B R Mirdha

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, NCT, India

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Publications (59)61.34 Total impact

  • P Yadav, V Tak, B R Mirdha, G K Makharia
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    ABSTRACT: The intestinal flagellate Giardia lamblia includes many genetically distinct assemblages, of which assemblage A and B, predominantly infect humans. Nitroimidazoles derivatives (metronidazole and tinidazole) and nitazoxanide are some of the therapeutic agents for treatment of giardiasis. Nevertheless, some individuals with giardiasis are non-responsive to standard therapy. The present study highlights cases of refractory giardiasis and attempts to elucidate if genetic heterogeneity in the parasite is associated with treatment failure.
    Indian journal of medical microbiology. 10/2014; 32(4):378-82.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Information on prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised children with pneumonia in Southeast Asia is limited.Methods: Immunocompromised children hospitalized with radiographic pneumonia were investigated for PCP by testing induced sputum by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results: Ninety-four immunocompromised children (mean age 74.5 ± 43.7 months, boys 69) with pneumonia were investigated for PCP. Underlying disease included solid tumors and hematological malignancy in 57, HIV infection in 14, primary immune deficiency in 11 and other immune deficiency disorders in 12 children. PCR could detect P. jirovecii in 14 children. Prevalence of PCP in HIV-infected children was 43% (6 of 14), renal disease on immunosuppressants 45% (4 of 9), primary immune deficiency 19% (2 of 11) and malignancies on chemotherapy 4% (2 of 57). Three of 14 children died from PCP.Conclusions: PCP is responsible for pneumonia in 14% of children with underlying immunocompromised state; PCR on induced sputum improves diagnosis.
    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 01/2014; · 1.01 Impact Factor
  • Preeti Singh, Bijay Ranjan Mirdha, Vineet Ahuja, Sundeep Singh
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    ABSTRACT: Amoebic liver abscess (ALA) is the most common extra intestinal manifestation of invasive amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. The lack of early and accurate diagnostic test to differentiate various causes of liver abscess necessitates more reliable laboratory diagnostic test. The present study was conducted to assess the applicability of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for detection of E. histolytica in ALA cases. Fifty patients (n = 50) with clinical suspicion of ALA were enrolled in the study. All the clinical samples were subjected to conventional PCR assay. LAMP assay was standardized and the results were compared with that of PCR assay. Out of fifty pus samples thirty-six (72 %, 36/50) were positive for E. histolytica with conventional PCR assay and forty-one (82 %, 41/50) were positive by LAMP assay. Thus, five additional positive cases, missed by conventional PCR were positive with LAMP assay. Apart from rapidity, operational simplicity of LAMP assay high specificity and sensitivity, one-step amplification, higher yield and immediate visual detection may serve as a better diagnostic tool for diagnosis of ALA.
    World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology (Formerly MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology) 10/2012; · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. To study the genetic diversity of P. jirovecii in India the upstream conserved sequence (UCS) region of Pneumocystis genome was amplified, sequenced and genotyped from a set of respiratory specimens obtained from 50 patients with a positive result for nested mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU rRNA) PCR during the years 2005-2008. Of these 50 cases, 45 showed a positive PCR for UCS region. Variations in the tandem repeats in UCS region were characterized by sequencing all the positive cases. Of the 45 cases, one case showed five repeats, 11 cases showed four repeats, 29 cases showed three repeats and four cases showed two repeats. By running amplified DNA from all these cases on a high-resolution gel, mixed infection was observed in 12 cases (26.7%, 12/45). Forty three of 45 cases included in this study had previously been typed at mtLSU rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region by our group. In the present study, the genotypes at those two regions were combined with UCS repeat patterns to construct allelic profiles of 43 cases. A total of 36 allelic profiles were observed in 43 isolates indicating high genetic variability. A statistically significant association was observed between mtLSU rRNA genotype 1, ITS type Ea and UCS repeat pattern 4.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 08/2012; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 28-year-old lady presented with recurrent erythematous skin lesions in different parts of the body for 3 months. There were several episodes of worm coming out of the lesions. Examination of the worms in the parasitology laboratory revealed it to be a larva of Gnathostoma sp. She was advised treatment with Albendazole for 21 days, and there was no recurrence of lesions.
    Indian journal of medical microbiology 07/2012; 30(3):356-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) is considered as a sacred herb and traditionally it is believed that consumption of Tulsi leaf on empty stomach increases immunity. Experimental studies have shown that alcoholic extract of Tulsi modulates immunity. The present study was designed to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of ethanolic extract of Tulsi leaves through a double-blinded randomized controlled cross-over trial on healthy volunteers. Three hundred milligrams capsules of ethanolic extracts of leaves of Tulsi or placebo were administered to 24 healthy volunteers on empty stomach and the results of 22 subjects who completed the study were analyzed. The primary objective was to study the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-4) during both pre and post intervention period in blood culture supernatants following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and phytohaemagglutinin. Other immunological parameters such as T-helper and T-cytotoxic cells, B-cells and NK-cells also were analyzed using Flowcytometry. Statistically significant increase in the levels of IFN-γ (p=0.039), IL-4 (p=0.001) and percentages of T-helper cells (p=0.001) and NK-cells (p=0.017) were observed after 4 weeks in the Tulsi extract intervention group in contrast to the placebo group. These observations clearly ascertain the immunomodulatory role of Tulsi leaves extract on healthy volunteers.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 05/2011; 136(3):452-6. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), a common and serious opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis). The aim of the present study was to describe the prevalence and distribution of genotypes of P. jirovecii based on sequence polymorphisms at mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mt LSU rRNA) region in both HIV and non-HIV immunocompromised individuals with a positive PCR result for PCP in a tertiary health care centre in northern India. From January 2005 to October 2008, 50 patients [22 HIV-seropositive individuals, 10 post-renal transplant (PRT) recipients, 3 cancer patients, and 15 patients with various other kinds of immunosuppression] were found to be positive for P. jirovecii using PCR at the mt LSU rRNA gene. Genotyping of the positive samples was performed at the mt LSU rRNA locus. Genotype 2 was the most common accounting for 42% of total types. This was followed by the genotypes 3 (24%), 1 (20%), and 4 (8%). Mixed infection was observed in 3 cases (6%). The rates of genotype distribution were similar in HIV-seropositive individuals, cancer patients, and in patients with other kinds of immunosuppression. In the PRT recipients, genotype 1 was the most prevalent type (80%). This is the first study describing the prevalence of genotypes in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected, immunocompromised patients based on the mt LSU rRNA gene from the Indian subcontinent. The most prevalent genotype observed was type 2 in contrast to many studies from other parts of the world where genotype 1 was the most prevalent type, suggesting geographical variation.
    International journal of medical microbiology: IJMM 03/2011; 301(3):267-72. · 4.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tropical sprue was considered to be the most important cause of malabsorption in adults in India. However, several reports indicate that celiac disease is now recognized more frequently. We analyzed the clinical presentation, endoscopic and histological features of 94 consecutive patients (age >12 years) with chronic diarrhea and malabsorption syndrome. The spectrum of disease in these patients and features differentiating celiac disease and tropical sprue are reported here. Celiac disease (n = 61, 65%) was the most common cause of malabsorption followed by tropical sprue (21, 22%). Other conditions including cyclosporiasis (3), Crohn's disease (2), common variable immunodeficiency (2), lymphangiectasia (1), William's syndrome (1), and idiopathic malabsorption (3) accounted for the remainder. A greater number (21, 34%) of patients with celiac disease than those with tropical sprue (4, 19%) presented with atypical manifestations. Patients with celiac disease were younger (p = 0.001), more often had anemia, (p = 0.001), scalloping of folds (p = 0.001), moderate (p = 0.02) or severe (p = 0.001) villous atrophy, higher grade of intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration (p = 0.001), crypt hyperplasia (p = 0.001), cuboidal (p = 0.001) and pseudostratified (p = 0.009) surface epithelial cells, and diffuse (p = 0.001) epithelial damage. In comparison, patients with tropical sprue were older and more often had normal duodenal folds, normal villi, tall columnar epithelial cells and focal epithelial damage. Celiac disease was the most frequent cause of malabsorption syndrome in this series of patients. There are significant clinical and histological differences between celiac disease and tropical sprue.
    Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 03/2011; 30(1):22-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genotypes among non-HIV immunocompromised patients from developing countries are rare. In the present prospective investigation, 24 (11.8%) cases were found to be positive for Pneumocystis jirovecii out of 203 non-HIV patients with a clinical suspicion of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) genotype 1 (Thr55+Pro57) was noted in 95.8% P. jirovecii isolates in the present study in contrast to only 4.1% of patients with DHPS genotype 4 (Thr55Ala + Pro57Ser).
    Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 02/2011; 49(2):167-71. · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis jirovecii dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene mutations' (55th and 57th codon) association with prior sulfa prophylaxis failure has been reported from both developed and developing countries. We conducted a prospective study to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii DHPS mutations from 2006 to 2009 on P. jirovecii isolates obtained from HIV-infected patients with a clinical diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) admitted to our tertiary care reference health center in New Delhi, India. Detection of P. jirovecii cysts was performed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining and by Grocott's-Gomori methenamine silver staining (GMS). DNA detection was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) gene. P. jirovecii DHPS gene was amplified by nested PCR protocol and sequenced for detecting mutations at the 55th and 57th codons. Out of 147 HIV-positive patients with suspected Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), 16 (10.8%) PCP positive cases were detected. Of 16 cases, nine (56.2%) were positive by DFA staining, four (25%) were positive by Grocott's-Gomori methenamine silver staining, and all 16 were positive by MSG PCR. DHPS mutations at the 55th and 57th codons were observed in 6.2% of HIV patients studied, which was relatively low compared to reports from developed nations. Prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii DHPS mutations associated with cotrimoxazole treatment failure may be low in the Indian subpopulation of HIV-positive patients and warrants larger studies to elucidate the true picture of Pneumocystis jirovecii sulfa drug resistance in India.
    The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 11/2010; 4(11):761-6. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis jirovecii is the cause of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immuno-compromised individuals. The aim of this study was to describe the genotypes/haplotypes of P. jirovecii in immuno-compromised individuals with positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) result for PCP. The typing was based on sequence polymorphism at internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rRNA operon. Phylogenetic relationship between Indian and global haplotypes was also studied. Between January 2005 to October 2008, 43 patients were found to be positive for Pneumocystis using PCR targeting mitochondrial large subunit rRNA (mt LSU rRNA) and ITS region. Genotyping of all the positive samples was performed at the ITS locus by direct sequencing. Nine ITS1 alleles (all previously known) and 11 ITS2 alleles (nine previously defined and two new) were observed. A total of 19 ITS haplotypes, including five novel haplotypes (DEL1r, Edel2, Hr, Adel3 and SYD1a), were observed. The most prevalent type was SYD1g (16.3%), followed by types Ea (11.6%), Ec (9.3%), Eg (6.9%), DEL1r (6.9%), Ne (6.9%) and Ai (6.9%). To detect mixed infection, 30% of the positive isolates were cloned and 4-5 clones were sequenced from each specimen. Cloning and sequencing identified two more haplotypes in addition to the 19 types. Mixed infection was identified in 3 of the 13 cloned samples (23.1%). Upon construction of a haplotype network of 21 haplotypes, type Eg was identified as the most probable ancestral type. The present study is the first study that describes the haplotypes of P. jirovecii based on the ITS gene from India. The study suggests a high diversity of P. jirovecii haplotypes in the population.
    Infection, genetics and evolution: journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases 08/2010; 10(6):712-9. · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the role of cytology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). In a prospective observational study, a BALF pellet from 55 patients (35 immunosuppressed patients clinically suspicious for PCP and 20 immunocompetent individuals not suspicious for PCP) were subjected to cytology examination as well as PCR for PCP using the major surface glycoprotein gene. Additionally, DNA was extracted from destained cytology slide scrapings from 5 cases each positive for PCR and negative for PCP on BALF, respectively, and was further subjected to PCR. Of 35 immunosuppressed patients, 2 were positive on microscopy for PCP, while 5 (including 2 microscopy positive) were positive by PCR from BALF. Four of the 5 positive cases showed predominantly alveolar macrophages, while one showed 40% alveolar macrophages, 30% lymphocytes and 20% neutrophils upon cellular analysis of BALF. One case had coinfection with Cryptococcus. Destained smear scrapings of PCR-positive slides (n = 5) were all successfully amplified for PCP major surface glycoprotein PCR after DNA extraction, while control slides (n = 5) did not show amplification. BALF is considered the sample of choice for the diagnosis of PCP. In our study, cases with PCP showed mainly alveolar macrophages on BALF examination by cytology and no or mild inflammatory cells. Thus, inflammatory cell population found on cytology may provide direction for PCR. Two-step screening of BALF using cytology followed by PCR from slides is possible and may overcome the limitations of BALF cytology alone for the diagnosis of PCP.
    Acta cytologica 01/2010; 54(3):296-302. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A total of 327 clinical specimens, including both invasive and noninvasive samples, obtained from 275 patients with various types of underlying immunocompromised conditions and a clinical suspicion of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) were subjected to 2 different nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. The target genes used for nested PCR were mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA (mtLSU rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The results were compared with a single-round PCR targeting major surface glycoprotein (MSG) gene. Amplification was successful in 16% of cases by mtLSU rRNA nested PCR, in 14.5% by ITS nested PCR, and in 10.9% by MSG PCR. The nested mtLSU rRNA PCR was found to be more sensitive (100% sensitive and 98.7% specific) and useful in detecting PCP for its use in routine diagnosis in our settings. Thus, this assay may be quite useful in the identification of patients who are in the early stage of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection with an organism load that could not be easily detected by the single-step PCR.
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 09/2009; 64(4):381-8. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis jiroveci (also known as P. carinii) causes fatal pneumonia in patients with AIDS and other immunocompromised patients. Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole, TMP-SMZ) is the drug of choice for treatment and prophylaxis. Widespread use of sulpha medication has raised the possible selection of resistant P. jiroveci strains worldwide. Non-synonymous polymorphisms associated with sulpha resistance have been observed in P. jiroveci dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene at codons 55 and 57. In view of this, we investigated mutation at DHPS locus amongst P. jiroveci isolates obtained at a tertiary care hospital in north India. Microscopic examination of P. jiroveci in 69 clinical samples obtained from patients suspected to have P. carinii pneumonia (PCP), was performed by Grocott's Gomori methenamine silver and direct fluorescent antibody staining. Molecular studies were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using major surface glycoprotein (MSG) as the target gene. Investigations for DHPS mutations were carried at specific 55th and 57th codon using PCR-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) assay. Microscopic examination detected P. jiroveci in four cases and MSG gene was amplified in five cases. Further, amplification of DHPS gene was successful in four of the five cases positive by MSG gene PCR. No point mutation was observed and all four isolates presented wild-type sequences at DHPS gene by RFLP analysis. Although our findings suggest that in Indian subpopulation, point mutations in DHPS gene of P. jiroveci are not as common as in other parts of the developed world, further studies are needed.
    The Indian Journal of Medical Research 12/2008; 128(6):734-9. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diarrhoeal relapses in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) may be associated with enteric infections and its diagnosis may lessen avoidable exposure to corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency of stool pathogens (parasitic and viral) in patients with active UC. This prospective cross-sectional study included 49 consecutive patients (32 M, 17 F, mean age 35.8+/-12 years) with active UC. Three stool samples were collected from each patient and examined for parasitic infection. Rectal biopsies were obtained during sigmoidoscopy to demonstrate cytomegalovirus (CMV) inclusion bodies and to conduct qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for CMV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA detection. Median duration of illness was 3.9+/-3.7 years and 83.7% of the patients had moderate to severe disease. The prevalence of parasitic infections in UC was 12%. The organisms isolated were Strongyloides stercoralis in 4%, Ankylostoma duodenale in 4%, Cryptosporidium in 2% and Entamoeba histolytica in 2% of the patients. The prevalence of CMV and HSV in rectal biopsies using qualitative PCR was 8% and 10%, respectively. No predictive factor was identified with CMV superinfection in patients with active UC. In India there is a high prevalence of parasitic and viral infections in patients with active UC. The results of the study suggest that, in tropical countries with a known high prevalence of parasitic diseases, aggressive evaluation for parasitic and viral infections should be carried out, as early identification and prompt treatment of such infections can improve the clinical course of patients with active UC.
    Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2008; 44(3):325-31. · 2.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Intestinal parasites not only cause diarrheal diseases but also significant malabsorption. Literature on the role of parasites, such as intestinal coccidia and microsporidia in malabsorption syndrome is limited. Three consecutive stool samples from 50 adult and 50 children patients with malabsorption syndrome and an equal number of healthy controls without diarrhea were examined for intestinal coccidia, microsporidia and other intestinal parasites by wet mount, Kinyoun's modified acid-fast staining and chromotrope 2R staining. Celiac disease was the commonest cause of malabsorption syndrome in both adults (52%) and children (74%). Forty (80%) and 41 (82%) adults and children, respectively, with malabsorption syndrome were infected with parasites. These results were significantly higher in comparison to those from the healthy adults and children controls (22% and 16%), respectively (P < 0.001). Of them, 48% and 46% of the adults and children, respectively, with malabsorption had pathogenic parasitic infections. The pathogenic parasites detected in adults were Giardia lamblia 12 (24%), E. histolytica / dispar 5 (10%), Ancylostoma duodenale 4 (8%), H. nana 2 (4%) and Cyclospora cayetanensis 1 (2%). The pathogenic parasites detected in children with malabsorption syndrome were Giardia lamblia 8 (16%), Cryptosporidium 7 (14%), E. histolytica / dispar 3 (6%), Ancylostoma duodenale 3 (6%), Isospora belli 1 (2%), and H. nana 1 (2%). None of the stool samples from healthy controls were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., Cyclospora and Isospora belli. All the patients infected with intestinal coccidia were HIV sero-negative. Celiac disease is the most common cause of malabsorption syndrome in both adults and children. These people harbor significantly more pathogenic parasites and are more frequently colonized with harmless commensals as compared to healthy controls. Intestinal coccidia are associated with malabsorption syndrome, particularly in malnourished children.
    Digestive Diseases and Sciences 04/2008; 53(3):672-9. · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Coexistence of two illnesses in the same patient may result in atypical manifestations of either or both diseases. A case of hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis in a patient who presented with a pharyngeal mucosal mass lesion as a manifestation of superadded Leishmania infection is presented here. The clue to the diagnosis was the origin of the patient from an area highly endemic for leishmaniasis and the presence of unexplained polyclonal hypergammaglobulinaemia. The patient responded very well to therapy with amphotericin B with complete disappearance of the mucosal lesion.
    Journal of Medical Microbiology 03/2008; 57(Pt 2):232-5. · 2.30 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Infectious Diseases - INT J INFECT DIS. 01/2008; 12.
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), caused by opportunistic agent Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly, Pneumocystis carinii is one of the most serious respiratory infection in immunocompromised patients. The present study was conducted to compare polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays targetting three different genes of Pneumocystis to study their application in its diagnosis. One hundred and eighty (n = 180) clinical samples from 145 immunocompromised patients with clinical suspicion of PCP and 35 samples from control group of 30 immunocompetent individuals with respiratory infections other than PCP were prospectively examined for the presence of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii). All the samples were subjected to microscopic examination, one single [major surface glycoprotein, (MSG)] and two nested [mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal ribonucelic acid, (mtLSU rRNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region], polymerase chain reaction assays. Microscopic examination was positive in only six (n = 6) patients, whereas single round MSG PCR detected P. jirovecii deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in 16 cases. When the clinical samples were tested by mtLSU rRNA and ITS nested PCR assays, it was possible to detect seven additional cases of PCP, making it to a total of 23 cases. None of the clinical specimens in control group (n = 30) were positive by any of the above-mentioned techniques. Amongst the 81 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples tested, 16 were positive by MSG PCR, while 20 were positive by both nested, i.e., mtLSU rRNA and ITS PCR assays. Similarly, out of 50 sputum samples, only three were positive by MSG, seven by mtLSU rRNA and six by ITS nested PCR assays. It has been observed that MSG is relatively more sensitive when single round PCR assay is used for detection of human Pneumocystosis compared to the first (single) rounds of either ITS or mtLSU rRNA nested PCRs. However, the two nested PCRs using ITS and mtLSU rRNA have been found to be more sensitive. On comparison of two nested PCR assays, the results have been more or less comparable.
    The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences 01/2008; 50(4):321-7.
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    ABSTRACT: We prospectively examined 143 clinical samples from 115 patients including both HIV infected (n=53) and HIV uninfected immunocompromized (n=62) patients, with lung infiltrates and with clinical features suggestive of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia/ PneumoCystis Pneumonia (PcP), using both microscopic techniques as well as PCR assay. Clinical samples in the present study consisted of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), tracheal aspirate (TA), nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA), sputum and gastric aspirate (GA). Another group of 21 individuals with other respiratory diseases not compatible with PcP served as control during the study period of 15 months. Overall, P. jirovecii positivity rate by PCR was 12.17% (14/115 patients) compared to 3.4% (4/115) by microscopy. None of the specimens in the control group was positive by any of the techniques used. All PCR negative patients including cases and controls showed no evidence of PcP. After resolution of the discrepant results upon review of the clinical data, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 99%, respectively, for PCR and 30.7% and 100%, respectively, for microscopy by GMS staining. Thus, our data support the significance of PCR assay for confirming and improving the diagnosis of PcP in high-risk patients.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 02/2007; 39(6-7):571-6. · 1.71 Impact Factor