Belinda Nicolau

McGill University, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

Are you Belinda Nicolau?

Claim your profile

Publications (50)75.91 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most widely used drugs for the treatment of depression, have been reported to reduce bone formation and increase the risk of bone fracture. Since osseointegration is influenced by bone metabolism, this study aimed to investigate the association between SSRIs and the risk of failures in osseointegrated implants. This retrospective cohort study was conducted on patients treated with dental implants from January 2007 to January 2013. A total of 916 dental implants in 490 patients (94 implants on 51 patients using SSRIs) were used to estimate the risk of failure associated with the use of SSRIs. Data analysis involved Cox proportional hazards, generalized estimating equation models, multilevel mixed effects parametric survival analysis, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. After 3 to 67 mo of follow-up, 38 dental implants failed and 784 succeeded in the nonusers group, while 10 failed and 84 succeeded in the SSRI-users group. The main limitation of this retrospective study was that drug compliance dose and treatment period could not be acquired from the files of the patients. The primary outcome was that compared with nonusers of SSRIs, SSRI usage was associated with an increased risk of dental implants failure (hazard ratio, 6.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-31.61; p = .03). The failure rates were 4.6% for SSRI nonusers and 10.6% for SSRI users. The secondary outcomes were that small implant diameters (≤4 mm; p = .02) and smoking habits (p = .01) also seemed to be associated with higher risk of implant failure. Our findings indicate that treatment with SSRIs is associated with an increased failure risk of osseointegrated implants, which might suggest a careful surgical treatment planning for SSRI users.
    Journal of dental research. 09/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) have been reported to regulate serotonin signal system thereby influencing bone metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the association between SSRIs and the risk of dental implants failures. Method: This study was a cohort study using adjusted logistic regression, cox proportional hazards model, GEE (Generalized Estimating Equations) models and Kaplan-Meier analysis of patients treated with dental implants in a clinic in Moncton from JAN 2007 to JAN 2013. A total of 916 dental implants in 490 patients (94 implants on 51 patients using SSRIs) were used to estimate the risk of failure associated with the use of SSRIs. Result: After 1-67 months of follow-up, 49 dental implants failed and 867 succeeded. Compared with non-users of SSRIs, SSRIs usage was associated with an increased risk of dental implants failure (P= 0.01; adjusted RR=3.05; 95%CI: 1.32-7.06; HR= 3.09). Small implant diameters (≤4mm) (P<0.001), bone regeneration surgery (P=0.02) and smoking habit (P<0.001) also seemed to be associated with higher risk of implant failure. Conclusion: Our findings confirm that treatment with SSRIs is associated with higher risk of dental implant failure.
    IADR General Session and Exhibition 2014; 06/2014
  • K. K, M. ROUSSEAU, S.D. TRAN, B. NICOLAU
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown a positive association between obesity and periodontal disease. However, the role of the metabolic health profile of obese subjects in this association is unclear. Objective: To examine the extent to which metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) is associated with gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor‐alpha (TNF‐α) concentration among obese children. Method: This is a cross‐sectional analysis from the baseline visit of the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study investigating the natural history of obesity in children of Quebec, Canada. The analytical sample includes 219 obese children aged 8–10 years, for whom data were available for both MUO and GCF TNF‐α. The independent variable, MUO, was defined as the presence of abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90th age‐ and sex‐specific percentile) and at least two of the following: fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6mmol/L; fasting plasma triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/L; fasting plasma HDL‐C ≤ 1.03 mmol/L; systolic blood pressure ≥90th age‐, sex‐ and height‐specific percentile. Biochemical analyses were performed on blood samples collected after an overnight fast. GCF samples were collected from the gingival sulcus using a paper strip and the concentration of TNF‐α was determined by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses included descriptive statistics and sex‐specific linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders. Result: The prevalence of MUO was 10.9%. The GCF TNF‐α concentration was 44.9% (95% confidence interval: 16.5 –73.3%) higher in boys with MUO compared to boys without. No association was observed among girls. Conclusion: MUO was positively associated with GCF TNF‐α concentration in obese boys. These results suggest that metabolically unhealthy obesity may be associated with a worse periodontal health profile compared to metabolically healthy obesity.
    IADR General Session and Exhibition 2014; 06/2014
  • B. NICOLAU
    IADR General Session and Exhibition 2014; 06/2014
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteocalcin, a protein secreted by osteoblasts during bone formation, is negatively associated with adult periodontal disease. Little is known about this association in children. To examine the extent to which plasma undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is associated with gingival crevicular fluid tumor necrosis factor alpha (GCF TNF-α) - a potential marker of gingival inflammation - in children. We used data from the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study on the natural history of obesity among Caucasian children with a family history of obesity in Quebec, Canada. This cross-sectional analysis from the baseline visit includes 120 children aged 8-10 years. Plasma ucOC and GCF TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex, family income, sexual maturity stage, daily physical activity, obesity and fasting glucose were conducted, with TNF-α level as the dependent variable. A 1-ng/ml increase in ucOC was associated with a 0.96% decrease (95% confidence interval (CI): -1.69, -0.23) in GCF TNF-α level. A negative association between a marker of bone formation and a marker of gingival inflammation was observed as early as childhood among Caucasian children with a family history of obesity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 01/2014; · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for bone growth. The independent association between lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in children is not yet known. We aim to examine the association between each of lean and fat mass and indicators of bone health in 8- to 10-year-old prepubertal Caucasian children. Methods: We present a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort which study the natural history of obesity. Study participants (n = 483) included prepubertal children aged 8-10 years and their biological parents. Whole-body bone mineral content (BMC, g), bone area (cm(2)), bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), lean mass (kg), and fat mass (kg) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Data analyses include multiple linear regressions adjusted for potential confounding variables. Results: A 1-kg increase in lean mass was associated with 28.42 g, 19.88 cm(2), and 0.007 g/cm(2) increase in whole-body BMC, bone area and BMD respectively. A 1-kg increase in fat mass was associated with 9.32 g, 8.02 cm(2), and 0.002 g/cm(2) increase in whole-body BMC, bone area and BMD, respectively. Conclusion: Increasing lean mass in children may help optimize bone acquisition and prevent future osteoporosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Hormone Research in Paediatrics 08/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components are associated with gingival inflammation in children. This is a cross-sectional analysis from the baseline visit of the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study investigating the natural history of obesity in children of Quebec, Canada. The analytic sample includes 448 children aged 8-10 years, 39% of whom were overweight or obese. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation recommendations. Gingival inflammation was defined by the level of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and the extent of gingival bleeding. Sex-specific linear regression analyses estimated the associations between MetS and gingival inflammation, adjusting for potential confounders. Twenty-five children had MetS. Boys with MetS compared to those without, had a 49.5% (p-value = 0.001) higher GCF TNF-α level and 13.7% (p-value = 0.033) more sites with gingival bleeding. Moreover, for three of the five components of MetS - waist circumference, fasting plasma triglycerides, systolic blood pressure - an increase was associated with increased GCF TNF-α level in boys. No such findings were seen in girls. An association between MetS and gingival inflammation was observed as early as in childhood, and may differ by sex.
    Journal Of Clinical Periodontology 07/2013; · 3.69 Impact Factor
  • Society for Epidemiology Research; 06/2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is as yet no generally accepted explanation for the common finding that low body mass index (BMI) is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. We investigated this association in a Canadian population-based case-control study (1996-2002) with a particular view to assessing the hypothesis that the observed association was due to residual confounding by smoking. Analyses were based on 1076 cases and 1439 controls who provided their height at enrollment and their weight at 2 points in time, at age 20 and 2 years before enrollment. BMI, in kg/m(2) , was classified into underweight (<18.5), normal (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese (≥ 30). Smoking history was synthesized into a comprehensive smoking index (CSI) that integrated duration, intensity and time since quitting. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for BMI-lung cancer associations were estimated adjusting for CSI as well as several sociodemographic, lifestyle and occupational factors. The normal BMI category was used as the reference. Among those who were underweight at age 20, there was a lower risk of lung cancer (OR= 0.69, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.95). Conversely, lung cancer risk was increased among those who were underweight 2 years before enrollment (OR= 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30, 4.10). The results were almost identical when stratifying analyses based on smoking history into never/lighter and heavier smokers. The inverse association between recent BMI and lung cancer is unlikely to be largely attributable to residual confounding by smoking. Reverse causality or a true relationship between BMI and lung cancer remain plausible. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    International Journal of Cancer 03/2013; · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) has been linked to periodontal diseases in adults. However, little is known about this association in children. Objective: To investigate whether MetS is associated with gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) concentration in children. Method: This is a cross-sectional analysis from the baseline visit of the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth cohort, an ongoing longitudinal study investigating the natural history of obesity in children of Quebec, Canada. The analytic sample includes 448 children aged 8–10 years, for whom data were available for both MetS and TNF-α. The independent variable, MetS, was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation recommendations as the presence of ≥3 of the following: waist circumference ≥90th age- and sex-specific percentile; fasting plasma glucose ≥ 5.6mmol/L; fasting plasma triglycerides ≥ 1.7 mmol/L; fasting plasma HDL-C ≤ 1.03 mmol/L; systolic blood pressure ≥90th age-, sex- and height-specific percentile. Biochemical analyses were performed on blood samples collected after an overnight fast. Samples of GCF were collected using a paper strip in the gingival sulcus and TNF-α concentration was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analyses included descriptive statistics and sex-specific linear regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders (age, tanner stage, family income, parent education, dental plaque, dental calculus, tooth brushing habits, frequency of dental visit, MetS status of both parents). Result: The prevalence of MetS was 5.6 %. The GCF TNF-α concentration was 40.3% (95% confidence interval: 16.9 – 63.7%) higher in boys with MetS compared to those without. No association was observed among girls. Conclusion: MetS was associated with GCF TNF-α concentration in boys. These results suggest that an association between MetS and periodontal health may be observed as early as in childhood.
    IADR/AADR/CADR 91st General Session; 03/2013
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Investigating career motivations and intentions of dental students provides a better understanding of their role in society and contributes to the debate on dental education and practices. This study describes the profile, career choice motivations, and career intentions of Brazilian dental students and evaluates factors related to these choices. A cross-sectional study was carried out among dental students from three Brazilian public universities (N=915), with a response rate of 83.7 percent. Students (N=766) responded to a self-administered questionnaire about sociodemographic factors, reasons for choosing dentistry as a career, and future career intentions. Job conception was found to be the main reason for choosing dentistry as a profession. Most students intended to become specialists and work in both the public and private sectors simultaneously. Female students (OR 2.23, 95 percent CI=1.62-3.08), low-income students (OR 1.86, 95 percent CI=1.10-3.13), and students beginning their program (OR 1.87, 95 percent CI=1.22-2.85) were more likely to work in the public and private sectors simultaneously than other types of students. This study suggests that choice of career and career plans are influenced by factors related to the students' characteristics and their conception of the profession. The opportunity to combine private and public dental practice may be viewed as a way to achieve income and job security.
    Journal of dental education 03/2013; 77(3):337-44. · 0.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) or interleukin 6 (IL-6)-both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease-in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF- α and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2013; 2013:728987. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Belinda Nicolau, Wagner Marcenes
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The life course framework, proposed by Kuh and Schlomo in 1997, offers policy makers the means to understand the interaction between nature and nurture. This conceptual model illustrates how an individual's biological resources are influenced by their genetic endowment, their prenatal and postnatal development and their social and physical environment, both in early life and throughout the life course. Health is conceptualized as a dynamic process connecting biological and social elements that are affected by previous experiences and by present circumstances. Therefore, exposure at different stages of people's lives can either enhance or deplete the individual's health resources. Indeed, life course processes are of many kinds, including parent-child relationships, levels of social deprivation, the acquisition of emotional and behavioural assets in adolescence and the long-term effects of occupational hazards and work stress. The long-term effects of nature and nurture combine to influence disease outcomes. It is only in the last decade that theories, methods and new data have begun to be amalgamated, allowing us to further our understanding of health over the life course in ways that may eventually lead to more effective health policies and better health care. This article discusses life course concepts and how this framework can enlighten our understanding of wider social determinants of health, and provides a few examples of potential interventions to tackle their impact on health.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 10/2012; 40 Suppl 2:33-8. · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • Khady Ka, Belinda Nicolau
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Clinical trial of oral malodor treatment in patients with periodontal diseases. Pham TA, Ueno M, Zaitsu T, Takehara S, Shinada K, Lam PH, Kawaguchi Y. J Periodontal Res 2011;46:722-9. REVIEWERS: Khady Ka, DDS, MSc, and Belinda Nicolau, DDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: To what extent do periodontal treatment and tongue cleaning reduce oral malodor among patients with periodontitis and patients with gingivitis? SOURCE OF FUNDING: Information not available TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 2: Limited-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Not applicable.
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 09/2012; 12(3):159-61.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to better understand low-income parents' child dental care decisions through a life course approach that captured parents' experiences within the social context of poverty. METHODS: We conducted 43 qualitative life history interviews with 10 parents, who were long-term social assistance recipients living in Montreal, Canada. Thematic analysis involved interview debriefing, transcript coding, theme identification and data interpretation. RESULTS: Our interviews identified two emergent themes: lay diagnosis and parental oral health management. Parents described a process of 'lay diagnosis' that consisted of examining their children's teeth and interpreting their children's oral signs and symptoms based on their observations. These lay diagnoses were also shaped by their own dental crises, care experiences and oral health knowledge gained across a life course of poverty and dental disadvantage. Parents' management strategies included monitoring and managing their children's oral health themselves or by seeking professional recourse. Parents' management strategies were influenced both by their lay diagnoses and their perceived ability to manage their children's oral health. Parents felt responsible for their children's dental care, empowered to manage their oral health and sometimes forgo dental visits for their children because of their own self-management life history. CONCLUSION: This original approach revealed insights that help to understand why low-income parents may underutilize free dental services. Further research should consider how dental programs can nurture parental empowerment and capitalize on parents' perceived ability to diagnose and manage their children's oral health.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 08/2012; · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Obesity has been associated with an increased risk of periodontal diseases. Elucidating the association between the two conditions is critical for establishing how oral health may influence overall health. Objective: To compare the microbial composition of oral biofilms in children of different body mass indices (BMI). Methods: Forty supragingival and subgingival plaque samples were collected from obese and healthy children. These subjects were measured for their BMI, gingival bleeding on probing, and concentration of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in their gingival crevicular fluid. Bacterial diversity in the plaque samples was assessed by sequencing and analysis of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA by 454-Titanium. Results: Over 90% of the sequences from the normal and obese groups belonged to five bacterial phyla: Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. However, an assessment for differential abundance in the two groups identified several interesting taxonomic groups that showed statistically significant differences in their abundances (p<0.05). They include Firmicutes and Spirochaetes at the phylum level (Figure-1), as well as Streptococcus and Treponema at the genus level (Figure-2). In multidimensional scaling (MDS) scatter plots, results for the normal group appeared to cluster while those of the obese group widely dispersed, indicating a relatively more stable bacterial population in the normal group (Figure-3). Conclusion: The data indicates a significant difference between the bacterial composition of oral biofilm in obese versus normal weight children. The microbiota associated with children of normal weight exhibited a more stable composition compared to that of obese children. Fluctuations in bacterial composition in the obese children may result from or facilitate the development of obesity. Figure-1. Phylum distribution in the two groups of samples. Figure-2. Genera distribution in the two groups of samples. Figure-3. MDS plot of dental plaque at level of phylum.
    AADR Annual Meeting 2012; 03/2012
  • Nada J Farsi, Belinda Nicolau
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Safety of oscillating-rotating powered brushes compared to manual toothbrushes: a systematic review. Van der Weijden FA, Campbell SL, Dörfer CE, González-Cabezas C, Slot DE. J Periodontol 2011;82(1):5-24. REVIEWERS: Nada J. Farsi, BDS, MSc, Belinda Nicolau, DDS, PhD PURPOSE/QUESTION: To compare the soft and/or hard tissue safety between manual and oscillating-rotating brushes through a systematic review of the pertinent literature SOURCE OF FUNDING: Industry (Procter & Gamble) TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 1: Good-quality, patient-oriented evidence STRENGTH OF RECOMMENDATION GRADE: Grade A: Consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence.
    The journal of evidence-based dental practice 12/2011; 11(4):168-70.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A generic human papillomavirus (HPV) probe assay was compared to the Linear Array to detect HPV DNA in 1,013 clinical specimens. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of the assay were 99.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 98.4% to 99.9%), 58.6% (95% CI, 53.9% to 63.1%), and 98.9% (95% CI, 96.5% to 99.8%), respectively. This assay conveniently identifies HPV-positive specimens.
    Journal of clinical microbiology 09/2011; 49(11):3977-9. · 4.16 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Epidemiology 07/2011; · 6.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a psycho-educational intervention on the coping strategies of patients with head and neck cancer diagnosed in the previous 6-12 months, and reporting symptoms of anxiety and depression. Methods: A single-blind placebo-controlled randomized study design was used. Patients diagnosed 6-12 months previously and scoring >7 on one or both of the HADS Anxiety and Depression scales were randomized. The test intervention consisted of 2-3 sessions of 1-2 hours with a trained therapist who delivered the program. The control group received an attention placebo of 1-3 meetings with the same therapist, who listened to subjects' comments and informed them of available support services. Subjects' coping was evaluated using the Ways of Coping Checklist at baseline and 2, 4, 8 and 14 months later. Subjects scoring < 8 on the anxiety and depression scales of the HADS were not randomized but were evaluated using the same follow-up regime. Students T tests were used to evaluate differences in levels of reported coping strategies use at each time point. Results: Eighty eight participants were randomized into Test (47) and Control (41) groups. The groups were similar at baseline. An additional 140 non-randomized subjects were recruited. The 14 month drop-out rate was 69% for both randomized groups and 32% for the non-randomized group. There were no differences between Test and Control groups in use of coping strategies during the 14 month follow-up period. All coping strategies were used significantly less in the non-randomized group. Conclusion: In this group of patients the Nucare program did not affect participants' coping strategies any differently to the placebo intervention. Indeed, people with initially low anxiety and depression levels used all coping strategies less than those with initially high levels. Research funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, fund # FRN75475.
    IADR General Session 2011; 03/2011

Publication Stats

444 Citations
75.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003–2014
    • McGill University
      • Faculty of Dentistry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2008
    • Institut national de la recherche scientifique
      • Institute Armand-Frappier Research Centre
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2005
    • University of London
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2005
    • University College London
      • Department of Epidemiology and Public Health
      London, ENG, United Kingdom