Belinda Nicolau

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (36)75.91 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteocalcin, a protein secreted by osteoblasts during bone formation, is negatively associated with adult periodontal disease. Little is known about this association in children. To examine the extent to which plasma undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is associated with gingival crevicular fluid tumor necrosis factor alpha (GCF TNF-α) - a potential marker of gingival inflammation - in children. We used data from the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study on the natural history of obesity among Caucasian children with a family history of obesity in Quebec, Canada. This cross-sectional analysis from the baseline visit includes 120 children aged 8-10 years. Plasma ucOC and GCF TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, family income, sexual maturity stage, daily physical activity, obesity and fasting glucose were conducted, with TNF-α level as the dependent variable. A 1-ng/ml increase in ucOC was associated with a 0.96% decrease (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.69, -0.23) in GCF TNF-α level. A negative association between a marker of bone formation and a marker of gingival inflammation was observed as early as childhood among Caucasian children with a family history of obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2014; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for bone growth. The independent association between lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in children is not yet known. We aim to examine the association between each of lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in 8- to 10-year-old prepubertal Caucasian children. Methods: We present a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort which study the natural history of obesity. Study participants (n = 483) included prepubertal children aged 8-10 years and their biological parents. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC, g), bone area (cm(2)), bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), lean mass (kg), and fat mass (kg) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data analyses include multiple linear regressions adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results: A 1-kg increase in lean mass was associated with 28.42 g, 19.88 cm(2), and 0.007 g/cm(2) increase in whole-body BMC, bone area and BMD respectively. A 1-kg increase in fat mass was associated with 9.32 g, 8.02 cm(2), and 0.002 g/cm(2) increase in whole-body BMC, bone area and BMD, respectively. Conclusion: Increasing lean mass in children may help optimize bone acquisition and prevent future osteoporosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics 08/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are associated with gingival inflammation in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis from the baseline visit of the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study investigating the natural history of obesity in children of Quebec, Canada. The analytic sample includes 448 children aged 8-10 years, 39% of whom were overweight or obese. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation recommendations. Gingival inflammation was defined by the level of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the extent of gingival bleeding. Sex-specific linear regression analyses estimated the associations between MetS and gingival inflammation, adjusting for potential confounders. Twenty-five children had MetS. Boys with MetS compared to those without, had a 49.5% (p-value = 0.001) higher GCF TNF-α level and 13.7% (p-value = 0.033) more sites with gingival bleeding. Moreover, for three of the five components of MetS - waist circumference, fasting plasma triglycerides, systolic blood pressure - an increase was associated with increased GCF TNF-α level in boys. No such findings were seen in girls. An association between MetS and gingival inflammation was observed as early as in childhood, and may differ by sex.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 07/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • Society for Epidemiology Research; 06/2013
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    ABSTRACT: There is as yet no generally accepted explanation for the common finding that low body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. We investigated this association in a Canadian population-based case-control study (1996-2002) with a particular view to assessing the hypothesis that the observed association was due to residual confounding by smoking. Analyses were based on 1076 cases and 1439 controls who provided their height at enrollment and their weight at 2 points in time, at age 20 and 2 years before enrollment. BMI, in kg/m(2) , was classified into underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥ 30). Smoking history was synthesized into a comprehensive smoking index (CSI) that integrated duration, intensity and time since quitting. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI-lung cancer associations were estimated adjusting for CSI as well as several sociodemographic, lifestyle and occupational factors. The normal BMI category was used as the reference. Among those who were underweight at age 20, there was a lower risk of lung cancer (OR= 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.95). Conversely, lung cancer risk was increased among those who were underweight 2 years before enrollment (OR= 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30, 4.10). The results were almost identical when stratifying analyses based on smoking history into never/lighter and heavier smokers. The inverse association between recent BMI and lung cancer is unlikely to be largely attributable to residual confounding by smoking. Reverse causality or a true relationship between BMI and lung cancer remain plausible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • IADR/AADR/CADR 91st General Session; 03/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Investigating career motivations and intentions of dental students provides a better understanding of their role in society and contributes to the debate on dental education and practices. This study describes the profile, career choice motivations, and career intentions of Brazilian dental students and evaluates factors related to these choices. A cross-sectional study was carried out among dental students from three Brazilian public universities (N=915), with a response rate of 83.7 percent. Students (N=766) responded to a self-administered questionnaire about sociodemographic factors, reasons for choosing dentistry as a career, and future career intentions. Job conception was found to be the main reason for choosing dentistry as a profession. Most students intended to become specialists and work in both the public and private sectors simultaneously. Female students (OR 2.23, 95 percent CI=1.62-3.08), low-income students (OR 1.86, 95 percent CI=1.10-3.13), and students beginning their program (OR 1.87, 95 percent CI=1.22-2.85) were more likely to work in the public and private sectors simultaneously than other types of students. This study suggests that choice of career and career plans are influenced by factors related to the students' characteristics and their conception of the profession. The opportunity to combine private and public dental practice may be viewed as a way to achieve income and job security.
    Journal of dental education 03/2013; 77(3):337-44. · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) or interleukin 6 (IL-6)-both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease-in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF- α and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:728987. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Belinda Nicolau, Wagner Marcenes
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    ABSTRACT: The life course framework, proposed by Kuh and Schlomo in 1997, offers policy makers the means to understand the interaction between nature and nurture. This conceptual model illustrates how an individual's biological resources are influenced by their genetic endowment, their prenatal and postnatal development and their social and physical environment, both in early life and throughout the life course. Health is conceptualized as a dynamic process connecting biological and social elements that are affected by previous experiences and by present circumstances. Therefore, exposure at different stages of people's lives can either enhance or deplete the individual's health resources. Indeed, life course processes are of many kinds, including parent-child relationships, levels of social deprivation, the acquisition of emotional and behavioural assets in adolescence and the long-term effects of occupational hazards and work stress. The long-term effects of nature and nurture combine to influence disease outcomes. It is only in the last decade that theories, methods and new data have begun to be amalgamated, allowing us to further our understanding of health over the life course in ways that may eventually lead to more effective health policies and better health care. This article discusses life course concepts and how this framework can enlighten our understanding of wider social determinants of health, and provides a few examples of potential interventions to tackle their impact on health.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 10/2012; 40 Suppl 2:33-8. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Khady Ka, Belinda Nicolau
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    ABSTRACT: ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Clinical trial of oral malodor treatment in patients with periodontal diseases. Pham TA, Ueno M, Zaitsu T, Takehara S, Shinada K, Lam PH, Kawaguchi Y. J Periodontal Res 2011;46:722-9. REVIEWERS: Khady Ka, DDS, MSc, and Belinda Nicolau, DDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: To what extent do periodontal treatment and tongue cleaning reduce oral malodor among patients with periodontitis and patients with gingivitis? SOURCE OF FUNDING: Information not available TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Not applicable.
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 09/2012; 12(3):159-61.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to better understand low-income parents' child dental care decisions through a life course approach that captured parents' experiences within the social context of poverty. METHODS: We conducted 43 qualitative life history interviews with 10 parents, who were long-term social assistance recipients living in Montreal, Canada. Thematic analysis involved interview debriefing, transcript coding, theme identification and data interpretation. RESULTS: Our interviews identified two emergent themes: lay diagnosis and parental oral health management. Parents described a process of 'lay diagnosis' that consisted of examining their children's teeth and interpreting their children's oral signs and symptoms based on their observations. These lay diagnoses were also shaped by their own dental crises, care experiences and oral health knowledge gained across a life course of poverty and dental disadvantage. Parents' management strategies included monitoring and managing their children's oral health themselves or by seeking professional recourse. Parents' management strategies were influenced both by their lay diagnoses and their perceived ability to manage their children's oral health. Parents felt responsible for their children's dental care, empowered to manage their oral health and sometimes forgo dental visits for their children because of their own self-management life history. CONCLUSION: This original approach revealed insights that help to understand why low-income parents may underutilize free dental services. Further research should consider how dental programs can nurture parental empowerment and capitalize on parents' perceived ability to diagnose and manage their children's oral health.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 08/2012; · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Nada J Farsi, Belinda Nicolau
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    ABSTRACT: ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Safety of oscillating-rotating powered brushes compared to manual toothbrushes: a systematic review. Van der Weijden FA, Campbell SL, Dörfer CE, González-Cabezas C, Slot DE. J Periodontol 2011;82(1):5-24. REVIEWERS: Nada J. Farsi, BDS, MSc, Belinda Nicolau, DDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: To compare the soft and/or hard tissue safety between manual and oscillating-rotating brushes through a systematic review of the pertinent literature SOURCE OF FUNDING: Industry (Procter & Gamble) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Grade A: Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence.
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 12/2011; 11(4):168-70.
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    ABSTRACT: A generic human papillomavirus (HPV) probe assay was compared to the Linear Array to detect HPV DNA in 1,013 clinical specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the assay were 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.4% to 99.9%), 58.6% (95% CI, 53.9% to 63.1%), and 98.9% (95% CI, 96.5% to 99.8%), respectively. This assay conveniently identifies HPV-positive specimens.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2011; 49(11):3977-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Epidemiology 07/2011; · 6.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite an overall improvement in oral health status in several countries over the past decades, chronic oral diseases (COD) remain a public health problem, occurring mostly among children in the lower social strata. The use of publicly available indicators at the school level may be an optimal strategy to identify children at high risk of COD in order to organize oral health promotion and intervention in schools. To investigate whether school deprivation indices were associated with schoolchildren oral health status. This ecological study used a sample of 316 elementary public schools in the province of Quebec, Canada. Data from two sources were linked using school identifiers: (i) Two school deprivation indices (in deciles) from the Ministry of Education, a poverty index based on the low income cut-offs established by Statistics Canada and a socioeconomic environment index defined by the proportions of maternal under-schooling and of unemployed parents and (ii) Oral health outcomes from the Quebec Schoolchildren Oral Health Survey 1998-99 aggregated at the school level. These included proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain. The relation between school deprivation indices and oral health outcomes was assessed with linear regression for dental caries experience and logistic regression for oral pain. The mean DMF-S (mean number of decayed, missing and filled permanent teeth surfaces) by school was 0.7 (SD = 0.5); the average proportions of children with dental caries and reporting oral pain were 25.0% and 3.0%, respectively. The poverty index was not associated with oral health outcomes. For the socioeconomic environment index, dental caries experience was 6.9% higher when comparing schools in unfavourable socioeconomic environments to the most favourable ones [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1, 11.7%]. Furthermore, the most deprived schools, as compared to least deprived ones, were almost three times as likely to have children reporting oral pain in the previous week. The school socioeconomic environment index was associated with oral health outcomes, and should be studied for its potential usefulness in planning school-based oral health promotion and screening strategies.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 11/2010; 39(3):213-20. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Khady Ka, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Belinda Nicolau
    Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice (brazil Edition). 01/2010; 1(2):107-109.
  • Khady Ka, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Belinda Nicolau
    Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice (portugal Edition). 01/2010; 1(2):107-109.
  • Khady Ka, Marie-Claude Rousseau, Belinda Nicolau
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 12/2009; 9(4):231-3.
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: To investigate whether adiposity is associated with gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels in children. We also examined whether this relationship is mediated through plasma fasting insulin.Materials and Methods: This preliminary study used cross-sectional data from the baseline-visit of the Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, which is an ongoing longitudinal study investigating the natural history of obesity in Quebec children. Study participants (76 girls and 102 boys) include children aged 8–10 years and their families, living in the Montreal and Quebec City areas. TNF-α level was measured in pooled samples (N=4) for each child by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Height and weight were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight/height2 (kg/m2). Sex/age-specific BMI was categorized into normal (<85th percentile), overweight (85th–95th percentile) and obese (95th percentile) defined by the 2000 US-CDC growth charts. Insulin resistance was measured using fasting plasma insulin in children. Data analysis involved descriptive and multiple linear regression analyses.Results: Our results suggest that obesity in boys was associated with a 37% increase of GCF-TNF-α level. However, when accounting for insulin resistance this association was reduced and disappeared while the model's goodness of fit improved.Conclusions: These findings provide support for the link between adiposity in children and GCF-TNF-α level, which appears to be mediated by insulin resistance.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 03/2009; 36(4):301 - 307. · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • Belinda Nicolau, Marie-Claude Rousseau
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    ABSTRACT: Article Title and Bibliographic Information Association of height with inflammation and periodontitis: the Study of Health in Pomerania Meisel P, Kohlmann T, Kocher T. J Clin Periodontol 2007;34(5):390-6 Level of Evidence 3 Purpose/Question To investigate the association between height and destructive periodontal disease. Source of Funding Government Type of Study/Design Population-based cross-sectional study
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 07/2008; 8(2):95-6.

Publication Stats

422 Citations
75.91 Total Impact Points


  • 2003–2014
    • McGill University
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2008
    • Institut national de la recherche scientifique
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2005
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2005
    • University College London
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom