[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we demonstrate a conjugation strategy whereby cyclic RGD-containing macrocycles are prepared using aziridine aldehydes, isocyanides, and linear peptides, followed by conjugation to a cysteamine linker. Our method involves site-selective aziridine ring-opening with the nucleophilic sulfhydryl group of cysteamine. Fluorescein was then efficiently conjugated to the primary amine of cysteamine by NHS-chemistry. This strategy may be expanded to provide easy access to a wide variety of fluorescent dyes or radiometal chelators. Modeling studies showed that aziridine aldehyde cyclization chemistry stabilized the RGD motif into the required bioactive conformation and that this cyclization chemistry modulated the geometry of macrocycles of different residue lengths. In vitro studies showed that cPRGDA and cPRGDAA both selectively bound to α(V)β(3)-overexpressing U87 glioblastoma cells, and that cPRGDA had a better binding affinity compared to cPRGDAA. The improved binding affinity of cPRGDA was attributed to the fixed Pro-C(α)-Asp-C(α) distance surrounding the stabilized RGD motif in cPRGDA.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel class of reagents, thioester isocyanides, have been prepared and applied in the synthesis of peptide macrocycles. The isocyanide part of the molecule is deployed in a multicomponent macrocyclization step. This step is followed by chemoselective peptide ligation at the thioester part of the macrocycle. Our method can now be used for rapid assembly and evaluation of cycle-tail peptides.
Chemical Communications 04/2012; 48(31):3775-7. · 6.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This protocol describes a method for synthesizing peptide macrocycles from linear peptide precursors, isocyanides and aziridine aldehydes. The effects of the reaction components on the efficiency of the process are discussed. Macrocyclization is exemplified by the preparation of a nine-membered ring peptide macrocycle. The product is further functionalized by nucleophilic opening of the aziridine ring with a fluorescent thiol. This transformation constitutes a useful late-stage functionalization of a macrocyclic peptide molecule. The experimental section describes the selection of the required starting materials, and the preparation of a representative aziridine-2-carboxaldehyde dimer. The synthesis and isolation of the peptide macrocycle can be accomplished in 6 h, and the ring-opening requires approximately 6-8 h. The aziridine-2-carboxaldehyde reagent is commercially available or can be synthesized from readily available starting materials in approximately 4 d. The strategy described is not limited to the specific peptide, isocyanide, aziridine aldehyde or nucleophile used in the representative synthesis.