[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Experimental IgE-mediated food allergy depends on intestinal anaphylaxis driven by interleukin-9 (IL-9). However, the primary cellular source of IL-9 and the mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to food-induced intestinal anaphylaxis remain unclear. Herein, we have reported the identification of multifunctional IL-9-producing mucosal mast cells (MMC9s) that can secrete prodigious amounts of IL-9 and IL-13 in response to IL-33, and mast cell protease-1 (MCPt-1) in response to antigen and IgE complex crosslinking, respectively. Repeated intragastric antigen challenge induced MMC9 development that required T cells, IL-4, and STAT6 transcription factor, but not IL-9 signals. Mice ablated of MMC9 induction failed to develop intestinal mastocytosis, which resulted in decreased food allergy symptoms that could be restored by adoptively transferred MMC9s. Finally, atopic patients that developed food allergy displayed increased intestinal expression of Il9- and MC-specific transcripts. Thus, the induction of MMC9s is a pivotal step to acquire the susceptibility to IgE-mediated food allergy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. However, the identity and functions of IL-17-producing T cells during the pathogenesis of allergic diseases remain unclear. Here, we report a novel subset of T(H)2 memory/effector cells that coexpress the transcription factors GATA3 and RORγt and coproduce T(H)17 and T(H)2 cytokines. Classical T(H)2 memory/effector cells had the potential to produce IL-17 after stimulation with proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-21. The number of IL-17-T(H)2 cells was significantly increased in blood of patients with atopic asthma. In a mouse model of allergic lung diseases, IL-17-producing CD4(+) T(H)2 cells were induced in the inflamed lung and persisted as the dominant IL-17-producing T cell population during the chronic stage of asthma. Treating cultured bronchial epithelial cells with IL-17 plus T(H)2 cytokines induced strong up-regulation of chemokine eotaxin-3, Il8, Mip1b, and Groa gene expression. Compared with classical T(H)17 and T(H)2 cells, antigen-specific IL-17-producing T(H)2 cells induced a profound influx of heterogeneous inflammatory leukocytes and exacerbated asthma. Our findings highlight the plasticity of T(H)2 memory cells and suggest that IL-17-producing T(H)2 cells may represent the key pathogenic T(H)2 cells promoting the exacerbation of allergic asthma.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2010; 207(11):2479-91. DOI:10.1084/jem.20101376 · 12.52 Impact Factor