-methylacrylic acid (11) as a potent inhibitor of NS5B. Potential pathways for the further optimization of this series are suggested.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Structure based rationales for the activities of potent N-benzyl-4-heteroaryl-1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperazine-2-carboxamide inhibitors of the hepatitis C viral polymerase are described herein. These compounds bind to the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 5B (NS5B), and co-crystal structures of select examples from this series with NS5B are reported. Comparison of co-crystal structures of a potent analog with both NS5B genotype 1a and genotype 1b provides a possible explanation for the genotype-selectivity observed with this compound class and suggests opportunities for the further optimization of the series.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Described herein is the initial optimization of (+/-) N-benzyl-4-heteroaryl-1-(phenylsulfonyl)piperazine-2-carboxamide (1), a hit discovered in a high throughput screen run against the NS5B polymerase enzyme of the hepatitis C virus. This effort resulted in the identification of (S)-N-sec-butyl-6-((R)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzylcarbamoyl)-4-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylsulfonyl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridazine-3-carboxamide (2), that displayed potent replicon activities against HCV genotypes 1b and 1a (EC(50) 1b/1a=7/89 nM).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5B) is required for viral replication. Crystal structures of the NS5B apoprotein show that the finger and thumb domains interact to encircle the active site, and that inhibitors defined by P495 resistance that bind to the thumb-finger interface displace the Δ1 finger loop and disrupt this structure. Since crystal structures may not reveal all of the conformations of a protein in solution we have developed an alternative method, using limited trypsin protease digestion, to investigate the impact of inhibitors as well as substrates on the movement of the Δ1 loop. This assay can be used to study NS5B under conditions that support enzymatic activity. In the absence of inhibitors, no specific region of NS5B was hypersensitive to trypsin, and no specific intermediate cleavage products were formed. Binding of P495-site inhibitors to NS5B induced specific trypsin hypersensitivity at lysine residues 50 and 51. Previously characterized inhibitors and mutant polymerases were used to link this specific trypsin hypersensitivity to movement of the Δ1 loop. Trypsin hypersensitivity identical to the inhibitor pattern was also induced by the binding of the RNA template. The addition of primer to the NS5B-template complex eliminated the hypersensitivity. The data are consistent with displacement of the Δ1 finger loop from the thumb by the binding of template, and reversal by the addition of primer or NTP. Our results complement inhibitor-enzyme co-crystal studies, and the assay provides a rapid and sensitive method to study dynamic changes in HCV NS5B polymerase conformation under conditions that support functional activity.
Antiviral research 11/2010; 88(2):197-206. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of conformationally restricted homotryptamines has been synthesized and shown to be potent inhibitors of hSERT. Conformational restriction of the homotryptamine side chain was attained by the insertion of a cyclopentyl ring, with the indole ring and the terminal dialkylamino group occupying the 1- and 3-positions, respectively. Nitrile and fluoro substitutions at the indole 5-position gave highest hSERT potency. Preferred cyclopentane ring stereochemistry in both series was cis (1S,3R for 5-CN compound 8a, 1R,3S for 5-F compound 9a). High hSERT binding affinity was observed for 8a and 9a (0.22 and 0.63 nM, respectively). The corresponding trans isomers were 4-9 times less potent. 8a, dosed at 1 and 3 mg/kg po, produced a robust, dose-dependent increase in extracellular serotonin in the frontal cortex of rats, similar to that induced by paroxetine at 5 mg/kg, po. By contrast, 9a did not produce a significant increase in extracellular serotonin in rat frontal cortex at 3 mg/kg po due to relatively low brain and plasma levels.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2010; 53(21):7564-72. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A frequently employed strategy in drug discovery efforts is to replace aromatic rings in known active compounds with alternative aromatic moieties to create novel compounds with improved potency and/or adsorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity properties. Here we introduce MORPH, which is a simple software tool for systematically modifying aromatic rings in three-dimensional models of molecules without altering the coordinates of the nonhydrogen atoms in the rings. MORPH works on individual rings as well as fused ring systems and additionally provides the ability to filter out modified compounds which do not contain hydrogen-bond donors or acceptors at specific positions on the rings or contain more or less than the desired number of heteroatoms. The MORPH program and its application to two ligands extracted from cocrystal structures with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2)/cyclin A and CDK2 are discussed below.
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 06/2010; 50(6):1159-64. · 4.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of indole tetrahydropyridine and indole cyclohexenylamines was prepared, and their binding affinities at the human serotonin transporter (SERT) were determined. In particular, a nitrile substituent at the C5 position of the indole ring gave potent SERT activity. The stereochemistry of the N,N-dimethylamine substituent was determined for the most potent indole cyclohexenylamine, 6a. The enantiomers of 6a were energy minimized and compared to other conformationally restricted SSRIs. Compound 6a was found to give a dose-response similar to the SSRI fluoxetine in microdialysis studies in rats.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of indole cyclopropylmethylamines were found to be potent serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Nitrile substituents at the 5 and 7 positions of the indole ring gave high affinity for hSERT, and the preferred cyclopropane stereochemistry was determined to be (1S,2S)-trans. The cis-cyclopropanes had 20- to 30-fold less affinity than the trans, and the preferred cis stereochemistry was (1R,2S)-cis. Substitution of the indole N-1 position with methyl or ethyl groups gave a 10- to 30-fold decrease in affinity for hSERT, suggesting either a hydrogen-bonding interaction or limited steric tolerance in the region of the indole nitrogen. Compound (+)-12a demonstrated potent hSERT binding (Ki = 0.18 nM) in vitro and was more than 1000-fold less potent at hDAT, hNET, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT6. In vivo, (+)-12a produced robust, dose-dependent increases in extracellular serotonin in rat frontal cortex typical of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The maximal response produced by (+)-12a was similar to that of fluoxetine but at an approximately 10-fold lower dose.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 10/2005; 48(19):6023-34. · 5.61 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: [structures: see text] A stereocontrolled racemic synthesis of conformationally restricted analogues 2a and 2b of a potent CGRP receptor antagonist 1 by novel functionalization of 2-substituted octahydropyrido[1,2-a]pyrazin-6-ones is described. The new diastereoselective LDA-promoted alpha-nitration of intermediate lactams established the required trans-configuration in the desired products.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: LFA-1 (leukocyte function-associated antigen-1), is a member of the beta(2)-integrin family and is expressed on all leukocytes. The LFA-1/ICAM interaction promotes tight adhesion between activated leukocytes and the endothelium, as well as between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. Evidence from both animal models and clinical trials provides support for LFA-1 as a target in several different inflammatory diseases. This paper describes the de novo design, synthesis and in vitro activity of LFA-1 antagonists based on a bicyclic[5.5]hydantoin scaffold.